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Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
Snow flurries today,
Clearing slightly tonight.
VOL. LXXI, No. 45
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 1960
I University Students in Campaign-Active Role in Nati
By MICHAEL BURNS
The campaign speeches and exuberant demonstrations are over,
the 1980 election is history, and John F. Kennedy has been chosen
to lead the country and the free world through the first crucial
years of the 1960's.
In the state, Republicans retained control of the legislature and
the Democrats were assured of two more years in charge of the
The University became involved in the campaign as both candi-
dates visited Ann Arbor and campus polls attempted to interpret
Probably the most significant accomplishment that originated on
the campus was the movement to establish a world youth peace corps.
Inspired by John F. Kennedy's speech' on the Michigan Union steps
and Rep. Chester Bowles's talk here a group of graduate students
attempted to solicit campus and national support for the plan which
would send qualified college graduates to foreign countries as junior
ambassadors of good will.
The graduate group, called Americans Committed to World Re-
sponsibility, was led by Judith and Alan Guskin.
The movement was non-partisan in nature, but Kennedy seized
upon the plan. late in the campaign and extended an invitation to
the Guskins to meet him in Toledo for a brief discussion of the idea.
Although the plan was a very minor issue in the campaign, it
probably did demonstrate Kennedy's concern with foreign diplomacy
and his fresh, dynamic approach to the solution of world problems.
Up to Kennedy
Now that Kennedy is elected President, it will be up to him to
initiate this plan. Whether he will or whether the interest was strictly
one of political expediency, only the next term can tell. But for a
time it did seem that serious University students interested in a pro-
ject of national scope could work through a presidential candidate
ard achieve some meaure of success.
Vice-President Richard M. Nixon and Kennedy visited Ann
Arbor during the campaign and the Michigan Union could now claim
"Kennedy slept here." The senator delivered his speech endorsing
the world peace corps from the Union steps and spent the night.
The Republican standard bearer came to Ann Arbor and spoke
to a large, cheering crowd at the train station. Although Kennedy's
visit aroused a great deal of student interest, Nixon's arrival excited
much more. The first though twas that Kennedy was making headway
in this normally Republican area, but then response to the Vice-
President seemed to erase that view.
Many of the campus still held the opinion $fiat the students
were for Kennedy and that the crowds at the candidates' speeches
was no indication of a trend for Nixon. Surely not in this cradle of
liberalism, they thought.
The Young Republicans were of the same belief. The Daily was
contacted by the Daily Illini, University of Illinois student newspaper,
and asked to interest campus organizations in sponsoring mock
presidential elections as part of a Big Ten poll.
Since partisan groups were sponsoring the elections at most
Big Ten campuses, the YR's and the Young Democrats were con-
tacted to sponsor the election. The latter group agreed, but the
YR's, believing Nixon could not win, would not take an active pE
Thus the ballot was supported by Junior Interfraternity Coin
and, it's history; Nixon won. And not only on this campus, but on
conference campuses the Republican ticket was victorious, thus
proving a belief that many had cherished about the Midwest coll
The Daily faculty poll perhaps showed a clearer preview of
national result, when it showed an extremely close race between Nb)
and Kennedy. The nod in this case, however, went to the Republic
The Vice-President collected 45 per cent of the total, with 43 per c
going to the Democrat.
The large number of undecided persons in the survey gri
illustrated to some extent the attitude of the entire country wb
made the professional pollsters refrain from picking a winner.
And so as the decisive votes were recorded on the blackboa
and television sets across the country, the campaign and the elect
ended. It had been an interesting and eventful three months, no 1
for the University than for the country.
Senator Takes Closest Wing
Since Hughes-Wilson Race
President-Elect Calls for Supreme Effort
From People To Safeguard Nation's Future
WASHINGTON (/)-Sen. John F. Kennedy won the presidency
yesterday In the tightest, toughest election in nearly half a century.
With a dramatic triumph over Vice-President Richard M. Nixon
his at last, the Massachusetts Democrat called upon the people he will
lead for a supreme effort "to move this country safely through the
A switch of less than} 50,000 votes in three states would have
snatched victory from the youngest man and the only Roman Catholic
ever elected to the White House.
In the wake of the balloting, national leaders of both parties
spoke out for unity in the nation. But the sounds of a battle for
* * *
High Total Vote of 4711 Represer
Support for Council, Winners Sa)
By PHILIP SHERMAN
Richard Nohl, '62, swept to an easy victory in the
dent Government Council election, but once he had 1
elected, the race became almost as tight as Tuesday's.P:
On late ballots, the three "Voice" party candidates, I
Bartlett, '63, Philip Power, Spec, and Mary Wheeler, '61,
elected, followed by Dennis Shafer, '63, who beat Bruce ]
man, '63, in an even tighter }
RICHARD M. NIXON
... accepts defeat
LOS ANGELES (P)-Richard M
Nixon experienced political defeat
for the first time yesterday-an
took it in the tradition of good
The Republican Vice - Presiden
was turned back in his long, ardu-
ous quest of the White House by a
decisive electoral vote margin fox
Democrat John F. Kennedy.
He sent the winner a congratu-
latory wire this morning, then wak
to fly with his family to Wash-
ington-a day earlier than plan.
ned. An aide said they wanted to
keep their children out of schoo
no longer than necessary.
The Nixons flew in Tuesday t
vote, spent a sad night hearing
unfavorable returns, but were
seemingly cheery this morning in
spite of all.
The 47-year-old Nixon - con-
gressman at 33, senator at 37
Vice-President at 39-had never
lost at the polls until returns seni
him tumbling in his try for the
4 control of the Republican Party
began erupting along conservative-
The Associated Press vote tally
at Midnight, EST, showed that
Kennedy had captured or was
leading in 24 states with 335 elec-
toral votes, Nixon in 25 states with
188 votes. Needed to win: 269.
Not counting the states where
the outcome still was in doubt,
Kennedy's electoral vote total
came to 300.
Just before midnight, Hawaii
-after apparently falling into the
Kennedy camp-switched to the
Nixon column following a second
recount. With all votes counted,
Hawaii unofficially went to Nixon
by 117 votes. Voting officials, how-
ever, said they still couldn't be
sure of the outcome.
Alaska and Nixon's own state
of California were the only ones
still in doubt. They were tilted
slightly toward Kennedy.
With returns from 163,234 of
the nation's 166,072 voting places,
Kennedy managed to squeeze out
a lead of only 300,000 in the na-
tionwide popular vote total of
more than 66 millions.
The tally: Kennedy 33,339,148
(50.2 per cent), Nixon 33,016,402
(49.8 per cent). Untabulated bal-
lots of states rights, independent
d and minor party candidates may,
show that Kennedy won with less
t than a majority of the nation's
- Not since 1916 had a presiden-
a tial election been so close. That
r was the year when Republican
Charles Evans Hughes went to bed
- thinking he had won, only to wake
s up and learn that during the night
- California and the country had
- gone for Woodrow Wilson.
WASHINGTON (A') - The Re-
publican and Democratic national
chairmen surveyed the election
scene yesterday and came up with
Democrat Henry M. Jackson-
The first Kennedy-Nixon televi-
sion debate and the campaigning
of Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson in the
Republican Thruston B. Morton
.-the single most important fac-
tor in Richard M. Nixon's defeat
was that "the Negro vote seemed
to go against us."
IN GUBERNATORIAL RACES:
Democrats Maintain Control
WASHINGTON (P) - Demo-
crats won 15 governorships to 12
for the Republicans in Tuesday's
elections, with six incumbent
Governors swept out of offi;e and
This represented a net gain of
one for the party of President-
Elect John F. Kennedy and means
that, with holdovers, Democrats
will control 34 state administra-
tions to 16 for the Republicans.
This is the highest for Democrats
since 1938 when they held 39
In a topsy-turvy day, political
control changed hands in 13 states,
Democrats taking over in seven
states now having Republican
Governors and the GOP moving
into six Governorships now held
In the process four Democratic
and two Republican governors
seeking re-election lost out.
Noteworthy among the casual-
ties were Govs. William G. Strat-
ton, Republican, of Illinois, Or-
ville L. Freeman, Democrat, of
SGU WINNERS-Mary Wheeler, third-finisher in the race for five open Student Government Council seats, is surrounded by the other
winners (left to right), Philip Power, Richard Nohl, Lynn Bartlett and Dennis Shafer. Nohl paced the quintet, Bartlett finished second,
Power fourth and Shafer fifth.
Count Night Observers
Minnesota, and George Docking,
Democrat, of Kansas.
Other Governors going down to
defeat were John Burroughs of
New Mexico and Ralph Herseth of
South Dakota, both Democrats,
and Christopher Del Sesto, Repub-
lican, of Rhode Island. I
Democrats won in Arkansas,
Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Mis-
souri, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Rhode Island, Texas,
West Virginia, Wisconsin, In-
diana, Michigan, Nebraska and
Republican Governors w e r e
elected in Arizona, Iowa, Kansas,
Maine, Massachusetts, Montana,
New Hampshire, Utah, Vermont,
New Mexico, Minnesota and South
States where the administra-
tion will pass from Republicans
to Democrats include Deleware,
Illinois, North Dakota, Rhode Is-
land, West Virginia, Indiana and
Changing from Democrat' to
Republican were Iowa, Kansas,
Massachusetts, New Mexico, Min-
nesota and South Dakota.
In Illinois, Stratton who took
over the statehouse in 1952 when
Adlai E. Stevenson quit to run
for President, lost to Otto Ker-
ner, a Chicago Judge.
Gov. Freeman, seeking an un-
precedented fourth two-year term,
in Minnesota, was toppled by
Elmer L. Andersen, St. Paul busi-
nessman, even though Kennedy
and Democratic Sen. Hubert H.
Humphrey marked up victories in
race for the fifth slot on the
Despite one and one-half days
of bad weather, the total vote was
4,711, counting 65 voided ballots.
This total exceeded last spring's
3,052 and last fall's 3,500. It fell
a bit short of the 4,829 total for
the spring, 1959 election, and was
markedly less than totals for elec-
tions previous to that.
On the basis of the 4,656 total
of valid votes, the Hare System
quota for , election on the first
ballot was 775 votes. (This was
determined by dividing the total
valid votes by the number of
places open-plus one.) Nohl had
775, followed by Miss Wheeler
with 619, Power, with 618, Bart-
lett with 593, Shafer with 447 and
Leitman with 443.
The Hare system prescribes that,
if insufficient candidates achieve
the election quota, the ballots
of the -lowest standing candidate
are to be distributed according to
the second choice indicated on
On this basis, Nohl picked up 11
votes, and the victory from bal-
lots for Kay Warman,, '61BAd,
and assorted write-ins, including
one for Miss Deborah Bacon, pre-
sumably alluding to the Dean of
Women. The other candidates
gained, but maintained their rel-
Five more rounds of counting
were completed before Bartlett
won on the eighth ballot with 773
votes. As each ballot was passed,
the lowest candidate's votes were
redistributed, and the election
quota was lowered slightly, in re-
sponse to additional voided bal-
lots, caused when no second or
third choice was indicated,
In this fashion, Louise Kao,
'64, Julie Raben, '62M, Marshall
Keltz, '61, Ted Parnall, '63, and
Richard Pinnell, '64 A&D, were
Bartlett's quota was 745, and as
both he and Nohl exceeded this,
their extra votes were redistribut-
ed. (As the quota changes, can-
didates votes in excess of these
are removed at random, and 'dis-
tributed to second choices.)
No one reached the new quota,
soo Fred Riecker's votes were re-
distributed and both Power and
Miss Wheeler were elected with
742 and 822 votes respectively.
The quota had fallen to 727.
In, a run off using extra ballots
of the four winners, Shafer edged
Leitman 692 to 672 on the elev-
'T'he.election is viewed as a sue-
... non-violent essence
By PAT GOLDEN
"Non-violence can, never
considered in terms of effect
ness," disarmament advocate
bert Bigelow said last night.
He explained to a group
Friends' Center that the iml
tant thing is to r'elate to pe
and to demonstrate your con
"We keep avoiding the q
tion of whether we are doing
right thing by worrying al
ineffectiveness. Non - viol
should be our essence rather t
Bigelow gained national pr
inence in 1958 for attempting
sail a small boat into a Pa'
testing ground for atomic w
ons. He maintains that no
tion can talk about mili
strength and deterrent pc
anymore, because defense to
means mutual suicide.
"We have no military ex:
because there has never bee
nuclear war. Since there would
no survivors from such a war
will never again have military
perts," he said.
Bigelow observed that the
cently ended political camp
showed a "studious avoidanc
the real problems. We don't
low ourselves to think about
tragedy of War because it is
appalling. Total immorality is
volved, and a degeneration
MABLETON, Ga. ()-Forcible
ejection of an African diplomat
from a polling place here has
brought a complaint from the,
Ghana Embassy to the United
States State Department.