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U'll"r. 1 niMr,



UN Effectiveness

Blake Notes Literary Trends


Associated Press UN Correspondent
For the first time in the his-
tory of the United Nations, high
UN officials are, expressing mis-
givings about the future of the
No one at the UN talks of to-
tal collapse, but many speak of
defects, disappointments, limita-
tions and drift toward ineffective-
United States Ambassador Ad-
lai E. Stevenson said recently:
"It may well be that 20 years
ago people expected too much too
soon from the UN."
When UN diplomats gather in
San Francisco next week to com-
memorate the signing of the orga-
nization's charter, the keynote
probably will be "hope" and "pa-
tience." But the atmosphere will
be far different from the optimism
' which marked the signing of the
charter on June 26, 1945.
The UN has one big thing in
its favor. Its 114 members are
virtually unanimous in insisting
that it is indispensible.
Indonesia is the only country
y that has quit the organization in
its'20 years. Even during its most
difficult days, new countries have
continued to seek membership.
Apparently there is a universal
feeling that the UN, with all its
shortcomings, is better than noth-
But there is doubt that the or-
ganization has plunged deeper and
" deeper into trouble, and that this
nosedive has accelerated -in the
past year. Secretary-General U,
Thant recently noted that new UN1
setbacks-including the channelT.
ing of problems away from the or-f
S ganization to regional groups-are;
causing profound uneasiness.
We are witnessing a definite
reversal of the slow progress the
UN has made toward stability and
world peace," he said. "A further
drift in this 'direction, if not ar-
rested in time, will mark the close
#4 of a chapter of great expectations.
and the heralding of a new chap-f
ter in which the world organiza-
tion will provide merely a debat-
ing forum, and nothing else." 1
Constitutional Crisis
For the moment, the constitu-
tional problems of the UN over-
shadow the problems which it was
created to resolve-the preserva-j
tion of peace, harmonizing inter-i
national relationships and improv-t
ing the lot of humanity.
What went wrong?7
For one thing, the world itself
changed in ways not anticipated
by the architects of the UN.
Many of the key provisions ofi
the UN charter were based on the1
assumption that the big powers,E
drawn together by wartime neces-I
sities, would continue to work to-t
gether despite differing ideologies.c
-Wile Dies of t
Long Illness
Prof. Emeritus Udo J. Wile ofI
the dermatology department died
yesterday after a long illness at
the age of 82.Y
Wile,dchairman of the derma-
tology department from 1912 un-t
til' his retirement in 1947, es-
tablished the first university hos-
pital clinic in the United 'Statest
for the training of dermatologists
and ,syphilogists at University
-Among the many positions held{
by Wile during his career are
president of the Washtenaw
County Medical Association, presi-
dent of the Ann Arbor Board of
Health and president of the
American Dermatological Associa-

This quickly proved to be a ma-
jor miscalculation.
The only time things looked
good for the organization was
during the brief 1963 thaw in the
cold war.
Now the UN seems to be caught
up in the general deterioration
of international relations.
Basic Problems
Much of the current UN diffi-
culty stems from two practices
which have persisted over the
-A tendency of many coun-
tries to ignore all UN decisions
which they don't like, the best-
known case being the Soviet Un-
ion's refusal to pay assessments
for the Congo and Middle East
peacekeeping operations, and
-A readiness of members to ac-
cept certain deviations from the
charter to avoid difficulties, or to
meet emergencies.
One example of this is the im-
provisation that has made possi-
ble UN peacekeeping forces in the
Congo, the Middle East and Cy-
prus. All these forces were made
available by small countries and
operated under the direction of
the secretary-general. The Cyprus
force is financed by voluntary con-
tributions. But the charter pro-
vides that UN forces should be
organized and directed by the
Military Staff Committee, which is
made up of military representa-
tives of the five big powers. This
committee has had no hand in
any UN peacekeeping project.
Former Secretary-General Tryg-
ve Lie often expressed concern
over procedures not in accord with
the charter. French President
Charles de Gaulle recently direct-
ed attention to the problem by
calling for a meeting of the big
five powers - the U.S., Britain,
France, Nationalist China, and
the Soviet Union. He said the or-
ganization might regain its equi-
librium "by returning to prudence
and to the charter."
One complicating factor unfore-
seen by the founding fathers was
the UN membership explosion. Be-
tween 1955 and 1965 the member-,
ship soared from 60 to 114. More
than half the members now are
newly-independent countries of,
Asia and Africa.
This had two important results:
it has drawn a sharp focus on
Asian and African problems, and
it has on many occasions turned
the UN into a cockpit in the East-
West battle for the minds of the
new countries.
New Members
British Prime Minister Harold
Wilson acknowledged that the new
members have had a profound ef-
fect upon the UN, and upon world
opinion. Their concepts, he said,
were far different from those of
the countries which formed the
organization in 1945.
"They are far less interested in
the East-West division," he said,
"than between rich and poor na-
tions; they are less concerned with
protocol than with poverty." r
Another problem related to the
emergence of the new countries
is what Stevenson calls the "war
of liberation' or the 'civil war.
Stevenson cites Viet Nam and the
revolt' in the Dominican Republic
as examples of how clandestine
aggression and subversion of legi-
timate protest movements can be
used under the guise of self-de-
termination. Such wars were not
foreseen by the men who draft-
ed the UN charter and there is
no international machinery for
dealing with them.
National Power
"Until the international com-
munity is ready to rescue the vic-
tims," Stevenson said, "there is
no alternative but national power
to fill the peacekeeping vacuum."
, This "go it alone" tendency is
one of the developments which
troubles Thant. Another is the
trend toward channeling problems

away from the UN to regional or-
Without questioning the legi-
timacy of such actions as the
handling of the Dominican prob-
lem by the Organization of Amer-
ican States, Thant warned:
"If a particular regional orga-;
nization, under terms of its ownj
constitution, deems its fit to take

-Associated Press
SOVIET PREMIER NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, shown above at a
1960 meeting of the General Assembly, have both figured prominently in problems facing the
United Nations. Lack of Soviet cooperation, typified by Khrushchev's dramatic demonstrations
during UN sessions, and difficulties caused by the emergence of Communism in Cuba are among
the factors that lead many prominent officials to question the potential effectiveness of the UN
in the future.

EDITOR'S NOTE: Seven experts
on the Soviet Union participated In
the University's "Conference on the
Khrushchev Era and After" last
weekend. The opening session of
the conference was covered in F~ri
day's Daily The following is the
first article in a five part series
discussing the remainder of the pro-
"It is too early to distinguish
the long term policies of the new
Soviet leaders, if indeed theiri
terms are to be long enough,"
said Patricia Blake of Columbia
University's Russian Institute.
Speaking on the legacy of
Khrushchev in Soviet literature,
Miss Blake said that it is possi-
ble, however, to make provisional
observations about the present lit-
erary trends. As for the future,
she added, "we cannot predict
what the leadership will do, but
we can predict what they cannot
What the leadership "cannot
do" is cut the large support en-
joyed by the liberal writers, artists
and intellectuals who are critical
of the government. In the post-
Stalinist decades literature has
achieved a "nnique autonomy,"
Miss Blake explained. It has be-
come possible for literature to be
a vehicle for expression rather
than an organ far state propagan-
da, she added.
Literary Triumph
The year of 1962-3 saw a tri-
umph for literature, Miss Blake
"With Stalinism over, writers
were free to write without didacti-
cism. There was a genuine rebel-
lion against the Stalinist liter-
ary oligarchy."
Solzhenitsyn's noved, "One Day
in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,"
depicting the life of a prisoner
in a Siberian labor camp, is a
product of this period, Miss Blake
Then the party began attempts
to regain control, she said. For
seven months there were cam-
paigns of abuse against the in-
telligentsia, and it was "clear that
such campaigns were simply a
struggle between authorities and
groups for the right to express
There were "sharp exchanges"
between Khrushchev and these
liberals during this period, Miss
Blake commented. To show how
far he would go "against recalci-
trants," she quoted Khrushchev
as saying: "Taras Bulba killed his
only son for going over to the
side of the enemy. Such is the
nature of the struggle."
Following Kremlin meetings in
December, 1962, Stalinist die-hards
replaced liberals on magazines,
newspapers and arts unions-po-
sitions they still hold today.
"But the liberals counterattack-
ed with acts of defiance," Miss
Blake continued.
The authorities put pressure on
the writers to recant, in classic
purge style, in order to re-estab-
lish party authority and to dis-
credit the liberal witers In the
public eye, Miss Blake explained.
Dnly two writers, including the
poet Yevtushenko, made recan-
tations deemed fit to print.

"Ultimately Khrushchev was
forced to make a truce with the
liberals," Miss Blake said. "Al-
though the resistance of the in-
telligentsia was one factor in this
capitulation, Sino-Soviet relations
vas another. The Russians could
not afford to alienate other Eu-
ropeans, especially the Italian
party who protested strongly the'
treatment of the writers," she
According to Miss Blake, the
most important aspect of the lib-
erals' victory is that the artistic
and intellectual community re-
mained intact.
"Stronger now for their resist-
ance, they wait for the time when
they may claim their freedoms,"
she said.
The present leaders are taking
a centrist position regarding the
arts, Miss Blake maintained. They
are attempting to conciliate the
liberals who were assaulted in
the anti-modernist campaigns of
1963. The works of these writers
are now being published. Previ-
ously denounced writers are now
allowed to travel abroad, Miss
Blake went on.

There have been personnel
changes in the unions of creative
artists - moderates (though not
liberals) are replacing the neo-
Stalinists, she said. There is a
general trend towards replacing
people who -were close to Khrush-
chev in all fields.
Despite these symbolic advances
there are still systematic attempts
to cut the flow of "unauthorized
art and literature, Miss Blake
pointed out. Last March Solzhen-
itsyn's novel was attacked at a
Congress of Writers of the Rus-
sian Republic, a neo-Stalinist or-
ganization of government approv-
ed writers "who are powerless to
compete with the liberals for read-
"Deploring the use of Stalin's
crimes as themes, they denounced
the liberal writers. This posed a
crucial problem for the liberals
who thought that literature could
serve as a catharsis for the na-
tion to rid itself of the evils of
Stalinism," she added.
Nevertheless, there is evidence
that the present leaders are fol-
lowing a centrist policy, Miss
Blake contended.

Supreme Court Diss.
Estes' Televised Conviction
WASHINGTON (R)-The Supreme Court yesterday threw out
Billie Sol Estes' conviction on a Texas swindling charge because
his trial was televised.
The historic decision split the court as it wrestled for the first
time with the question whether a defendant can get a fair trial
under the eye of television cameras. Byt a 5-4 margin, it ruled that
in Estes' case he couldn't. But two justices explicitly said no sweeping

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certain enforcement action in its
own region, it naturally follows
that other regional organizations
should be considered competent,
because of the precedent, to take
certain enforcement action in
their own regions."
20 Years
As if these problems were not
enough, some observers have ad-
vanced the theory that some of
the organization's difficulties are
due to a "20 year syndrome." The
reasoning is that it is now 20
years since the end of World War
II and that people have forgotten
the horrors of war. It is pointed
out that the League of Nations
failed and a new conflict erupted
just 20 years after the end of the
First World War.
Just how bad off is the UN at
age 20?
Despite all its setbacks, the or-
ganization is carrying out large-
scale peacekeeping operations in
the Middle East and Cyprus. It
had a hand in getting the warring
factions in the Dominican Repub-
lic to agree to a limited humani-
tarian truce, which was extended
into the present cease-fire. Many
countries have enough faith in the
UN to bring their disputes before
Its various bodies. The Security
Council held more than 100 meet-
ings last year, the largest num-
ber in a single year since 1948.
While the organization's peace-
keeping capacities are now being

reappraised, many agree with
President Lyndon B. Johnson that
it "has helped to avert catastro-
phe in this century." It is note-
Worthy that the nonpolitical ac-
tivities of the UN have continued
to expand despite the hostile po-
litical atmosphere.
Many Agencies
During its 20 years the. orga-
nization has created a versatile
range of international agencies
which are surveying resources, dis-
tributing food, improving agricul-
ture, caring for needy children,
controlling disease and training
technicians, such: as teachers,
nurses and engineers.
The priority problems, apart
from trying to improve the world
atmosphere, are the UN financial
crisis and the widening differ-
ences over future peacekeeping
procedures. A special committee,
with the assistance of the secre-
tary-general and Assembly Pres-
ident Alex Quaison-Sackey of
Ghana, is working on both prob-
It seeks a way to end the As-
sembly deadlock over Soviet vot-
ing rights so that this key UN
body can return to normality when
it reconvenesSept. 1.
It is a question of whether or
not there will be .a showdown over
the refusal of the Soviet Union,
France and 11 other countries to
pay overdue peacekeeping assess-

ments. Under Article 19 of the UN
charter any member more than
two years in arrears in paying as-
sessments must lose its Assembly
vote. Throughout the last As-
sembly session a U.S.-Soviet con-
frontation was avoided by a no-
vote truce.
Officially the United States pol-
icy remains unchanged-to en-
force the controversial article -
but there is a widespread as-
sumption that the showdown will
never take place. Many diplo-
mats feel that the sentiment is too
strong against it.
UN diplomats generally agree
that the charter is partly to blame
for the organization's difficulties
because of its vague language;
but even worse, they feel, is the
failure of its members to comply,
with the charter.
There is always talk about the
need for charter revision, but
Thant believes that the UN can
straighten itself out without con-
stitutional changes.
'U' Researcher
Dies ii Thailand
Dale S. Fisher, a research as-
sistant at the Willow Run Labora-
tories of the University's Institute
of Science and Technology, was
killed Saturday while working on
a research project in Thailand.
His death was accidental.

meaning should be read into the
The television networks with-
held comment on the court's rul-
ing pending full reading of the
several opinions.
Defends Decision
The Texas judge who permitted
the televising insisted yesterday
that he feels such coverage does
not prejudice a defendant's rights
if it is carefully supervised.
The reversal affected only a
state conviction of Estes, a one-
time millionaire Texas promoter.
Among the questions left un-
answered by the court's division
is whether the case will have any
effect on televising of congres-
sional hearings in which witnesses
might be subject to later criminal
Last Session
This was the court's last sitting
before summer recess, which will
end next Oct. 4.
In other decisions delivered yes-
terday, the court held:
-A Connecticut law forbidding
the use of birth control devices is
an unconstitutional invasion of
privacy ;
-Unions forfeit their exemp-
tion from antitrust laws if they
conspire with certain employers
to drive other employers out of
business, and
-A federal law that makes it
a crime for a Communist to serve
as a labor union official is un-

World News
By The Associated Press


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WASHINGTON -Secretary of
defense Robert S. McNamara de-
scribed the administration's con-
troversial military pay raise bill
yesterday as fair to both service-
men and taxpayers.

As McNamara opened the ad-
mhinistration's battle for its pay
bill against a bigger one introdue-
ed by 34 of the 37 members of
the House Armed Services Com-
mittee, there appeared to be a
mood of compromise in the air.
SELMA, Ala.-Picketing and
singing, a group of civil rights
supporters demonstrated yesterday
in front of newsmen touring this
Alabama city as guests of Gov.
George Wallace. Wallace invited
the newsmen to find out for them-
selves if stories about racial dis-
turbances have been distorted.
LANSING-Gov, George Rom-
ney declared yesterday that, if
necessary, he'll present his own
program of specific tax reform
at the fall legislative session.
But he warned lawmakers they
should bring expenditures and
revenues into line before they go
home for their summer recess.

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The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan, for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editor-
ial responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Bldg. be-
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for Saturday and Sunday. General
Notices may be published a maxi-
mum of two times on request; Day
Calendar items appear once only.
Student organization notices are not
accepted for publication.
Day Calendar
Bureau of Industrial Relations Per-
sonnel Techniques seminar--Clarence
C. Walton, dean, School of General
Studies, Columbia University, "Ethics
in Management": Michigan Union, 8
a m.
Center for Programmed Learning for
Business Workshop-Geary A. Rummler,
director, "Use, Evaluation, Selection,
and Writing of Programmed Materials":
Michigan U ion, 8:30 a.m.
Seminar on the Solar Wind: Tues.,
June. 4 p.m., Room 807,. Physics-
Astronomy Bldg. Prof. Sydney Chap-
man, IST, "Solar Flares, Geomagnetic
Storms, and the Neutral Component
of the Solar Wind."
General Notices
Student Government Council Approval
of the following student-sponsored
events becomes effective 24 hours after
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publicity for these events must be
withheld until the approval has be-
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Approval request forms for student-
sponsored events are available in Room
1011 of the SAB.

University of Michigan Committee
Against Apartheid, "Recent Events
in South Africa," June 8, 7:30 p.m., Un-
ion 3B.
Friends of SNCC, Freedom Singers in
concert, June 25, 8:30 p.m., Trueblood
Graduate Record Examination: Ap-
plication blanks for the Graduate
Record Examination are available in
122 Rackham Bldg. The next- adminis-
tration of the test will be Sat., July
10, and applications must be received
in Princeton, N.J.. by June 25.
Admission Test for Graduate Study
in Business: Application blanks for the
Admission Test for Graduate Study in
Business are now available in 122
Rackham Bldg. The next administra-
tion of the test will be Sat., July 10,
and applications must be received in
Princeton, N.J., by June 26.
Law School Admission Test: Applica-
tion blanks for the Law School Ad-
mission Test are available in 122 Rack-
ham Bldg. The next administration of
the test will be on Sat., July 17. Ap-
plications must be received in Prince-
ton, N.J., by July 3.
Peace Corps Placement Test-Deter-
mines in what capacity you can best
serve. Test will be given Sat., June
12, 9 a.m. at Downtown Post Office,
Main & Catherine. To take test, ques-
tionnaire must be completed. Test
takes 1% hrs. plus 1 hr. if applicant
wants language achievement test. De-
tails and applications available at Bu-
reau of Appointments.
Science Research Associates, Inc.,
Rodman Job Corps Center, New Bed-
ford, Mass.-Attn.: Graduating Seniors
-Men & women, degree in any field.
SRA is operating Job Corps Center for

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Phone 761-0001.
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Coupon Good Monday Thru Thursday, June 7-10 .
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Office of Economic Opportunity to
train unemployed men 16-21 yrs. in
office skills and remedial academic
work at residential trng. center. $6000
per yr. Staff being selected immediately
for mid-July opening.
Visual Arts, Berkley, Mich.-Indus-
trial Writer, creative with gool tech.
& mktg. bkgd. for metal working com-
Kalamazoo Home Builders Assoc.,
Mich.-Executive Secretary. Male. Con-
duct office bus., call on members, ar-
range meetings. etc.
YWCA, Waukegan, 111.-Exec. Direc-
tor. Woman, grad work or MSM, ex-
per. in YWCA or rel. agency. Assist
in community social planning, mem-
bership plans, budget, etc.
Mackin Co., Jackson, Mich.-Cost
Accountant. Degree plus 2-3 yrs. exper.
Use of This Column for Announce-
ments is available to officially recog-
nized and registered student organiza-
tions only. Forms are available in Room
1011 SAB"
University of Michigan Committee
Against Apartheid, Informational and
organizational meeting to discuss re-
cent events in South Africa, Eric Kry-
stall of the Center for Research on
Conflict Resolution will speak, Tues.,
June 8, 7:30 p.m., Michigan Union, 3-B.
* * *
Friends of SNCC, Ralph Mants will
speak about his work in the Alabama
Blackbelt, June 8, 8:45 p.m., Michigan
Union, Third Floor Confrence Room.
* * *
Organization of Arab Students, Dr.
Harold T. Walsh, Philosophy Depart-
ment, Michigan State University, will
speak on the subject "From Melos to
Dair Yassin," Tues., June 8, 8 p.m.,
Multipurpose Room, Undergraduate Li-

in acctg. for mifr. of grinding wheels
& abrasives.
B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio-Var-
ious openings including: 1. Field Audi-
tors & Trainees, single men pref. 2.
Field Sales Mgr., BBA plus 3 yrs.
managerial exper. 3. Tax Accountant,
major in acctg. plus 2 yrs. exper. 4.
Communication Repres., BS in Journ.
plus 3 yrs. exper. in Indust. commun.
5. Cost Accountant, acctg. degree plus
1 yr. exper.
For further information, please call
764-7460, General Div., Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 3200 SAB.
VIEWS-Seniors & grad students, please
sign schedule posted at 128-H West
New York Central System R.R., Ma-
jor headquarters, N.Y., Detroit, Syra-
cuse, Cleveland and Indianapolis-BS-
MS: CE, EE, IE, ME and Management.
Dev. and Design.

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