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September 29, 1960 - Image 8

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-09-29

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.GE ETIT

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

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u. 11TF _TE IC -ANDAL

UNDERSTANDING CULTURE:
Dumazedier Stresses
'Significance of Leisure'

Rapoport Explains Conflicts'

By MICHAEL BURNS

F

I,

The concept of "conflict" and
its three components is the subject
of a new book by Prof. Anatol
Rapoport of the Mental Health
Research Institute.

"One must understand the sig-
nificance of leisure in a culture in
order to understand the culture,"
stated Prof. Joffre Dumazedier of
the Centre d'Etudes Sociologique1
and the University of Paris in a1
lecture yesterday.
Sponsored by UNESCO, the
professor has been studying lei-
sure in ten industrial European
cities since 1956.
Speaking on "Mass Culture: Al
Sociological Comparison of France#
and America" he attempted to
show that the two cultures are
very different, but also possess,
great similarities.
Clarifying his terms, he claimed
that he dislikes the expression
mass culture for it implies an elite
judging the inferior culture of the
masses.
He believes that what is known,
as mass culture is generally medi-;
ocre, but prefers the term popular
culture for it is broader and more
neutral.
The author of the book "Toward
Civilization of Leisure" believes
that mass leisure is the basis of
mass culture and this must pro-
vide recuperation, amusement,
and creative development of the.
personality.
To explain the importance of
analyzing a culture's leisure ac-
tivities, Prof. Dumazedier ex-
plained how the people both in
Akron, Ohio and in a comparable
French city have utilized their
extra time since the working week
has been cut from 75 to 30 hours.
He said that in both cities a
great percentage of people spend
their leisure time in manual labor
-either holding the extra job or
pursuing do-it-yourself activities.
"This limits intellectual thought
and does little to develop the
culture," he said.
Among the basic leisure past-
times in both France and the
United States he cited outdoor,
mental, and social activities, and
also the need to play.
Speaking of the latter in both
Approve Nine
Promotions
For Faculty

France and America, he ques-
tioned, "Is this a fresh view of
life, or are we an infant civiliza-
tion of adults?'"'
Also author of "Television and
Popular Education," the professor
cited many differences in the use
of this media in the two countries.
In France, only 10 per cent of
the people own TV sets; in Amer-
ica the figure is 90 per cent. In
France television is government
controlled, and the single channel
has no commercials.
He frankly admits that the
programs are of better quality
than those here, but expressed the
desire to see the influence of
French educational institutions on
this and other cultural media.
There is one ambiguity he sees
in the TV audience. "They have
equal appreciation for soap operas
and Macbeth."
He praised the high percentage
of participation in local social
groups In both countries as
"schooling in democracy."
In concluding he stated, "with
research and imagination the
present poor standards may be
transcended, and the United
Sates can leadthe rest of the
world to better use of leisure."
For the moment he questioned,
"Is culture tending toward the
more fruitful-or is it just es-
capism?"
ADC Seeks
Chairman

Conflicts consist of "Fights,!
Games and Debates," the title of
the book which will be published
by University Press on October 7.
Prof. Rapoport explained his
book to members of the Ann Ar-
bor Committee for Sane Nuclear
Policy at their meeting Tuesday
night.
The professor's work is largely
theoretical, although examples of
actual historical and present con-
flicts are used as examples. He
presents well-known mathematical
theories of fights and games and
a critical analysis of their con-
tent.
Psychological Meaning
The section of debates departs
from mathematical analysis and
examines the psychological mean-
ing of world outluook.
Automatic reactions, without re-
gard for consequences, character-
ize a fight-the simplest type of
conflict.
"The acts are aggressive or hos-
tile acts," Prof. Rapoport says,
and if participants are aware of
a goal it is a simple one to harm
or eliminate the opponent.
Opponents are rational in a
game and either certain rules are
accepted by both sides or re-
straints are recognized, so that
each contestant is aware of the
possible outcomes and choices of
action. He also knows that his
opponent is aware of the conse-
quences and that his opponent has
a choice of actions which only the
opponent can control.

struggle between the Communist
and non-Communist worlds.
"There has been no serious de-
bate of the real issues which sep-
arate the two worlds," Prof. Rapo--
port charged. However, sometimes
a conference has been held "at a
level of a game of maneuvers for;
strategic advantage."
Resembles Fight
The situation often "resembles
a fight in which hostile acts and
utterances are made without con-
sideration of the possible conse-
quences," the researcher said.
He said the oratory at these
conferences was not intended to
"modify" the opponent's views and
that neither side has made a real
attempt to see the other position
as rational and just.
In the last section, dealing, with
debates, Prof. Rapoport has used
the ideas of Prof. Kenneth Bould-
ing of the economics department
and Carl R. Rogers. He shows
what happens when world powers
clash and presents proposals on
how to debate constructively so
as not to allow it to degenerate
into a game or fight.
Prof. Rappoport began work on
his book in the summer of 1957
and finished the final draft a year
ago.
Michifish Plans
To Hold Tryouts
Michifish, the synchronized
swimming club, will complete its
tryouts Wednesday, Oct. 5, for
those whose names begin with
N-Z. Tryouts are open to all
women, and the club will accept
any who qualify.

Lewis Heads
Committee
For Swainson
Vice-President James A. Lewis:
has been appointed to head an
advisory committee on education
for John B. Swainson, the Demo-
cratic candidate for governor.,
According to Lewis, this new
committee will consider problems
in education from kindergarten
through college. Later this month
he will ask the major professional
educational organizations in the
state to name members to the
committee, and will select consult-
ants. The exact composition of the
committee can not be more defi-
nitely described as present, he
said.
The committee will confine it-
self principally to the definition
of problems and will not make
many. specific recommendations.
Eckstein Receives
'Emeritus' Title
At their meeting Friday, the
Regents conferred the title of pro-
fessor emeritus of biological chem-
istry upon Henry C. Eckstein, a
member of the faculty of the
Medical School for 37 years.
Pearl Luella Dendrick was made
resident lectui er emeritus in Epi-
demiology. She had been a lec-
turer in the School of Public
Health for nine years.

Chang Sees Race Harmony
As Malay Political Basis

By IRIS BROWN
"Racial harmony is the basis
of the alliance government in
Malaya," stressed Mr. Chang Mi
Kee, Asst. Director for Teacher
Training in the Malayan Federa-
tion's Ministry of Education.
Mr. Chang, participating in
the Foreign Leaders Program of
the Office of Cultural Exchange
of the U.S. Dept. of State, is espe-
cially interested in seeing how
different ethnic and cultural
groups are integrated into Amer-
ican life through the educational
system.
This is a major problem in
Malaya in which the population
is 48% Malay, 38% Chniese, and
11% Indian.
Conduct Separate Schools
At present the Chinese and the
Malayans have two separate school
systems each conducted in the
language of the particular group.
The Chinese system, however,
must follow patterns set up by
the government, and children
must begin to study both Malay
and English-the national lan-
guages of the Federation-within
the first three years of school.
Children from Cantonese homes
must also learn Mandarin, the
Chinese used in the schools.
Qualifications Vary
Mr. Chang also explained the
teacher training program which
has varying qualifications for
those interested in teaching pri-

mary, low secondary, and upper
secondary schools respectively.
"To teach the upper secondary
grades, one must have a Univer-
sity degree in an academic sub-
ject plus an added year of edu-
cational training," he said.
Communist Problem
"The Communist problem was
a legacy after the war," he said.
"People who were active in un-
derground movements against
Japanese occupation sought power
which the British colonial gov-
ernment would not grant them.
The Communists exploited this."
A main focus of the government
since the gaining of independence
in 1957 has been to create a last-
ing independence based on har-
mony of the various ethnic groups.
Arrangements Set
For Bike Auction
Bicycles, which will be sold at
public auction at 9 a.m. Satur-
day may be inspected by pros-
pective customers from 5-6 p.m.
today and tomorrow and from
8:00-8:45 a.m. on Saturday at
the Bicycle Storage Garages on
E. Washington St. between Fletch-
er and Forest. Licenses will be on
sale there during the auction by
an official from the city clerk's
office.

I

PROF. ANATOL RAPOPORT
... fights, games, debates
"Considerations of strategy are
primary considerations."
Situation Complicated
"The problem of creating game-
like theory of conflicts is vastly
complicated by situations in which
the interests of the opponents
are only partly opposed and partly
coincident," he said.
In these instances, techniques of
bargaining become important.
"The object of bargaining is to
modify the opponents view of the
conflicting situation."
In a debate, the object is to
convince the opponent rather than
to outwit or harm him.
All three elements are present
in real-life situations such as the

I

I

7

I

Petitioning is now open for the
office of Public Relations Chair-
man for Assembly Association,
Myra Goines, '61, president, has
announced.
Any independent woman in the
residence hall system may peti-
tion for the office. "Interest in
Assembly and in the field of pub-
lic relations is the only qualifica-
tion for this office," Miss Goines
said.
The Assembly public relations
chairman is responsible for pre-
paring the Assembly Association
Booklet and the Assembly section
of "League Lowdown," the "M"
Handbook and the "Enslan."
She is a non-voting member of
the Assembly executive board and
is in charge of public relations
with the all-campus organizations
and with the individual dormi-
tories and houses.
Petitions are available at the
Assembly office, 1511 Student Ac-
tivities Bldg.

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