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January 16, 1964 - Image 18

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-01-16

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PAGE EIGHT

THE MICHIGAN UAII.V

THURSDAY. JANUARY 16..19"

PAGE EIGHT TU1~~~~~~ a .,.MeaC.Wa a a toV aseaI.V HT a.JWTU e IA --.-.'--- a...-... .r

AL it VALWK3VAi* UXXXI VrX%,1 10 XZFO j

t

SINO-SOVIET BORDER:
Communist China Reminds Russia of Imperial Past

By SID MOODY
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
NEW YORK-The loudest voice
of anti-imperialism is suddenly
picking up some unpleasant ech-
oes.
In its dispute with Communist
China the Soviet Union has found
itself rudely reminded of its col-
onialist past when, under the
czars, it played the game of im-
perialism as avidly and successful-
ly as any of the western powers
for the land and wealthrof an all
but helpless China.
Peking last March declared it
does not accept as binding the
"unequal" treaties by which Rus-
sia and other colonial powers ob-
tained Chinese land during the
19th and early 20th centuries.
Then, in September, the Com-
munist Chinese accused Russia of
fomenting rebellion in the uran-
ium-rich province of Sinkiang.
Sinkiang, an area of non-Chi-
nese Moslems, has long been a
target of Chinese and Russian riv-
alry. It borders on Central Asia
where Czarist armies extended
Russian authority over hundreds
of thousands of square miles a
century ago.
The area includes much of Ka-
zakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tadzhi-
kstan along the borders of Afghan-
istan and Pakistan. The Russians
took these over from small, inde-
pendent potentates who had only
the loosest connection to China,
if any.
Yet in the angry split between
Moscow and Peking, it appears the
Chinese are building up a case
to claim these territories, now
the site of extensive development
by the Russians.
The immediate focal point is
the district of Ili in Sinkiang.
The Chinese accuse the Russians
of trying to subvert Chinese au-
thority in Ili and of "coercing"
thousands of Chinese to cross the
border into the Soviet Union.
Peking called this "an astound-
ing event, unheard of between so-
cialist countries."

Russia won right to mine ur-
anium in Sinkiang in 1950. Eighty
years before, Czarist troops had
moved into Sinkiang, then mov-
ed out 10 years later in favor
of the Chinese.
But by World War I Russians
were virtually in charge again.
As late as 1949, when the Com-
munists were about to oust Chi-
ang Kai-Shek from the mainland,
Russia was still negotiating with
the Nationalist Chinese leader to
recognize Soviet "special interest"
in the area.
But Sinkiang is only one barb
along the Sino-Soviet border.
First Signer
Oddly enough Russia was the
first European nation China sign-
ed a treaty with. In treaties of
1689 and 1727 the two nations
established diplomatic relations,
provided for trade and extradi-
tion of criminals. But when the
West began playing a stronger
hand in China during the opium
wars Russia's interest became more
crass.
By the Treaty of Tientsin in
1857, following fighting between
Britain, France and China, Rus-
sia was awarded all Chinese ter-
ritory north of the Amur River.

When the Chinese balked at the
treaty, France and Britain im-
posed harsher terms which in-
cluded ceding to Russia all land
east of the Ussuri River, which
included the site of the present
city of Vladivostok.
After China and Japan fought
over Korea in 1894, the Russians
joined in the competition to carve

up China and won the right to
build a railroad across Man-
churia. After the Germans seiz-
ed Tsingtao in 1897 on the pre-
text of the murder of some Ger-
man missionaries, the Russians
occupied Port Arthur and Dairen.
Russia then joined with other
western colonial powers in divid-
ing China into "spheres of in-

fluence," claiming for herself all
of China north of the Great
Wall.
Russia moved troops into Man-
churia after the Boxer Rebellion
in 1900 but gradually withdrew
because of pressure from Japan
and Britain. Japanese hostility to
Russia's ambitions finally broke
out into war in 1905.

'

OFF TO BASIC TRAINING-These are the ones that didn't get away. New draft laws will allow
exemptions to a few more-some part-time students-enabling them to continue studies.
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Ease .Draft
Exemptions
By LEONARD PRATT
Part-time students will be
allowed draft exemptions on a
limited basis, state selective serv-
ice headquarters has announced.
The policy of local draft boards
is being revised to allow for addi-
tional exemptions, according to a
letter from Col. Arthur A. Holmes,
director of the state selective serv-
ice system, to local draft boards.
There is to be no change in
policy on full-time students under
the new system. Students who
were eligible under the old system
will still be eligible under the new
system.
Limited Exemptions
The change in the status of the
part-time student is that they are
now eligible for certain, limited
exemptions under the new draft
procedures; where as, under the
old system they were ineligible.
Exemptions may occur if the
student is only temporarily part-
timeor if he is working and at-
tending school at the same time,
according to the directive.
Part-time status at the Univer-
sity will be determined by special
student foris, newly designed by
the University, to comply with new
draft board regulations which will
show the number of credit hours
for each student and whether or
not the University considers the
student full or part-time.
'U' Policy
"The University policy is to
supply the local board with all the
information possible and then to
let them make the decision on
exemptions," D. R. Woolley, direc-
tor of the Selective Service System
at the University, explained.
The new University forms were
developed to meet the changing
requirements for part-time stu-
dent exemptions.
The draft revision and new Uni-
versity form are the result of com-
plaints of local boards which have
been hard hit with deferment re-
quests from part-time students,
since the government has used
Selective Service Form 109.
Qualfication Problem
This form was intended to de-
termine which part-time students
would be eligible for draft exemp-
tions. Prior to the use of Form
109, a student had to be full-time
to qualify for a draft exemption.
However, colleges defined full-
time status differently, making
such a definition difficult to ad-
minister.
When Form 109 was adopted,
many students sought exemptions.
However, the form did not ade-
quately separate the qualified ap-
plicant from the unqualified.
The problem of increased ex-
emption applications is that
"local boards are reacting un-
favorably to this indiscriminate
certification of'individuals who
warrant little or no recognition for
deferment as students," C o .
Holmes commented.
Correct Procedure
If this policy had not been cor-
rected' by the new college forms,
it might have proved "prejudicial
to the deferment of qualified stu-
dents.
"Future certification forms will
be modified to indentify a stu-
dent as either full-time or part-
time," he indicated.
But final say on definitions in
individual cases on part-time
study will rest with the draft
board.

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New Teaching
Revolutionizes
Mathematics
By Intercollegiate Press
What distinguishes present-day
mathematics from that which was
taught five years ago in high
schools?
Prof. Allen F. Strehler of Car-
negie Tech supplies three main
answers:
1) The new math eliminates
those topics which are relatively
unimportant. Probably the two
best example of topics which are,
or were, overworked in high school
are trigonometry and s o 1 i d
geometry.
Strained Imagination
In trigonometry, which previ-
ously occupied a full semester, the
students spent much of their time
computing the widths of imagin-
ary rivers which they could not
cross, or computing the height of
some flagpole at different times of
day-correct to more and morej
decimal places-using logarithms.
This work is now being trimmed
down to one-half or two-thirds of
a semester.
Similarly, much of solid geome-
try had consisted of theorems
which were of no abiding interest
even to professional mathemati-
cians. For this reason, Carnegie
Tech in 1957 dropped the subject
from its entrance requirements
and thus became one of the first
of many colleges to do so.
2) It integrates those topics
which are important. What re-
mains of solid geometry is being
combined into a one-year course
with plane geometry.
Combine Geometry
This has been found to be a
reasonable combination time-wise,
and there are obvious pedagogical
advantages to treating a given
problem in two dimensions andk
three dimensions simultaneously.
Furthermore, plane geometry
had been taught in such a stereo-
typed manner that students all
over the country, from Bangor to
Berkeley, arrived at the same
theorem at Christmas time and
then at another theorem at Easter.
One purpose of high school
geometry is to teach deductive
reasoning, and this purpose is
now achieved by introducing a
shorter 'deductive chain' which
takes only ten weeks of study.
3) It introduces recent and im-
portant developments in mathe-
matics. For example, probability
and statistics, with which almost
everyone is confronted daily in
the printed media and on televi-
sion, was scarcely touched upon
in the classroom until five years
ago.
1U

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