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0 Illinois .... 7 Indiana
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By ANDREW HAWLEY
Dr. H. W. Bird, assistant dean and associate professor of psychia-
try in the medical school, expects the forthcoming administration to
provide federal financial assistance for medical education.
The nation's doctor shortage, a serious problem, is now fully rec-
ognized, Dr. Bird says.
Medical Education Reviewed
In 1959 a group of consultants who thoroughly reviewed Amer-
ican medical education submitted their findings to Surgeon General
Leroy Burney. Their report, "Physicians for a Growing America" or
the Bane Report, after its chairman, was what really brought the
need for changes in medical education to the public's attention,
There are more doctors-235,000 today a scompared with 156,000
in 1931. But the increase is not nearly enough to satisfy the growing
demand. The Bane Report states: "Since 1930, the annual number
of medical school graduates has averaged approximately 30 per 1,000
licensed physicians; and during the past six to eight years, the
physician/population ratio has been stable at 132 MD's/100,000 popu-
"With the known Increase in population coming in the next
twenty years, annual production of MD's must be expanded marked-
ly within the next ten years."
"The horizons of medical practice have become so broad that
any talented student in science can find a rewarding place for him-
self in one of several fields of medicine," Dr. Bird says.
"He can embark on a teaching or investigative career, or he may
devote himself largely to the care of patients. Particularly intriguing
are the opportunities opening up with the dawn of the space age."
The number of applicants seeking admission to medical schools
dropped from 22,000 in 1950 to about 15,000 ten years later. At that
rate the present number would halve in ten more years.
The quality of applicants, gradewise, has also declined: In 1950
40 per cent of those accepted to American medical schools had an
"A" average, 43 per cent a "B" and 17 per cent "C." Also significant,
the number of those who drop out during the freshman year has
risen about two per cent.
Compare Medical School
How does the University medical school compare with these
Nine per cent of its 200 freshmen have averages of "A" in
preparatory work, 80 are "B" students, and 11 per cent "C." About ten
per cent of these, going by the past trend, will not graduate.
These figures can, however, be misleading, Dr. Bird says. Be-
cause the average freshman class in an American medical school has
an enrollment of 95 students, the'statistical differences of seven per
cent between "A" students applying here and those applying to the
"average" school is a numerical difference of only six or seven.
Further, the University accepts, numerically and comparatively,
less "C' students than even the average school. "Michigan's forte is
the fact that it takes students well above the minimal standards of
schools in general," he remarked.
He adds that, these figures do not mean doctors are not as good
as they used to be-medical education and practice involves capaci-
ties and traits not easily represented by statistics.
The financial demand on the student is another cause for the
decline in qualified applicants.
Dr., Bird estimates the average expenses for an unmarried.
Michigan residentat$1,700$1,800ra year, or possibly $7,200 for the
F NAP 411.1 na.ga 9
A BITTER PILL
Se Page 4
Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
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By Civil Rights Laws
Harrington Tells 'Challenge' Group
Bias Inherent in American Society
By RUTH EVENHUIS
"If 9 a.m. tomorrow all the civil rights legislation proposed in the
past decade were passed and enforced, the problem of the Negro
would still be one of the country's most basic, fundamental and
agonizing problems," Michael Harrington, writer for The Reporter,
told a Challenge audience yestreday.
The discrimination inherent in our social and economic institu-
tions cannot be reached by legislation as can the denial of voting
... Northern discrimination
Ike asks Help
For Aid Load
AUGUSTA (M--President Dwight
D. Eisenhower was reported confi-
dent yesterday that European al-
lies will agree to pick up more of
the financial burden of defending
and economically aiding the non-
President Eisenhower is under-
stood to have instructed Treasury
Secretary Robert B. Anderson to
adopt a firm attitude in discussing
the problem with West German,
British and French leaders.
Anderson, accompanied by Un-
dersecretary of State Douglas
Dillon, left Washington yesterday
for urgent talks with financial
chiefs of these three main Euro-
Both are under instructions, offi-
cials said, to report daily to
The President clearly is looking
to Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's
West German government to lead
the way in allocating more of its
ample resources to purposes that
will help the United States ease
its overseas gold-dollar strain.
The West Germans are reported
4rights, inequalities in court treat-
ment and segregated schools, he
explained. "Discrimination is built
into every aspect of our society."
Relating his remarks to discrim-
ination in the North, Harrington
said that Negro ghettos and low-
income housing facilities will "keep
discrimination going despite the
most utopian laws." Residential
segregation, for example, precludes
In Detroit, recent surveys show
the pupil achievement level to be
a grade lower in low-income area
schools. "The poorer the indi-
vidual, the lower his I.Q. as meas-
ured by the Stanford Binet test,"
Harrington explained, "because
these tests can measure only the
individual's ;elktion to his society.
Segregation's roots go even
deeper than the economic and so-
cial system; they are found within
the individual Negro in psycho-
logical blocks against the white
"cop," landlord and bill-collector.
Harrington saw the paradox of
Negro life exemplified in New
York's Harlem where the store-
keepers-the economy-are white,
while the funeral parlors are run
"The tragedy of the Negro, in a
sense, is that he is American,"
Harrington said. "To a greater ex-
tent than immigrant ethnic
groups, the Negro has picked up'
the phony values of exaggerated
America, but gets none of its
"In some ways, the Negro is
better off in the South than the 1
North. The naked Jim Crow-ism 1
of the South can be fought- 1
people can dedicate themselves;
but the subtleties and complexi-
ties of the Northern situation
make it less vulnerable to attack."
Harrington termed the sit-in I
movement "the most important
political and social movement in
the Untied States today." He said t
it is opening the way to a greatert
liberalism and to increased social 9
U o Hear
Of Tax Plan
LANSNG A' ov.electJohn
B. Swainson yesterday outlined
part of his proposed tax program,
including reluctant support for the
one-cent increase in the state sales
tax approved at the Nov. 8 elec-
Swainson said his program was
based on a net reduction in taxes
on business, with a firm's ability
to pay being taken into considera-
tion in the levying of taxes.
Discusses Sales Tax
The governor-elect, who left yes-
terday on a Florida vacation, said
of the voters' approval of a hike
in the state sales tax .from three
per cent to four per cent:
"On election day, the people of
Michigan indicated their accept-
ance of this form of tax increase
and as governor-elect, I feel it is
my clear responsibility to recom-
ment to the Legislature the speedy
implementation of such a man-
date. This I propose to do."
Swainson added his personal be-
lief that the sales tax hike "does
not solve the problems of local
units of government . . . nor does
it meet the problems of Michigan
Swainson indicated willingness
"to consult with leaders of both
parties prior to the opening of the
Legislature and get their views."
This was a change from his
stand earlier this week when he
rejected an offer from his defeated
Republican opponent, Paul Bag-,
well, :or a bi-partisan conference
to discuss taxes and other issues.
Swainson said he will make a
number of recommendations
"which will make for greater
equity in assessments in Michigan
Among these he listed:
1) Provision of relief for the
business community by exemption
or reduction of locally imposed
personal property taxes.
2) Substitution of a sound and
equitable tax, levied by the state,
with all such revenues returned to
the local communities to reim-
burse for the loss occasioned by
the personal property tax relief.
43) Enactment of legislation at
the state level that will permit
ocal units of government, particu-
arly those now hard-pressed by
rising demands for services, to
neet these growing needs,
Swainson repeated his campaign
tatement that Michigan's present
ax structure is an "almost hope-
essly complicated series of stop-
aps that needs total fiscal revi-
With Gov. G. Mennen Williams
in a South American trip with a
roup of other governors, that left
ecretary of State James M. Hare
s acting governor,
r~r i , lb
WASHINGTON (P) - President
Dwight D. Eisenhower's science
advisory committee said yesterday
American science must "double
and redouble in size and strength"
in the next generation or the
nation will become a second-rate
power with its freedom threatened.
"This means more scientists,
better trained, with finer facili-
ties," declared the committee in
a special report issued by the
White House. And it found in-
creased federal aid the logical
asnwer to these needs.
The committee report was pre-
pared by a special panel on the
subject "Scientific Progress, the "It has done much more good
Universities, and the Federal than harm. It seems certain to
Government." grow in importance unless the
The 27-page document stressed American people decide to accept
repeatedly that "the process of a second-rate standing in terms
graduate education and the pro- of power, of comfort and of know-
cess of basic research belong to- ledge."
gether at every possible level . . . Critically appraising the roles
and that each is weakened when of both the federal government
carried on without the other." and the universities, the report
Stresses said the government's system of
The present partnership between supporting research by contracts
the universities and the national tends to separate research from
government is indispensable to education.
first-rate university work in Quality High
science, the report said. "Government contract have sup-
STEAMROLLER IN MOTION-The Big Ten's leading ground-gainer, OSU fullback Bob Ferguson
moves toward paydirt through a bewildered Michigan defense. This 17-yard run gave the Buckeyes
a fourth quarter 7-0 lead which they never relinquished. Held in check for three quarters, Fer-
guson broke loose for 37- yards In three carries in the Buckeye touchdown drive.
PARTNERS IN RESEARCH:
View Role of Colleges, Government
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