W RUSHING SYSTEM
See Page 4
Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 18, 1961
'U' To Form Freedom Study Unit
CPLAIN ELECTIONS-Prof. Angus Campbell (right) and Prof.
lilip Converse (left) reviewed the November election in a
otinuation of studies that produced '"The American Voter,"
ad detailed analysis of voting habits. Aage Clausen, (center)
oderated the discussion.
Sociologists Cite Party Defections,
High Southern Turnout in Balloting
By HARRY PERLSTADT
"More Democrats defected to the Republicans than Republicans
Democrats in the last election," Prof. Angus Campbell of the
vey Research Center said last night at a Political Science Round-
e discussing electorate behavior in the November election.
"This has been true in the last three elections, although there
more defection in 1952 and 1956. Last November there was a
tive drop in the number defecting and this made the election
"There were more independent votes for Vice-President Richard
%ixon than for then Sen. John F. Kennedy," he said. Prof. Camp-
By ARNOLD WEINGARDEN
The Fraternity Presidents' As-
sembly last night discontinued the
membership of Alpha Phi Alpha
chapter in the Interfraternity
The motion, made by RichardE
Sideman, '61, was prompted by a
recommendation of the executive
committee of IFC to FPA.
Sideman explained that Alpha
Phi Alpha had failed to meet the
minimum standards of member-
ship in IFC. These standards re-
:uire a chapter house, in which
the majority of its members live,
a 2.25 scholastic average, a mem-
bership of at least 20, and other
'Must Uphold Value'
"Alpha Phi Alpha has gone to
such an extreme that we have no
recourse but to withdraw mem-
bership. We can't drag our feet.
[PC must uphold the value of
these standards," he said.
Representing Alpha Phi Alpha,
Milton Tarver, Grad, president of
the local chapter, moved an
amendment to the original mo-
tion. He suggested that FPA dis-
continue Alpha Phi Alpha's mem-
bership in two years if the fra-
bernity at that time has failed
to meet the minimum standards.
His motion was not seconded.
Tarver charged that the FPA-
members present last night did
not know the real situation. He'
stressed that no date was set to
determine whether or not the
fraternity had complied with the
He added that the Executive
Committee could have been "a
little bit more imaginative," ex-
plaining that "we have a lot more
to look forward to if we give Al-
pha Phi Alpha the benefit of a
Louis Rice, assistant to the
Dean of Men, Office of Student
Affairs, said that since 1950 over
25 communications have been sent
from the Dean of Men's office to
he local chapter of Alpha Phi
Alpha and its national organiza'
tion. "The office of the Dean of
Men is interested in helping Al-
pha Phi Alpha."
He cited lack of cooperation on
bell, director of the Survey Re-l
search Center, explained that
every member of the electorate
held two basic political disposi-I
tions: partisanship and intrinsic
interest in politics.
Partisanship involves party iden-
tification for the individual while
intrinsic interest is the concern
of the individual for politics.
Without the stimulus of a cam-
paign there are more active Demo-
crats than Republicans. In the
1948 election when there was no
pressing issue, the intrinsic inter-
est was low and the election fol-
lowed this normal party division.
CIn 1952, however, the Korean
War and Gen. Dwight D. Eisen-
hower's popularity increased the
short term interest, Prof. Camp-
bell said, and there was a subse-
quent high voter turnout.
The 1960 election resembles the
1948 election in voter distribution
and the 1952 election in intrinsic
interest and an increase in the
The high turnout was extremely
prevalent in the South, Prof.
Philip E. Converse, a study direc-
tor of the Center noted. The
South contributed 21 per cent of
the total national vote last No-
vember as compared to 18 per
cent in 1956.
The high turnout was partially
due to the religious issue, he ex-
plained. The religious issue
brought with its great intrinsic in-
terest a defection in party votes.
Of those who voted for Adlai E.
Stevenson in 1956 and switched to
Nixon, 90 per cent were Protest-
ants, and 70 per cent of those who
switched from Eisenhower to Ken-
nedy were Catholics.
Prof. Converse said that about
40 per cent of those who were
Protestant partisan Democrats and
attended church regularly de-
fected to Nixon.
The normally partisan Demo-
crats who had switched to Nixon
or had stayed Republican after
voting for Eisenhower expressed a
negative attitude towards Ken-
nedy's religion, especially those
from the South.
The Southern Democratic vote,
which usually totals 68 per cent
of the total Southern electorate,
dropped to 51 per cent, remark-
ably close to the national Demo-
cratic percentage of 50.1. Ken-
nedy was able to net a two per
cent gain outside the South com-
bining Protestant losses with
Catholic votesdwhich another
Democratic candidate might not
A faculty study group on Uni-
versity responsibility and free-
dom is being organized.
This was reported to the Uni-
versity Senate yesterday. The
Senate also heard reports on plans
for a faculty club and the Univer-
sity's budget request.
The decision to establish the
committee springs from a concern
of the Senate Advisory Committee
for the maintenance and advance-
ment of University responsibilities
and freedoms in society, Prof.
Wesley Maurer of the journalism
department, SAC chairman, ex-
Prof. Maurer listed "several
areas of concern" in which the
committee might work:
1) At the upcoming state con-
stitutional convention the con-
stitutionally - independent status
of the University might be review-
2) There are concerns for the1
freedom of students as well as
faculty to extend free inquiry into
Prof. John Reed of the Law
School will chair the new group.
RIO DE JANEIRO (A')-Jusce-
lino Kubitschek yesterday enter-
ed his final two weeks as presi-
dent with Brazil in the grip of
Current and threatened strikes
underlined the danger of bank-
ruptcy in this largest of South
State police and firemen in the
leading industrial city, Sao Paulo,
in effect mutinied in a strike for
higher pay. The army maintained'
order with tanks and machine,
Railroad and port workers in
Rio de Janeiro were planning
strikes unless wage demands were
met. The government, which em-
ploys many of them, lacked funds1
to increase their pay.
All around the nation, Brazil-
ians were clamoring for lower liv-
ing costs. These costs increased 40
per cent in December and they
are still rising. A houswife today
pays fourfold what she paid two
years ago for staples of beef,
beans and rice-and her hus-
band's wages have not kept pace.
Within the last week, the Cru-.
zeiro, national unit of currency,
has depreciated 14 per cent in re-
lation to the United States dollar.
When Kubitschek took office
five years ago 80 cruzeiros equaled
$1. Today the ratio was 236-1 in
the free money market.I
Janio Quadros, taking over the
presidency Jan. 31, will inherit
debts of $2 billion owed abroad,
and $1 billion owed at home. He
must try to find $600 million to
settle foreign debts in the first
few months of his presidency.
By BEATRICE TEODORO
Michael A. Crisovan, operator of
the Newport Bathing Beach in
Dexter township paid a fine and
costs of $110 Monday after plead-
ing guilty to discriminating
against a Negro patron last sum-
In a criminal complaint signed
by Sharon Williams, a former
member of the Ann Arbor Direct
Action Committee and now a resi-
dent of Flint, Crisovan was
charged with refusing her use ofI
BEA CH DISCRIMINA TION:
Fine Local Man in Rights Case
beach facilities because of her
He was prosecuted under the
Diggs Act, a Michigan law for-
bidding discrimination in various
publicly used establishments, in-
cludng beaches operated on a non-
member basis. The official charge
included the phrase "refused to
provide full and equal service in a
place of public accommodation."
Members of AADAC informed
Miss Williams of the decision. She
the United States. The motion
further asks the chemistry de-1
partment, and any other depart-
ment which employs non-academic
evaluations, to discontinue their
To Take No Action
Because it is deemed an expres-
sion of student opinion, this mo-
tion will only be discussed by the
It can then be formally pre-a
sented at the next weekly meeting,
which will not take place until
Roger Seasonwein, '61, will ask
removal of the clause in SGC's
quires a week interim between the
operating procedures which re-
introduction of a motion deemed
an expression of student opinion"
and the final consderation of it.
This clause was adopted several
weeks ago on an 8-6 vote which
followed much debate on the mo-
tion of Arthur Rosenhaum, '61.
The only way SGC can now take
final action on a matter of stu-
dent opinion without a week-long
interm is to suspend normal pro-
cedures. This requires a two-thirds
approval by the council.
Questions Joint Judic
Another motion to be presented
by Seasonwein would submit a
questionnaire to Joint Judiciary
Council concerning its operating
procedures, projected revisions,
and relationships with the Deans'
offices, the Committee on Stu-
dent Conduct and the Sub-
committee on Discipline. This mo-
tion is similar to one the Council
passed last week asking about
policies of the University Com-
mittee on Lectures.
Interfraternity Council Press-
dent Jon Trost, '61, last night is-'
sued a statement defending the
action of the national Beta Theta
Pi fraternity in preventing its
Williams College chapter from
initiating anyone "until further
"When as it would appear is
the case at Williams College, a
fraternity is compelled to accept
into its membership persons
whom it does not choose through
the process of free association and
selection, it ceases to be a frater-
nity," he said.
"Moreover, for any legislative
or administrative body, be they
students or otherwise, to deny one
person membership into a frater-
nity simply because another per-
son has not been extended an in-
vitation to join that same or any
other fraternity, in effect denies
the individual the right to asso-
ciate with those with whom he
would choose to associate.
"This, I believe, is a flagrant
encroachment upon both individ-
ual and group rights.
"If their chapter at Williams
College is no longer free to choose
all its members, it is understand-
able that the national organiza-
tion of Beta Theta Pi fraternity
should consider to withdraw its
charter from a group which is no
longer allowed to be a fraternity."
SGC To Debate Forms
Used To Evaluate Pu pits
By PAT GOLDEN
Student Government Council will discuss non-academic evalua-
tions in basic chemistry courses in a committee of the whole at its
Daily Editor Thomas Hayden, '61, will offer a motion condemning
the chemistry department's use of evaluation cards which ask
the instructor's opinion of a student's personalty and loyalty to
said she was "glad Crisovan prom-
ised to discourage discrimination
on the beach in the future."
Jack Ladinsky, Grad., AADAC
spokesman, said the decision was
"a pleasant surprise to AADAC."
"To get a favorable decision was
important because it would dis-
courage other beach owners from
AADAC Gets Complaints
Ladinsky said that AADAC had
received phone calls during the
summer from Ann Arbor residents
pointing out discrimination in
other beaches than the one oper-
ated by Crisovan.
Because of reports of discrimi-
nation on public beaches, AADAC
attempted a "peaceful walk-in"
late last July at the Newport
Beach. Nine Negroes were among
the 20 students that were admitted
to the beach by Crisovan in the
successful non-violent action.
A week later the group returned
to the beach and were refused
admittance. The AADAC group
did not leave but stood quietly
at the beach entrance until Criso-
van put up a sign reading "closed
to the public."
IBecause of the closing' of the
beach, AADAC was unable to take
any group action, Ladinsky said.
Instead, individuals who had ex-
perienced discrimination prior to
the mass "walk-ins" filed com-
plaints under the Diggs Act.
Complained in August
Miss Williams registered her
complaint early in August, she
said. There was no further action
on the complaint until she came
into Ann Arbor a week ago to
give testimony to the prosecutor's
office and to officially sign the
Ladinsky said that he knew of
two other individuals who had
planned to register complaints last
summer but had left Ann Arbor
before action could be taken.
After entering his guilty plea,
Crisovan told the judge that he
had allowed Negroes to use the
beach prior to Miss Williams' visit
He explained that he had not
allowed her and several persons
appearing with her to enter be-
cause he thought they were "agi-
tators" trying to make an issue of
Name Graf to Replace Angell in Post
As Chairman of LSA Honors Council
By ANDREW HAWLEY
Prof. Otto G. Graf, of the German department, has been named
director of the literary college Honors Council, Dean of the college
Roger W. Heyns said yesterday.
Prof. Graf will assume the directorship next semester when Prof.
Robert C. Angell, who has held the post since the inception of the
program in 1957, will leave it and begin a semester's leave of absence.
Dean Heyns said he was "happy that Prof. Graf has agreed to
accept the job," and noted that Prof. Graf's experience, including his
work on the executive committee of the council, amply qualifies him'
for the position.
Prof. Graf is currently chairman of the interdepartmental pro-
gram in Comparative Literature. His appointment is for a three-year
. , ......... '' i