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March 19, 1964 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-03-19

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

DE GAULLE VISIT:
Officials Discount Problems

Ct LITTLE INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT:
U.S. Embargo on Trade with Cuba Proves Inef
Serving BBEM _PRCE_______

By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER
Associated Press Diplomatic Writer
Washington-United States of-
ficials so far discount the possi-
bility that French President
Charles de Gaulle's visit to Mexico
will make serious trouble for the
United States in Latin America.
But under the official surface
calm there is some apprehension
that de Gaulle may get caught
up in or perhapsainadvertently
stimulate new waves of anti-
Americanism.
The French leaders and Presi-
dent Lyndon B. Johnson are, in a
sense, now embarked on rival
campaigns for prestige and effec-
tive influence in South American
affairs. In a recent speech before
the Organization of American
States, Johnson presented his
ideas for putting new life into
the multi-billion dollar Alliance'
for Progress.
Strengthen Post
At the same time, the govern-
ment acted to strengthen the
authority of the director of all
United States-Latin American ac-
tivities, Assistant Secretary of
State Thomas Mann. And an ex-
traordinary c o n f e r e n c e was
opened between top Washington
officials, including Johnson, Unit-
ed States ambassadors and aid
directors in Latin American coun-
tries.
Coincident with these moves by
Johnson, de Gaulle arrived in
Mexico City to be greeted by an
enthusiastic crowd of 300,000
'gathered around the National
Palace. The French leader joined
with President Adolfo Lopez Ma-
teos in projecting a new "alli-
ance" between Mexico and France
-an alliance which they agreed is
not meant to harm anyone. '
The contrast between the prob-
lems with which Johnson and de
Gaulle were dealing in their al-
most-simultaneous speeches was
sharp and dramatic
Expensive Alliance
'The Alliance for Progress,
which is the heartr of United
States relations and hopes for the
future in Latin America, has now
been running for more than two
years. It has cost the United
States about $1 billion per year.
Along the way it has become load-
ed with problems and criticisms,
some errors and failures. To
Washington and Latin American
officials alike, any achievements
have been disappointingly slow
in realization.
Remove Bills
From Agenda
In Legislature1
LANSINGVP) - Hundreds of
bills died at midnight last night,
victims of competition in legisla-
tive committees.
Senate and House committees
dealing with appropriations were
granted an, extension Tuesday
until April 7. All election and ap-
portionment bills are exempt from
deadlines under a House-Senate
agreement worked out Tuesday.
Freed from committees Tuesday
were bills to:
-Create 'a port authority with
power to buy or build airports,
bridges, tunnels and highway fa-
cilities;
-Require approval of voters for
any city to impose- an income tax
and to prevent such taxes on non-
residents;
-Permit teachers to discipline
students physically and confiscate
weapons;
--Create a state board to regu-
late nursing;
-Require drivers' licenses to
carry pictures of licensees;
-$et up a state scholarship
fund of $300,000 to be distributed
to high school graduates for .their
tuition at either public of private

colleges. -
The Legislature Tuesday also
voted itself a recess beginning
next week and ending April 1 to
allow time for committees to
work on state spending.,
A reluctant Senate yielded to
House demands for the breather,
and endIorsed the new schedule
which had sailed through the
House earlier 93-8.
dc

DE GAULLE IN MEXICO-Fre
recently visited Mexico for talk
(left). Although the two leade
between France and Mexico, Ux
the visit will cause serious troul
In the background of Johnson's
speech stood a history of disputes
and difficulties as well as' profit-
able trade and long periods of
friendly relationships with many
Latin American countries.
There are current disagree-
ments over Cuba and deep con-
cern over the United States-Pan-
amanian quarrel. There are ten-
sions in United States relations
with Brazil and arguments with
countries like Argentina and Peru
over issues of nationalization in-
volving American oil contracts.
De Gaulle Unhindered
De Gaulle's dramatic entry on
the Latin American scene gains
strength from the fact that it is
free of such handicaps.
Between the United States and
the Soviet Union, he seems to be
intent on offering as many other
nations as possible the prospect
of a "third world" brought. into
being by Fr e nc h leadership,
marked by increasing trade ties
with France and responsive to the
dissatisfactions of people who do
not like either the Soviet or the
American way. What appeal this
concept may have in Latin Amer-
ica is still to be determined.
But Washington authorities are
alert to widespread anti-United
States sentiments in Latin Amer-
ican countries which, in their
view, create an opening for de
Gaulle's personal diplomacy and
his vision of the French offer of
a third way of international life.
Welcomes Visits
Officially the United States
government's position is that de
Gaulle's visit to Mexico and later
trips which he. plans to other
SAmerican countries hold a wel-
come hope of increasing ties be-
tween Latin America and United
States allies in Europe. The Unit-
ed States for several years has
been urging France, West Ger-
many, Britain and Italy to expand
their roles-economic, political
and cultural-in Central and
South America and the Carib-
bean.
But privately officials admit
that the special circumstances in
which de Gaulle is making his
first trip to Mexico were not fore-
seen in the original development
of this United States policy.
In recent years the French
leader has crossed United States
policy aims at so many points
that a constant uneasiness about
what he will do next has become
more or less permanent in Wash-
ington.
Pesty Incidents
His recognition of Communist
China in January is but the latest
of a series of incidents going back
to his determination to give
France an independent nuclear
force and various denials of co-
operation with the United States
and other allied countries in the.
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion and in the United Nations.
The Chinese move is regarded
here as very serious and trouble-

sch President Charles de Gaulle
ks with President Adolfo Mateos
rs announced a new "alliance"
nited States officials do not feel
ble for the Alliance for Progress.
some because as the Johnson ad-
ministration sees it he has in ef-
feet tended to reward the Chinese
Communists at a time when the
allies had some hope of encour-
aging the less aggressive line of
the Soviet Union.
But what disturbed United
States leaders even more was de
Gaulle's quick followup on recog-
nition of Communist China with
aivocacy of a policy of neutrali-
zation for Southeast Asia. Secre-
tary of State Dean Rusk said re-
cently that the neutralization talk
tended to undermine morale in
South Viet Nam where the United
States has more than 15,000 men
engaged with the Vietnamese in
a war against Communist guer-
rillas backed by Red China.
Khahn Pledges
All-Out Effort
In .Red War
SAIGON R)-Maj. Gen. Nguyen
Khanh said yesterday he intends
to purge his government and
pitch Saigon's wealthy leisure
class into the anti-Communist
war in a drive for total mobilza-
tion.
The premier's declarations were
bad news for thousands of influ-
ential Vietnamesedraft-dodgers
who have carried on as usual here
while other Vietnamese and Ame-
ricans died in combat.
"It is difficult to admit that
there are two Viet Nams--one
mighting in the countryside, with
Saigon feasting every night,"
Khanh toldsnewsmen. "In the
fight against Communism, all
must participate.
"As you have seen, my generals
are getting out in the field. The
morale of the army is higher than
before Jan. 30." Khanh seized
power in a bloodless coup on that
day. "The men will fight if they
see their leaders with them. This
is what I mean by total mobiliza-
tion."
Arrangements to step up the
United States-backed war effort
were disclosed in a White House
statement in Washington Tues-
day. This was issued after Defense
Secretary Robert S. McNamara
and Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor,
chairman of the joint chiefs of
staff, reported to President Lyn-
don B. Johnson and the National
Security Council on their recent
fact-finding study in South Viet
Nam.
McNamara and Taylor reported
Khanh had informed them he
proposed to put into effect soon
a national mobilization plan set-
ting conditions and terms of serv-
ice in appropriate jobs for all
able-bodied South Vietnamese be-
tween certain ages.

Dropouts
By ALTON BLAKESLEE
Associated Press Staff Writer
NEW YORK - Each year, one
mililon American youths begin
college. But before graduation day,
more than half have quit.
Some lack money, some lack
talent. But, by some estimates, at
least half drop out because of
emotional problems.
Now a special college dropout
clinic has turned up clues to some
of these reasons, as a first step
toward preventing personal trage-
dies and waste of trained brain-
power to run the nation's affairs.
43 Cases
The clinic at the William Alan-
son White Institute here has treat-
ed 43 college dropouts, both men
and women, during the last two
years.
One-third have successfully re-
sumed college full-time, and near-
ly as many are back in classes
part-time, says Edgar A. Leven-
son, dropout clinic director.
Among reasons for dropping out
-which may also apply to high
school dropouts-clinic investiga-
tors found:
Going Tough
Some students had always drop-
ped out of anything when the go-
ing got rough.
A few apparently were inevit-
ably headed for psychotic episodes,
wherever they were.
Some had bizarre ways of work-
ing at tasks. For example, assign-
ed to do a brief report, they would
comb through 15 reference books
trying "grandiosely to cover the
entire field, and then get dis-
couraged and quit. Such students
couldn't lean on or profit from the
experience of others, and this
"maverick quality" might produce
original work if it were only
c h a n n e 1 e d constructively, the
clinic reports.
Dating Problems
Some found college unhappy be-
'cause of difficulty in dating.
Others had breezed through high
school on glibness, but had poor
study habits. College "is often seen
by them and their families as a
white collar puberty rite."
While some students who make
poor grades enlist enough sym-
pathy to get by, others manage
to antagonize the school enough
so they are dropped.
Past History
One quite startling finding,
Levenson said, is that 25 per cent
of the fathers of dropouts had
themselves dropped out of college.
The depression years hadforced
some to quit, but others stopped
for a variety of other reasons.
Seventeen per cent of fathers
had run into career setbacks, and
10 per cent were disappointed in
their own careers. In about a quar-
ter of the homes, the father was
gone, through death, separation or
divorce.
Determine Ambitions
It appeared that many fathers
"may undermine their children's
ambitions, all the while ostensibly
pushing them to success, and dem-
onstrating disapproval when they
fail
Altogether, "some 80 per cent of
the students had an absent, fail-
ing, or largely inadequate parental
symbol," the psychiatrist said.

y sl rcv
Associated Press Staff Writer
WASHINGTON - The United
States is seeking the downfall of
Communist Cuba by an economic
embargo-and it won't work, if
history is indicative.
As matters now stand, the
United States effort to seal off
Cuba from world trade has more
holes in it than a collander.
Almost nobody, including some
of this nation's best friends, is
supporting the United States
policy of Cuban trade.
Blockade
The alternative to embargo is,
of course, a blockade enforced by
United States guns, missiles, air-
craft and torpedoes.
In the past, however, the United
States has insisted that a block-
ade is an act of war. Outright war
with Cuba is something the United
States is trying to avoid, especially
since Cuba is allied with the So-
viet Union.
About the only success the
United States has had against
Cuba occurred in October and No-
vember, 1962, when it introduced a
varient of the blockade and called
it a "quarantine."
Quarantine
This was a blockade against
specific cargoes, in this case mis-
siles. After the quarantine decla-
ration, 12 Soviet ships turned back
to Russia rather than test this
nation's determination.
A blockade is only as good as
the armed forces prepared to en-
force it. The land equivalent of a
blockade is the siege. The primary
World News
Roundup
By The Associated Press
PARIS-A nationwide strike in
the public utilities, transportation
and government services paralyzed
industry in France yesterday.
* * *
BONN-Chancellor Ludwig Er-
hard's cabinet decided yesterday
that West Germany will oontri-
bute half a million dollars to-
ward the United Nations force on
Cyprus.
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Prof.
Norbert Wiener, 69, the father of
automation, died unexpectedly
yesterday in Stockholm, Sweden,
it was announced yesterday by
the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.
GENEVA-The United Nations
World Health Organization clear-
ed the way yesterday to expel
white-ruled South Africa for dis-
crimination against the Negro ma-
jority.
By a 63-22 vote, the World
Health Assembly of WHO adopted
a resolution by 34 African and
Arab nations to submit at next
year's meeting a proposal to expel
"any member whose official policy
is based on racial discrimination."
NEW YORK-The stock market
edged another moderate advance
yesterday, mainly emphasizing
strength in steels and airlines. The
Dow Jones average showed 30 in-
dustrials up 2.09, 20 railroads up
.69, 15 utilities down .12 and 65
stocks up .62.

GEORGE BALL

purpose is to strangle the enemy's
food and war supplies.
An embargo is of dubious value,
regardless of the size of the na-
tion against which it is used.
'Strategic Goods'
For instance, since 1951 the
United States has been trying to
persuade industrial nations to re-
frain from shipping "strategic
goods" to Communist bloc nations.
But even the nations of the
Nodth Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion cannot agree on what consti-
tutes strategic goods.
In 1961-the last year for which
complete figures are available -
the Communist bloc nations im-
ported $5 billion worth of goods
from the Western world. The trade
is still growing.
This material included pipelines,
machine tools, machinery, chemi-
cals and commercial aircraft, all
of which would contribute to the
strategic well-being of the Com-
munist world. At least the United
States thinks they would.
All Must Stop
As for Cuba, the embargo sought
by the United States can be effec-
tive only if all nations stop de-
livering goods to Cuba.
Clearly, the Communist bloc has
no such intention and neither does
a large part of the non-Commun-
ist world-England, France, Mex-
ico, Spain, Canada and Morocco
among others.
What the United States policy
does do, however, is to make life
more difficult and expensive for
the Cubans.
Red Drain
As Undersecretary of State
George Ball has noted, it does
bring about a drain on the eco-
nomic reserves of the Communist
nations, chiefly the Soviet Union
which is pledged to Cuban support.
At the same time, however, the
United States policy penalizes
otherwise friendly nations by lay-
ing down the rule that ships which
have delivered cargoes to Cuba can
not stop in any United States port
for another cargo to take back
home.
It also forbids the use of United
States ports to all ships of any
nation which delivers arms to
Cuba.
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Under United States law, the
United States is obliged to shut off
aid to nations which trade with
Cuba-unless the President decides
such an act might injure this na-
tion more than it helps.
As a result, the United StatesE
has cut off minute amounts of
military aid to Great Britain,
France and Yugoslavia, while
freezing aid at the current levels
to Spain and Morocco for "re-ex-
amination of their Cuban trade
policies."
Two Tries
Twice in history the United
States-or the colonies which be-
came the United States - have
tried this embargo routine with-
out success, once prior to the
American Revolution and once
just before the War of 1812.
On Dec. 22, 1807, President
Thomas Jefferson forbade United
States vessels to travel to Euro-
pean ports and prohibited foreign
ships from loading cargoes in
United States ports.
The result was near bankruptcy
for the.sea merchants. Finally, the
embargo was modified by Presi-
dent James Madison on March 1,
1809, to prohibit trade with just
England and France.
At War
By the time the United States
got around to repealing this act,
the United States and Britain were
at war, a war that proved a near
disaster for the United States.
Charles and Mary Beard in "The
Rise of American Civilization" re-
port: "When the British ministry
finally awoke to the gravity of the
situation, it brought its superior
sea power to bear on America with
awful effect. It blockaded the At-
lantic coast, paralyzed American
commerce ...
"The government in Washing-
ton was careening toward bank-
ruptcy .. . the only alternative to
peace was economic collapse..."

cessfully, it has used
with devastating eff
In the Civil WarE
ade around the Soutl
ton exports from $2
1861 to $4 million ir:
end of the war in 1
federacy couldn't
paper to print its mo
In World War
Churchill in "The, H
wrote "shipping was
stranglehold and so
of our war strategy.'
Six-Week Sti
The British fougl
for nearly four year
their lifelines open.
German submarines
success, almost as
World War I when
in Britain were rec
point to a six-week
It may well be thz
II will go down in 1
last application of
in wars between ma
The blockade he
probably be used b
maritime powers to
trouble spots which
into large ones. The
of Cuba is a case in
Merehani

'U'To

(

The State St
Association has as
0. Creal and the
approve the abar
University of a
stretch on Washi
tween Forest and'
The University
abandonment of
street in line wil
program of expa
campus.
The request wil
the Ann Arbor
Department.

Blockade Success
While the United States
never employed the embargo

has
suc-

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LEISURELY 11 WEEKS IN EUROPE
U of M Group Flight via
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June 2-August 18
$325
SEATS STILL AVAILABLE
$50 deposit by March 20 to reserve seat

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FESTIVAL OF LANTERNS

CARL BRADEN

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PRESENTED
SORORITY

BY DELTA DELTA DELTA
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION

X~O4~
4)

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speaking on
"State and Federal Repression in the South"
TODAY, THURSDAY, MARCH 19
7 :30 P.M. Rms. K, L, M, N--Michigan Union
Under the auspices of VOICE and Friends of SNCC

Call Ben Morris, NO 2-1753 or
Rose Ehrinpries, NO 5-0537

BENEFITS

TO GO TOWARD

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SCHOLARSHIP FUND.

HURRY

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(Dessert Will Be Served)

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Michigan Union Ballroom

U of M FOLK FESTIVAL

STickets $2.00 each...

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