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September 24, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-09-24

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0 %:M14diga'u Batty,
Seventieth Yews

Kennedy Answers Critics

The Religious IssIA
What It Is,,What It



torials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al reprints.

Y, SAPTEMBER 24, 1960


The Student 1960:
Outlook for, Michigan

ERE IS little doubt that the- American
student is changing somewhat in interest
and emphasis. He seems to recognize the cru-
cial nature of his condition as a human being
In an environment of rapid transitions, of
mounting complexity, of revolution in fields of
public concern. More and more he seems com-
mitted to the public good, to action despite
difficulty, to management of his social order,
to liberal, humanitarian ends. His changing
role means great challenges for the student,
his university and his society.
At the University of Michigan it means new
questions and new ideas on the part of the
student, the teacher and the administrator. It
means for a re-orientation in the operation of
the University community.
First of all, what innovations may the stu-
dent himself make in order to expand his free-
doms and responsibilities?
THERE ARE general answers to the question:
he can spend more time visiting teachers and
administrators, he can Join or. take interest in
\the campus activities which are dynamic in
-emphasis, he can become involved with the
United States National Student Association, he
can develop interest in the exciting interna-
tional student movement, he can force himself
into direct contact with individuals, climates
or ideas foreign to his own. He can work to
de-emphasize superficial educational goals such
as grades and credit.
At the same time, he should think seriously
of institutionalizing all these activities in the
form of a campus political party. Such a party
might be committed to improving the Univer-
sity and the larger society by direct student
involvement. It might attempt to present the
most controversial national and international
Issues through continual forums. It might at-
tempt to swing the student focus back to
Student Government Council by running can-
didates for office on the basis of issues. It
might work by various means to increase the
student's role in the University policy-making
proess to give the student more control over
those processes which directly affect him. It
might try to dramatize the need for students
everywhere to become politically aware and ac-
tive, as are their counterparts in other lands.
HAT DOES the new student emphasis mean
for the teacher? More than anything else
It increases the demand that he in fact teach,
that he work to emphasize as his primary
goal the challenging of the student. Too often
"teacher" is a pseudonym for researcher or
sqcial climber. Too often, particularly in the
social, natural and physical sciences, the fac-
ulties are caught up in a visciously competitive
race for the big grants rather than in the less
lucrative dynamics of teaching.
Besides the opinion that research takes
precedence over students, a faculty attitude
which deserves elimination is usually expressed
In this way: "Students? What can they tell me
about running my course or running this uni-
versity? After all, I've been on this job for 30
years." Professors who preach this line have
a weird conception of the processes of critical
Inquiry and the conduct of affairs in a demo-
cratic order. Their attitude seems to be that
tenure implies only wisdom, never stagnation,
that youth implies only myopia, never fresh
Another dangerous doctrine of the college
professor goes like this: "The student must in
a sense withdraw for four years of college,
savor the great ideas of history, then go forth
to the outer world." Such an argument is more
.ensible than others, but makes too arbitrary
a distinction between the human being's roles
as student and citizen. The student does not
revoke or suspend his responsibility to be a
participating citizen while in college; the stu-
dent, in fact, can be a unique and capable
citizen because of the opportunities offered by
the college environment, because of his youth,
because of his idealisms.
AND AS FOR the administrator? The execu-
tives of this University, as at most insti-
tutions, have took often shown an oversensi-
tivity to its public image, and it seems possible
they will persist in such an attitude. If so, then
the student will be threatened as he continues
to actively move, since new and greater pres-
sures will be turned on the college president

or dean-from parents, the legislatures and
The need is great for an administration
&L7 #t
Editorial Staff
City Editor Editorial Director
JUDITH DONER . ..,... Personnel Director
THOMAS KABAKER .,.............. Magazine Editor
THOMAS WITECKI .................... Sports Editor
KENNETH McELDOWNEY,..Associate City Editor
KATHLEEN MOORE. Associate Editorial Director
HAROLD APPLEBAUM .......Associate Sports Editor
MICHAEL GILLMAN.......... Associate Sporta Editor

which will match the idealism and boldness of
its students, that will stand up to its public
constituency when that public is unjustly criti-
The need is geat also for this administra-
tion to supplement its legitimate attitude of
toleration with new and strong leadership. By
toleration is meant that attitude which allows
large measures of faculty autonomy, and which
allows students a similar right to usually do
as they please. This is a good and justifiable
attitude insofar as it permits broad experimen-
tation on the part of the teacher or student.
But it is not justifiable when it implies no
leadership by those who are said to adminis-
BUT THE greatest challenge for the Univer-
sity administrator today, as well as for the
faculty, is to still further acknowledge the right
of the student to participate in the creation
of those policies and patterns revelant to the
whole Unviersity community and to the edu-
cational process. This is a trying challenge for
it demands not sweeping changes (the Uni-
versity is far ahead of most schools in recog-
nizing the student's rights of participation);
rather, it demands subtle, hard-to-effect
changes: not only In the current attitudes of
many students, teachers, and administrators,
but in long-standing operating policies of the
community. For example, it will require a new
examination of the value of a Lecture Com-
mittee which may determine what students
should hear, the propriety of Faculty Senate
and Dean's Conference meetings from which
student observers are usually barred, the neces-
sity of the ambiguous "reasonable" clause in
the SGC Plan, the legitimacy of the ap-
pointive powers of the Board in Control of
Student Publications, the significance of Re-
gents' meetings at which debate is almost never
These are bold and frightening steps for the
University community to take, but they are
necessary steps if the University is to lend
substance to tired slogans about academic free-
dom, spirit, forcefulness, dynamism. And al-
though they are great steps, they are In a
sense only preliminary steps. It is quite possible
to visualize the University of Michigan where
teachers are dedicated to teaching, students
to learning, and administrators to teachers and
students. And one might even hope for a
University in which the three components-
student, teacher, administrator-sat together
as equals to determine purpose and officially
enact policy.
THE FUTURE, however, revolves ultimately
about the student. It is the student who
must be responsible and the student who must
work for a greater position in the community.
It is the student who must broaden his skills
as a citizen. It is the student who must insist
on his authority. That which he learns to do
in the universities is that which he will prob-
ably do in later life: if responsible and self-
determining in youth, he will not change as
an adult.
The teacher, the administrator, even the
mother and father are beginning to watch
with interest, and as the student acts, they
perhaps will follow. The choice, therefore, is
for the student to make. He has grown in de-
cisiveness across the land this year. He must
carry on.
Fund Support
The University, like most other institutions
of higher learning, has serious financial prob-
lems. This is obvious. It is announced in news-
papers and over other mass media almost
daily. But the University and most other in-
stitutions have had trouble convincing the pub-
lic to support higher education adequately.
At the University a great deal of time and
effort is devoted to raising contributions to the
University. This occupies a considerable
amount of the time of the University's chief
administrative officers. Alumni clubs devote
time to the effort. The Development Council
was established to attract gifts and grants for
the University. The Student Relatios Board of

the Development Council was formed to plead
the case to the student, so he will understand
the University's needs.
These groups can and should give heed to
advice offered to the annual Development
Council Conference last night by Vice-Presi-
dent Lyle Nelson. Nelson stressed two points.
First, the University is a specialized Univer-
sity with many needs. Sources of funds to help
fill these needs are not always immediately ob-
vious to the general public--or even to alumni.
We have one of the highest percentage of
graduate students of any University in the na-
tion. We carry on an enormous amount of re-
search. These activities require more money
than a flat per capita student assessment and
money for research activities must be found

THE EXCHANGES between the
Protestant ministers and Sen.
Kennedy have not settled the "re-
ligious issue." But they have clari-
fied it. There could have been no
such thing as ignoring or sup-
pressing the issue. The only effect
of not discussing it openly would
have been to leave the whole dis-
cussion to fester in the dark,
anonymously and maliciously. No
doubt the black propaganda will
continue. But at least there now
exists a respectable and responsi-
ble discussion of the issue.
THANKS TO the initiative of
the Protestant ministers all the
honest and decent fears and
doubts about a Catholic for Presi-
dent have been stated and placed
before Sen. Kennedy. He in turn
has reacted, not with resentment,
but by recognizing that the ques-
tion is "very important," that a.
discussion of it is legitimate, that
the Protestant ministers had the
right to interrogate him, and that
he does not regard their doing
this as "prejudiced or bigoted."
Sen. Kennedy's reaction to the
ministers' questions, which were
sharp and searching, was extreme-
ly interesting and important. He
might have explained that to raise
questions about his religion was a
violatloin of the spirit of the Con-
stitution, that the ministers were
setting up a religious test for pub-
lic office. But he did not do that.
On the contrary, he chose to rec-
ognize that the questions raised
by the ministers were real ques-
tions, not slanderous fabrications,'
and that an American Catholic
running for President must an-
swer them.
* * *
Kennedy arise, according to the
ministers, from the attempts of
the Catholic church "to exercise
control over its members in poli-
tical and civic affairs." The crucial
point is whether the authority of
the Catholic hierarchy or the con-
science of the office holder is to
determine what is and what is not
a political and civic affair. The
case of the Protestant ministers
against Sen. Kennedy is that
"While the current Roman Cath-
olic contender for the Presidency
states specifically that he would
not be so influenced (by the Cath-
olic hierarchy in political and
civic affairs), his church insists
that he is duty-bound to admit to
its direction. This unresolved con-
flict leaves doubt in the minds of
millions of our citizens."
This leads to the precise ques-
tion which Sen. Kennedy had to
deal with. I think it can be stated
this way. Where will be his para-
mount duty and loyalty on ques-
tions where, as for example birth
control, the influence of the Cath-
olic hierarchy has been used to
impose by law on non-Catholics
the Catholic doctrine?
* * *
SEN. KENNEDY'S answer is
that "I do not accept the right of
... an ecclesiastical official to tell
me what I shall do in the sphere
of my public responsibility as an
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The Michi-
gan Daily assumes no editorial respon-
sibility. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3518 Ad-
ministration Building, before 2 p.m.
two days preceding publication.
Events Sunday
Student Recital: Lucien P. Stark, pia-
nist, will present a concert on Sun.,

Sept. 25. at 8:36 pm. In Aud. A, An-
Bell Hall, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree Doctor of
Musical Arts. The chairman of his
committee is Benning W. Dexter. Mr.
Stark has included in his program
compositions by Bach, Beethoven, Dal-
lapiccola, and Chopin. Open to the pub-
Placement Notices
Corporation in Detroit seeking Con-
troller. B.A. or M.A. with major in
accounting plus experience with ac-
counting firm. Male.
Swift & Co., Chicago-Several open-
ings for Bus. Ad and Liberal Arts grad-
uates in Sales, Data Processing, Tax
Accounting and Market Research.
Technical openings for Engineers and
Research Chemists. Various locations
throughoutt U.B.
Griswold-Eshleman Co., Cleveland-
Opening for graduate engineer with
combination of advertising or editorial
experience. Must have good creative
writing ability, for work in advertis-
ing, marketing and public relations
Scot Paper Co., Chester, Pa.-Oppor-
tinities for outstanding graduates for
Management Development Training in
Quality Control Dep't; several openings
for Engineers and Research Chemists;
also seeking a Patent Attorney, Sys-
tems Project Coordinator and a man
with M.S. or Ph.D. in math or man-
a-ement sciences for Operations Re-
Manufacturing Concern in Ohio-Two
openings in Plant Engineering Group;
a recent M.E. graduate and an ex-
perienced Chemical Engineer. Interview
expenses paid.
General Motors, Detroit-Senior An-
alyst, Distribution Staff. Opportunity
fortoutstanding graduate; economics,
math, or ui~s. adm. major with grad-
uate work and/or experience in sta-
Sarkes Tarzian, Inc., Bloomington,
Indiana-Technical positions for Engi-
neers and Scientists in electronics;

elected official." This is a declara-
tion that as an elected official he,
and not the Catholic hierarchy,
will determine what. lies within
the sphere of his public responsi-
bility. In this, the separation be-
tween church and state is as com-
plete as it can be made. But that
is not the end of this story. The
Protstant ministers have probed
still more deeply. They have raised
the question whether a good Cath-
olic can be as independent and as
secular as Sen. Kennedy declares
himself to be. The way the Sena-
for dealt with this loaded ques-
tion is to my 'mind the most inter-
esting, the most significant, and
the most creditable and convinc-
ing thing in the whole affair.
HIS ANSWER was in effect that

on the crucial questions of church
and state not all Catholics think
alike. His declaration of freedom
from ecclesiastical control in poli-
tical and civic affairs is "the opin-
ion of the overwhelming majority
of American Catholics, and I have
no doubt that my view is known
to Catholics around the world."
His position, he asserted, is "a
position of the American Catholic
Church in the United States with
which I am associated." It is not
the position of the Spanish Cath-
olic Church in Spain, or of the
Colombian Catholic Church in
Colombia. Itfis the position not of
all American Catholics but of "the
overwhelming majority" of them.
(Copyright 1960 New York
Herald Tribune, Inc.)

Daily Staff Writer
BRUSHING ASIDE for a moment all accusations of "bigotry" and
"un-American," let's take a hard look at one of the most rapidly
crystallizing questions of the presidential campaign-the religious issue.
The justification for raising questions about a candidates religion
depends upon when and why. When the religious issue is injected into
politics in order to stir up prejudice and bias, it is unfair and should
be criticized. But when the voters inquire how the religious affiliation
of a candidate would affect the fulfillment of his official duties, the

issue is a relevant and critical
consideration .
* - .
.BEARING THIS in mind, the
following points stand out con-
cerning the present campaign:
1. One of the candidates, Dem-
ocratic nominee Sen. John F. Ken-
nedy, Is a Roman Catholic.
2. As such,.Sen. Kennedy would
be obliged to conduct the office of
President in accordance with the
dictates of the Roman Church.
3. The Roman Church would
thus be in a position to decide for
all Americans regarding such mat-
ters as public education, planned
parenthood and freedom of medi-
cal information on birth control.
4. This would be a clear viola-
tion of the separation of church
and state as spelled out in the First
AT THE BOTTOM of a possible
Constitutional violation lies the
control the Roman Church exerts
over its public officials. "The Cath-
olic Church teaches that a Catho-
lic in public office should act like
a Catholic, forming his judgments
in public affairs according to
Catholic morality," wrote Father
Thomas Brummel, C.M.F., secre-
tary of faculty of the Claretian
House of Studies, an affiliate of
the Catholic University of Ameri-
ca, in a Washington Post article
last April-28 which rebuked Sen.
Kennedy for a public statement on
birth control.
It is doubtless disturbing to many
Americans that a President would
be under the authority of any
other person in his official duties
as chief of state.
Other creeds do not exercise
such control over their public of-
ficials. The Protestant denomina-
tions, for example, have a heritage
dating back to the Reformation of
individual self-determination.
* * *
group, the Roman Catholic Church,
could hold over all Americans
through a Catholic President
ranges from the use of public funds
for private schools to refusing in-
formation on birth control to
overpopulated countries which re-
ceive American foreign aid.
In spite of serious overpopula-
tion problems in many countries
receiving United States aid, Sen.
Kennedy has already echoed his
church's sentiments in opposing
the issuing to them of birth con-
trol information.
The interference in these mat-
ters by the Roman Church would
mean a violation of the First
Amendment, adopted to the Con-
stitution in 1791 to safeguard
separation of church and state:
"Congress shall make no law re-
specting an establishment of re-
ligion or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof."
* * *
COMPARE THIS with an ex-
cerpt from "Christian Principles
and National Problems" by Os-
theimer , and Delaney, published
under imprimatur of Cardinal
Francis Spellman: "The doctrine
of the Church ... Is that the
State must profess and promote
not any religion, but the one true
form of worship founded by Christ
and continuing today in the
Catholic Church alonoe. Such a
public profession will of necessity
bring the State into some relation
with Catholicism. As an ideal,
then, Church and State should
be united in their efforts."
If this is the meaning of the
religious issue, then it belongs in
the campaign.

Carry On
A FRANTICALLY paced farce
which alternately sizzles and
fizzles arrived here yesterday un-
der the banner of "Carry on
Nurse." Although the current
entertainment is too often bawdy
and embarrassing and every so
often downright obscene,it is still
one of the funniest imports to be
shipped to these shores in some
"Carry on Nurse" may be clas- '
sifiedas a vaudevillian type of
entertainment which comes com-
plete with slapstick, pratfalls and
a repetroire of several hundred
burlesque routines
BUT DESPITE the lack of in-
ventiveness* in the writing, the
perfornances as a whole are so
well keyed, that surprisingly
enough quite a bit of freshness
is able to permeate the musty at-
mosphere. The element of sur-
prise so vital for a comedy of
this genre is usually plentifully
The Michigan's current offering
is obviously dedicated to the
principle that male patients pinch-
ing nurses' fannies can be mar-
velous, marvelous fun. And just'
as long as the gentlemen of the
hospital ward are keeping the
nurses literally on their toes and
the difference between the sexes
Is being graphically illustrated
the film is able to elicit a comic
BUT EVENTUALLY the breath-
lessness of the romp tires out not
only the participants but the
audience also. Since the film un-
fortunately has no genuinely
funny quiet moments the pacing
of the comedy becomes apparently
But despite these Inconsistancies
"Carry On Nurse" has 'several
moments which will make you
howl and are almost worth the
admission price alone. If "Carry
on Nurse" doesn't make you laugh,
at least it will make you blush.
to the
Ts The Editor:
The neo-Greek facade of An-
gell Hall may not be the most
beautiful piece of architecture on
the campus, but it is quite clean
and even a little striking.
Now, men with odd drills and
other tools are preparing to erect
handrails. What is the casualty
record of people falling down the
stairs? Have the stairs been des-
ignated a danger area by some
safety committee? The handrails,
- functional though they may be,
will jar the lines of the building.
First the Administration Build-
ing, then the Undergrad Library,
then railings on the steps of An-
gell. Does no one in the Adminis-
tration care at all for architec-
-Andrew Sabersky, '63

-David Giltrow
"1 Am ua:free Alan"
Students Responsible
For Extending Suffrage

Daily Staff Writer
QUESTION of lowering the
voting age limit from 21 years
to 18 is again cropping up as a
live issue before the American
public, as the student voice be-
comes more recognized and stron-
ger in its demands,
The question has been raised
on the national scene by both
Kennedy and Nixon, who have
come out in favor of it. At the
University, Student Government
Council will probably consider
some type of proposal on the is-
sue, which greatly affects the
majority - of the student body.
Vice-President for Student Affairs
James A. Lewis voiced his support
of lowering the age requirement
this week.
TWO FACTS ARE vitally con-
cerned with the issue-first, the
voting regulations are the reserved
power of the state and thus na-
tional legislation in this area
would not appear to be forth-
coming in the near future, and
second, the impetus for the drive
must come from those concerned,
ie, those between the ages of 18
and 21 years old.
The opportunity has been avail-
able for those possessing suffrage
to extend it to the younger citizens.
It has been virtually rejected. The
present electorate is passive, for
the most part, to the desires of
those seeking the vote. It is up
to the affected group, and espe-
cially the students within this
group, to organize themselves to
obtain this right. ,
* * *
AND INDEED, substantial ar-
gumentation can support their
contentions. Aside from the "if
he's old enough to carry a gun
for his country he's old enough
to vote" type of logic, the sup-
porters of 18-year-old voting cant
point to increased high school
attendance and political aware-
ness of the 18-21 population, a
factor that makes many of that
age group more informed than
their elders who are now voting.
And if students have not gra-
duated or otherwise attained the
benefits of secondary education,
they have been exposed to the
conditions of the world in which
they live. The question of whether
any 18-year-old has assimilated
or benefited from his experiences
-- regardless of educational
achievement - is not relevant,

of these citizens, resulting in a
better-informed older populace as
well as a competent younger elec-
OF COURSE, the responsibilities
of taxes, military service, criminal
responsibility fall upon the shoul--
ders of youth before the age when
the ballot and beer become legal.
Not impressive arguments in
themselves, when reexamined in
the light of the increasing educa-
tion and awareness of the 18 to
21 age population, they certainly
add to the case for extended suff-
As always, extension of suffrage
is slow. The customs of the past,
based on forgotten purinciples,
assume sanctity with the years
and impede the progress of mod-
ern societies. If youth truly de-
sires to obtain suffrage, it must
demonstrate clearly to the present
electorate that maturity and in-
telligence is not a matter of age
but an individual matter.

A Naton Of Ostriches

ONE THING that the UN con-
clave of the world's captains
and kings and Communist Party
secretaries has already accom-
plished is to have provided a blue-
ribbon (or red-ribbon) elite audi-
ence for the American Presidentl
election campaign. Here they are,
watching America's big show just
as America is watching theirs.
Don't let anyone tell you that
the American show is rnone of
their business.- It is very much
their business. America's friends
wish prayerfully for a strong
new leadership and direction in'
the nation that heads the world
democratic bloc, America's enemies
fear exactly such a leadership and
I even wish there were some way
by which Nixon and Kennedy
could be invited to talk at the
UN, just as they are invited to
talk at conclaves of trade union-
ists, war veterans, and Women
United for Whatever United Them,
It would be important to see
whether the carefully pretested
speeches that wow Nixon's audi-
ences would wow them at the UN,
to see how the seasoned diplomats
would take to Kennedy's youth, to

That is why I find it depressing
to hear Vice President Nixon call
for a truce on any talk about
America's blunders in foreign
policy or about the relative decline
of its world position. If Nixon or
anyone else believes that the UN
delegates form their opinions of
American strength or weakness
from American public utterances
moulded to a public relations
forhnula, he must regard them as
pretty naive.
If indeed there has been a
decline in America's relative world
position, it is a deep disservice
to their country for any American
leaders to seal their lips about it.
The material Khrushchev will use
in his talks will be the U-2 episode,
the trouble over the Congo, the
tragic rupture between Cuba and
America, the failure of the dis-
armament talks, the re-arming of
Germany, the quarantine imposed
by the American government on
him and Castro, the futile efforts
of the Eisenhower administration
to discourage high foreign officials
from attending the Assembly
opening. His material will not
come from whatever American
self-criticism emerges in a healthy,

other words, see only the evidences
of strength, hear only the reports
of strength, speak only the glad
tidings of strength. Focus not on
the facts themselves but on hew
the discussion of the facts may
sound. Substitute the magic of
words for what may be the harsh
reality of facts.
dopesters say that the arrival of
Khrushchev and his cohorts and
the other world leaders at the
UN is a big, election break for
Nixon, which will practically sew
up the victory for him. They
reason that there will be an up-
surge of nationalist feeling which
is bound to help the ins.
It is hard for me to believe
that exactly when the UN meet-
ing shows the hard resourcefulness
of Khrushchev in political war-
fare, the American people will
prefer to lull themselves with
dreams of a beautiful "rock candy
mountain" from which the Amer-
ican peppermint giant dominates
the world scene.
For Kennedy to continue his
hard talk may be dangerous to
his own political fortunes. But how
can Americans expect a leader

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