THE MICHIGAN DILY
fly HARVEY MOLOTCH
During the middle ages, Chris- ties at the beginning of the Ren-
Although the need for Euro- tianity was the factor which uni- aissance.
an unity is today usually sup- In modern times, the idealistic
rted for economic and politi- fied all Europe. But the church Count Khudinov Killargy of Aus-
-reasons, the first attempts was forced out of dominance by tria pressured for unity under
-unity were derived from the the rise of nationalism and the Christianity shortly 'after World
bristmas and Christian ideal of War I, but the tide of nationalism
peace on earth." strengthening of separate dynas- was still too strong for realization
of his dreams.
He could not appeal to the peo-
brple of the recently embattered
SLIPPERS by .continent on the idealistic grounds
of bringing peace on earth and
F ~good will toward men; the lack
of practical and economic ration-
alizations prevented his success.
In 1929 a German and a French-
f , man joined in forming a nucleus
around which they hoped Euro-
pean integration could form. It
had become obvious that the
a'League of Nations was powerless
>i to create peace out of world chaos
and only a "united states of Eu-
rope" could be a lasting deter-
rent to war.
k But once again, proponents of
peace were not able to clearly
state their goals and methods and
the world was not quite ready for
Depression Ends Drive
The world depression of the '30s
finally relegated the peace lovers
Curiously, the rise of Hitler
'~once again raised hopes of Eu-
ropean unity, but this time on
grounds far from Christian. De-
73 spite their grievances with Na-
'z PALE BLUE tinal Socialism, there were many
s:Hre k - Hobbesian Europeans who favor-
k9ied Hitler as the strong man who
could at last prevent inter-Euro-
SX .pean strife.
brBut the devastation that Hitler
' x rt brought to Europe in the immedi-
9 ate post war period was manifest-
ed in complete economic disinte-
gration, social disorganization and
a dearth of continental security.
GREAT FLUFF United Nations
Thencame the formation of
the United Nations and the be-
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list! It's all genuine bunny fur, thrill soft, to stroke like towards unity which had at least
pure madness and lazy-in warmlyl Flannelette lined a chance of success.
But the UN has proved only a
On a pad-about-soft sole $ A99 partial solution to the problem of
$4.peace on earth, and even less a
solution to European unity.
Stalin's policies of European
political aggression which resulted
in the destruction of national sov-
1? n/ [ f ereignty in Czechoslovakia, Po-
land, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia,
Rumania, East Germany and
Hungary threatened the remain-
9:00 to 5:30 Open Fri. & Mon. Nites 'til Christmas 306 S. State ing weak and impoverished na-
latYMs Smsl«[5!t ms smc smat5SIS tLions.
tions. Marshall Plan
To bolster its European allies
and to produce a basis of Euro-
pean cooperation, the United
States offered the Marshall Plan
in 1947. Under the plan, the Unit-
ed States would not accept sep-
arate national requests for re-
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UN HEADQUARTERS-The United Nations is one of the many attempts of the last century to unify
and pacify the world. Its theme of peace may be seen from the olive branches in its emblem.
covery aid. Europe was told that
a complete inter-European state-
ment of the needs of all nations
should be submitted.
Thus the Organization for Eu-
ropean Economic Cooperation
(OEEC) was formed under the
Marshall Plan to diagnose the ills
of the continent and to integrate
efforts toward recovery..
Europeans finally took the ini-
tiative themselves again when the
Council of Europe met for the
first time in 1948.
Winston Churchill, then prime
minister of Great Britain, presid-
ed over the convention at the
Hague and introduced the idea
fthat a Franco-German alliance
must for the basis for European
unity and complete peace.
Partly because of British in-
sistence that each member nation
retain full sovereignty, the Coun-
cil has been ineffective in solving
Europe's crucial problems.
Despite opposition from Dutch
aind Belgian spokesmen, the basic
rule of the organization requires
t h a t complete unanimity be
achieved before any proposal can
gs into effect.
Thus the Council's intricate bu-
reaucracy has been relegated to
comparatively minor concerns.
As the gap between East and
West widened, the United States
instigated the formation of the
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion (NATO) in 1949 as a means
to pool the military prowess of
most of Western Europe, America
l and Canada for peace through a
deterrent to war.
NATO's effectiveness may be
measured by the complete lack
of Soviet gain in Europe since
the alliance was formed and the
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switch of Soviet pressure to Asia
which resulted in the Korean
Desiring to implement in the
economic sphere what NATO ac-
complished in military coopera-
tion, six disillusioned members of
the Council of Europe formed the
European Coal and Steel Commu-
Coal, Steel Pact
France, Germany, the Nether-
lands, Luxembourg, Italy, and
Belgium agreed to subject their
coal and steel industries to a
measure of international control,
allowing free exchange of labor
and the formation of a common
market in these industries.
France pressured for a unifi-
cation of military capabilities and
called for a united army under
one central European command.
Although the other Coal and Steel
Community members approved,
the divided French legislature fi-
nally defeated the European De-
fense Community (EDC) measure
The French action, seemingly
from fear of a re-armed Germany,
resulted in the American decision
to arm Germany and encorpor-
ate the rebounding nation into
Unity Still Wanted
But despite the failure of EDC,
the tremendous economic success
of the Coal and Steel Community
convinced the six member states!
that the Community should be
expanded into all fields of eco-
Thus emerged the Common
Market. With an ultimate aim of
almost erasing national boundary
lines and furthering the unity of
peoples, these progressive nationsj
decided on a 15-year program to
cmpletely eliminate all tariffs be-
tween nations of the "inner six"
and to establish a single tariff
system between the Common Mar-
ket and other countries.
Significantly, t h e Common
Market and the Coal and Steel
Community require that member
states relinquish some degree of
national sovereignty and thereby
submit their wills to a central
Increased prosperity in the
Common Market nations since
internal tariffs could be eliminat-
ed by 1970-almost five years
ahead of schedule.
But in order to compete with
the inner six states, seven other
European countries have estab-
lished their own economic union.
Although they possess an almost
standing invitation to join the
Common Market, the seven na-
tions have formed the European
Free Trade Area-a far more lim-
ited and less dynamic organiza-
The member states - Britain,
Switzerland, Austria, Portugal,
Norway, Sweden and Denmark,
all refused to give up any measure
of their sovereignty.
Britain is obligated to the Com-
monwealth; the Scandinavian
countries have their own natural
union and Switzerland, Austria
and Sweden regard membership
in the Common Market as a
threat to their commitment to
Also disturbin gthose favoring
unity are the recent trends of in-
creased European nationalism as
characterized by President Charles
de Gaulle's. French government.
The chauvinistic tendencies are
spreading to other states and ob-
servers forsee no reversal of this
trend in the near future.
Khrushchev's co-existence linel
has weakened unification by re-
moving the external threat which
originally prompted the early in-
The problems involved in secur-
ing any form of effective interna-
tional unity are enormous. In Eu-
rope they are complicated by sep-
arate national languages, distinct
histories and traditions, and the
existence of state religions.
But the advantages of such un-
ion are also easily apparent. Be-
sides the obvious military and
economic gains, a unified Europe
would destroy the conditions which
prompted two devastating world
A democratic Europe would be
a positive influence on world
peace and perhaps end the conti-
nent's long history of constant
A "United States of Europe"
195 ha ld t a tepin-upofmay hbeaan idealias'Amdram, bt
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