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January 22, 1964 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-01-22

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I1

Sew Sy-ThWr Ye
NUNN EDIED AND Mm~mm BYSru1ENTs or' THE UiqE~rvI'usYOFMHA
UNDER AUTHORiT OF BOARD IN CON MOL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
e Opinions Are PM STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBoR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
uth Will Prevail"
itorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al; reprints.

TODAY AND TOMORROW:
The Rhetoric of Economisers

r. JANUARY 22, 1964

NIGHT EDITOR: H. NEIL BERKSON

R Announcement
Creates Confusion

FHE QUESTION in the minds of many
political pundits in the past couple of
eeks is: What gives with George Rom-
ey? The governor surprised the world
f politics by saying on Jan. 7 that he
ould accept a draft for the Republican
residential nomination.
For the last several months Romney
as been counted out of the picture due
both his statements and his actions.
ut now, on top of announcing his
vailability, he has said that he will ac-
apt nationwide speaking engagements
try to get across his ideas on what the
allosophy and practices of the Republi-
an party should be.
Many commentators have emphasized
point once made by Richard Nixon-
lat there is no such thing as a draft. A
otential candidate does not sit idly by
ithout a word of encouragement to
iose seeking to draft him and then wind
p as the party's nominee. A candidate
annot get the kind of backing he needs
win the nomination without working
Unemploy ed?
PA7Y
TUDENT GOVERNMENT COUNCIL is
not holding a meeting tonight. The
fficial explanation is that. there is noth-
ig to do. Members ,are supposed to be
orking on motions but could not get
lem ready for tonight.
Of course the executive council could
tll report on the state of current activi-
.es. Members could' fill the Council ┬░in
n what they are doing so that next week
hough research might have been done
y everybody to ensure a high level of
ebate and eliminate useless questions
nd information.
Most importantly, Council might have
agaged in an informal discussion on
ist where it should be going. Five min-
be informal conferences and politicking
1 a corridor are no substitute for a dis-
ussion of goals, especially since Council
as settled the question of discrimina-
on in membership selection of student
:ganizations and is casting around for
ew directions. But this might have en-
iled thinking about Council by some
iembers who have shown little inclina-
on for this type of work.
VOULDN'T IT BE AMAZING if the stu-
dent body found that it could get
long without a Council meeting this
eek? If this turned out to be true, may-
e the period could be extended to two
eeks, three weeks, four weeks ....
Is there a groundswell in the distance?
'-R. WILTON

for it. Thus, they conclude that Romney
has as much as announced that he is
running.
PERHAPS these commentators and po-
litical leaders are thinking too much
in terms of typical politicians and too
little in terms of Romney. For there is a
supposed aspect of Romney's character
which the above people often point out
and which would lend a different light
to recent events.
This aspect of Romney's character is
self-righteousness. It is said that Rom-
ney considers himself to know what is the
right thing to do in matters politic, no'
if's, and's, or but's. His actions on tax re-
form demonstrated this characteristic:
he presented his tax package without
consultation with either Republican or
Democratic legislators and then told
them it was the best package and that
they must pass it.
Perhaps this attitude could also ac-
count for Romney's recent behavior. He
is planning the, speaking tour because he
knows what is best for the Republican
party and the country, and he wants to
tell it to the world. He said that he
would accept a draft because he thinks
that the party may really call on. him to
serve.
rTHE ACCURACY of this analysis should
be known. shortly. If Romney does not
begin to push his candidacy harder, but
does file for re-election as governor, and
nonetheless continues/to say he is avail-
able, no other conclusion would be very
likely.
On the other hand, if Romney de-
clines to run for re-election and begins to
push harder for the presidential'nomina-
tion it would be possible that he has
merely been exercising prudent political
strategy.
Still a third possibility would material-
ize if Romney were to put himself in the
presidential sweepstakes and hedge his
bet by filing for re-election. The trouble
with this, however, is that Michigan elec-
tion laws would virtually force another
prominent Republican to put his name
on the ballot. If Romney then did run for
governor again, this man would be in the
embarrassing position of running against
Romney when he didn't even want to,
and to do so without any party support.
And by law he could not drop out of the
race.
SELF-RIGHTEOUS or prudent -we.
should know by this fall which Rom-
ney is. My bet is that Romneyism will
have proven to have been a cult to at
least one person.
-EDWARD HERSTEIN

BY WALTER LIPPMANN
IN CUTTING BACK military
spending on superfluous in-
stallations, President Johnson is
no doubt improving the prospects
of his tax bill. But at the same
time he has lifted the cover on. a
contradiction in our public life.
The contradiction is between what
we do and what it is proper for
public men to say out loud.
For the fact is tliat government
-federal, state and local-buys
about a fifth of the goods and
services produced by the American
economy. To cut back this public
spending substantially would pro-
duce a strong reaction in employ-
ment and in business. Thus, the
two Republican senators from
New York reacted at once when
they heard that seven installations
in New York state might be closed
down or their operations reduced.
ACTUALLY, the economies are
a mere nibble at the immense costs
of the defense establishment. The
economy administered by the
Pentagon is over two-thirds as
large ar the whole economy of
Great Britain.
Our military supply system is
now 17 times larger' than the
largest private enterprise, namely
the gigantic General Motors com-
plex.
In seven states, employment in
defense industries is from 20 per
cent (Arizona) to 30 per cent
(Kansas) of total manufacturing
employment.
In fact, then, the United States
economy is no longer a plain pri-
vate enterprise system. Under the
impact of the Second World War
and of the armaments of the cold
war, the American economy has
become an organic mixture of pub-
lic and private money, public and
private management. Any serious
teduction of public spending must,
therefore, have far-reaching ef-
fects on the whole economy.
THERE ARE SOME who say
they think that government and
big spending can be reduced by
cutting down civilian expenditures
while leaving alone or even in-
creasing military expenditures.
This .is a device of politicians who

are merely pandering to popular
prejudices. There is only one way
by which serious and substantial
retrenchment can be made, and
that is by a reduction of arma-
ments.
Desirable, but comparatively
minor, savings can be had by re-
ducing the amount of some of the
civilian subsidies. But the amount
will be much too small to make
itself felt in the burdens of the
taxpayer. ,
* * *
THE IMMEDIATE military cut-
backs we are hearing about are
really concerned with waste. They
will not reduce in any way the
military power of the United
States. They are directed only at
useless expenditures, those which
employ men and materials for no
real military purpose.
Although this kind of frugality
will not affect the budget im-
LETTERS
to the
EDITOR
To the Editor:
1 FEAR yesterday's Daily head-
line, "AAUP Group 'Deplores'
Romney's Board Choices" is mis-
leading if not false. What the
Council of the State Conference of
the American Association of Uni-
versity Professors officially de-
plored was that the appointments
to state boards so far have not
included active members of teach-
ing faculties.
The state AAUP has not asked
that boards be packed with fac-
ulty members. Instead, it has asked
that the Governor name to each
appointive board at least one per-
son from the ranks of the teaching
faculty of another Michigan col-
lege or university. In the official
statement, released by the State
AAUP, Jan. 18, there is, as I in-'
terpret it, no criticism whatsoever
of the Governor's appointees
themselves.
-Prof. Ralph A. Loomis
Vice-President
Michigan Conference, AAUP

portantly, it will have a salutary
effect nevertheless. For it is de-
moralizing to see public employees
assigned to waste the public
money.
But beyond the tidying up of
waste, including a certain amount
of lush and conspicuous extrava-
gance, there is visible on the
horizon the prospect of much more
substantial retrenchment.
I do not myself regard it as
likely that we are anywhere near
a general disarmament treaty. The
fundamental issues of principle
are stubborn, and their reconcilia-
tion is probably too embarrassing
to all participants. But while what
is under way is not a negotiated
agreement, there are parallel
trends toward the stabilization
and then toward the seduction of
military spending.
THESE parallel trends are ac-
tivated by a common realization,
acknowledged in the test ban
treaty, that neither side has any-
thing to gain by spending hugely
in pursuit of the will-o'-the-wisp
of the absolute weapon. Once that
point has been reached, there is
a balance of power which, though
relatively favorable to the United
States, is tolerable to the Soviet
Union and cannot be changed
seriously by gigantic military ex-
penditures. This is the origin of
the present trend toward stabiliza-
tion in both countries.
At the same time, the Soviet
Union has found that the burden
of the existing armaments inter-
feres with the vital needs of the
people. It has been impossible to
carry out the program for the
modernization of Soviet argicul-
ture by chemical means without
cutting down the military budget.
We can be reasonably certain
that the Soviet, arguments for a
reduction of armaments are sin-
cere. They spring from necessity.
THE UNITED STATES is under
no comparable pressure, and it
can be argued that we could ex-
ploit the Soviet predicament by
accelerating rather than reduc-
ing the race of armaments. This
is a conceivable line of policy,
which can be held in reserve, if the
Soviet government took a pro-
vocative line, say in Latin Amer-
ica.
But if it follows the present line,
which appears to be one of gradual
disengagement, the American
people will, quite rightly, allow
themselves to become conscious of
the real burdens of our defense
establishment. We are paying for
our necessary and invaluable mili-
tary power by a failure to provide
the facilities of civilian living to
keep pace with our needs.
* * *
CUTBACKS in defense expendi-
tures would cause less difficulty to
the economy and encounter less
political resistance if the economy
were running at a good pace in-
stead of sluggishly. When five and
one-half per cent of the labor
force is unemployed, and the na-
tional product is $35 or $40 billion
less than it could be, the prospects
of subtracting any part of the
demand for goods and services is
disconcerting.
It is not too soon, therefore, to
begin thinking about what we
would do with the resources re-
leased by a cut in defense expen-
ditures. We must prepare ourselves
not only for the minor readjust-
ments to the first cutbacks, but
also for the larger readjustments
which, will become necessary if
and when we enter upon an ac-
tual reduction of armaments.)
(c), 1964, The Washington Post Co.

'll Huff And I'll Puff And
I'll Blow Myself Down"
-~
OTq S ..*z.
-c
t f S

I

WHAT KIND OF WORLD?
Breaking Dowen'
The 'Locksteps'

EUROPEAN COMMENTARY:
Germany Remembers,
Its History

CYSCOPE:
The Bug under the Rug.

ITY COUNCIL Monday night ' neatly
shoved under the already cluttered
g a complaint registered with the city
Ann Arbor by the American Civil Lib-
ties Union.
This, in itself, is not an unusual pro-
dure for council. However, in this par-
ular case Mayor Cecil O. Creal and his
tncil co-workers, save Mrs. Eunice L.
rns, have overlooked the civil liberties
aranteed all criminal suspects subject
police interrogation.
The ACLU's complaint is that criminal
spects are not allowed their full civil
erties when the Ann Arbor Police De-
rtment makes taped recordings of in-
rrogations without giving them fair
ring. '
The local chapter of the ACLU urged
ther an end to this use of microphones
that all arrested persons be informed
the presence of such microphones and
eir right to remain silent."
HE ACLU'S COMPLAINT was not an-
swered, aside from the fact that the
lice department prepared a statement
fending "the utility of recordings." Al-
this statement was immediately back-
by several councilmen, the Mayor, and
e City Attorney.
rhe only dissenter among Ann Arbor's
ficialdom was Mrs. Burns who made a

She was abruptly
Mayor broke in to
closed and hurried
subject on the agenda.

cut off when the
declare the matter
along to the next

By ELLEN SHUBART
Daily Correspondent
MANNHEIM-One of the main
concerns of the German people
today is preventing a recurrence
of militarism such as existed dur-
ing the Hitler reign.. To prevent
an upsurge of totalitarianism,
Germans recently have reopened
the book of history and reminded
themselves once more what can
happen to a people enveloped in
emotionalism and a hunger for
absolute power.
In Frankfurt, the trial of 22
men associated with the. Ausch-
witz extermination camp began
last month and will probably last
until June. The men, being tried
by a six-person jury, including
three Frankfurt housewives, were
former guards, interceptors and
maintainence men at the Polish
extermination camp.r
* *. *
AT THE SAME TIME, Frank-
furt city officials have opened an
exhibit at St. Paul's Church de-
picting the flight of the Jews from
1939 until the end of World War
II.' The story of detention, abuse
and extermination is told mainly
through the use ,of pictures. Un-
der an enlarged picture of Anne
Frank, author of the famed "Diary
of a Young Girl," a wreath of
flowers is kept.
In addition to the exhibit, St
Paul's' now houses a book shop
where Germans can buy or browse
through books dealing exclusively
with World War II.
Germans wander through the
Frankfurt exhibit quietly. Yet on
the faces of many of the young
people there is a look of disbelief.
Others merely look and shake
their head over and over as they
go from picture to picture. The
small book shop is crowded with
people leafing through the various
books set aside for browsing.
IN ANOTHER SECTION of Ger-
many, another sign of this desire
to recall the past's mistakes in
hopes of avoiding their repetition
recently came to light. An army
officer went on trial for mistreat-
ment of his men. Although testi-
mony was given to indicate that
the treatment afforded privates
in, the Bundeswehr was not at all
as strenuous as that afforded
Americans troops who undergo
"ranger" training, the officer was
found guilty and fined. The prose-
I mage?
WHAT MOST needs changing is
a picture of ourselves and of

cutor repeatedly used the argu-
ment that the army did not want
to open any possibility for the
resumption of Hitler-like train-
ing.
ALTHOUGH these are only
three isolated incidents, they do
point to a general trend. German
agents continue to seek out for-
mer war criminals even though
World War II is now 19 years in
the past and the defendants in
trials are often over 60 years of
age.The Germans seem determin-
ed not to allow themselves to fall
into the pattern that they were
in under Hitler.
The German people, living in
the midst of an era of economic
prosperity, are concerned about
reunification of their country, the
Common Market and the status of
Berlin. Yet in order to push for-
ward in leach of these areas, the
people seem to feel the necessity
for constant reminder of the past.
Perhaps they agree with-Santay-
ana: the man who does not re-
member the past is condemned to
repeat it.

HOWEVER, THE ACLU has not accept-
ed the city's flimsy response to its
question. Later that evening, when the
meeting was opened to the audience, an
ACLU member rose and reminded coun-
cil of the issue at hand.
He told the half-listening group, "The
ACLU doesn't claim that microphones
are unlawful, but rather that they are
unfair. It is the responsibility of the
council to answer the ACLU's original
question. It is the responsibility of the
council to determine the moral charac-
ter of law enforcement in Ann Arbor."
City Attorney Jacob Fahrner then rose
to say: "As far as I know police tell the
suspect being questioned that he doesn't
have to say anything and that what he
does say can be held against him as evi-
dence."
Fahrner did not say that this was a
practice strictly followed by the police.
"As far as he knows" the police may not
be informing the suspect of his rights.
CITY COUNCIL did not attend to its
responsibilities Monday night. It did
not give a vital citizens' group the cour-
tesy of reasoned discussion of the com-

By ROBERT HUTCHINS
FOR FORTY YEARS at least,
the American system.of meas-
uring the intellectual progress of
the young has been regarded as a
horrible example of Yankee in-
genuity.
As no other country could have
dreamed it up, so no other country
would dream of adopting it.
The system is one of putting in
time and accumulating units,
grade points or semester hours. A
unit, credit, grade point or semes-
ter hour denotes a certain num-
ber of class periods over a certain
segment of time, with a passing
grade in each course attended dur-
ing each segment.
If all the segments add up to
the time you must remain an in-
mate of the institution, if all the
courses add up to the number
required and if all the grades
average out to the minimum de-
manded, then you are an educated
man.
SO THE ONLY universally valid
definition of liberal education in
the United States is 120 semester
hours. You are not supposed to
ask: hours of what? how related?
how acquired? Still less are you
permitted to inquire what the
student knows or what he can do.
If his academic account book is in
order, he and his education are
in order, too. Of course, if his
acount book is not in order, he will
not be permitted to join the com-
pany of educated men, no matter
how intelligent and civilized he
may be.
The great advantage of the
time -spent - credits - accumulated
system is that it saves thought.
You don't have to think about
what education is. All you have to
do is count.
WE HAVE NO TIME to think.
Yankee ingenuity was called upon
to solve a problem never before
faced in history. We were the first
nation to set out to educate every-
body. In a fairly short period, we

have built 127,000 educational in-
stitutions, with a staff of 2.2 mil-
lion and a student body of. 51.5
million.
This is an impressive achieve-
ment. But the dramatic dispro-
portion in American education be-
tween the tremendous effort and
the meager results, other than
thesematerial results, is aused
in part by the mechanical methods
adopted to cope with these fright-
ening numbers.
* * * ,
NOW COMES a massive study
of 440,000 high school students in
1353 schools showing some of the
consequences of these methods. It
is called Project Talent.
It finds that the top five per
cent of students can learn twice
as much in the same time as the
average student in the same grade.
It discloses that 25 to 30 per cent
of 9th grade pupils rank higher
in achievement and "ability" than
average 12th graders.
John C. Flanagan of the Uni-
versity of Pittsburgh, reporting on
the study, emphasizes the waste
of talent that it shows and calls,
in words 'nauseatingly familiar,
for "breaking the lockstep of units
and credits."
* * *
THERE IS MORE here than the
waste of talent. There is waste of
the slow learner as well. While the
quick student is bored, the slow
one may fail. Both may drop out.
Both are worth saving.
Almost a third of our high
school students now drop out be-
fore graduation. 35 per cent of our
college-age youth go to college.
Only half of those who enter sur-
vive to the bachelor's degree.
Waste of human abilities may
be the worst of the evils caused
by the lockstep, but it is -not the
only one. It promotes fragmenta-
tion, incoherence and the study of
the teacher rather than the sub-
ject. It puts a premium on passing
a course and forgetting it, and
hence on superficiality. It inten-=
sifies that air of unreality, trivial-
ity and remoteness from life which
characterizes our educational in-
stitutions and which is an ad-
ditional cause of the large and
growing number of dropouts.
* * *
IF YOU want to break the lock-
step, you have to decide what the
stages of education are. You have
to devise examinations, to be given
by an outside agency, testing the
stage the student has reached. The
student should be permitted to
proceed at his own pace, taking
the examinations when he is
ready.
This takes a lot of thought and
a lot of work. Programmed learn-
ing, or the so-called teaching ma-
chines, may help us. Programmed
learning is based on the principle
that goals should be set, and the
student should proceed toward
them at his own pace. The rapid
acceptance of programmed learn-
ing is the most hopeful sign since
the Chicago Plan of the Thirties
that we may yet escape-the lock-
step.
All the lockstep has to recom-
mend it is its convenience. It is
convenient in much the same
sense in which suicide is a con-
venient solution to the problems
of life.S,
(Copyright, Los Angeles Times)
Crusades
_FT IS CLEAR that democratic

.9 n. . lNQ
) .t
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