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Seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXV, No. 23-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JUNE 5, 1965 SEVEN CEN
TS FOUR PAGES
WI W 'TnnWT Ui T U1 N
Marines Kill 22
SAIGON (P)-United States Marines wrested the initiative from
the Viet Cong in one sector of the Viet Nam war yesterday, killing 22,l
capturing three and wounding at least 11 in the Da Nang-Phu Bail
air base area. Two Marines were killed and 27 wounded.1
Some Communist guerrillas overran a hamlet 30 miles northwestC
of Saigon in one of a half dozen 'scattered attacks. Bushwhacking
persisted in the central highlands.j
In Saigon, a high U.S. mil tary spokesman said: "The important,
battle of the summer of 1965 has just been joined . . . events have#
been such that we are moving
Einto an important period of the
Emphasis o war.,,'
Y U IU .1E FLA1
Group Seeks Apartheid's End
By KAY EMERICK have holdings in South Africa, that the committee believes the
and JAMES TURBETT thereby bringing economic pres- philosophy, "money exists only to
sure on that nation. make more money," is false. If
The long-range goal of the new- It is common practice in cap- public institutions, such as uni-
ly-formed University Committee italistic countries that "money has versities, would take a stand on
Against Apartheid is the elimina- no moral value," Eric Krystall, re- the apartheid issue, private inves-
tion of apartheid in South Africa. search advisor at the Center for tors would follow suit, resulting
As a means to accomplish this Conflict Resolution and unofficial in effective economic pressure on
larger objective, the group hopes advisor to the new committee, said South Africa, Krystall explained.
to persuade the University to sell yesterday. Members of the student group
its stock in corporations which Krystall, a South African, says have already presented their case
to University officials but there
has been little success so far. Of-
Challenge Chooses The me:icials seem to be against apart-
heid yet they have yet to be con-
_VinIIl U bhQ+ cWsritrw~i VofILJ
~ War -Shifts
By MALCOLM W. BROWNE
Associated Press Staff Writer
SAIGON-The war in Viet Nam:
has been transformed into. anI
enormous "meatgrinder," in which
both sides are now making an all-
out drive to bleed each other to
It is a meat grinder in whichI
America for the first time has an4
active part-on both the givingI
and receiving end.
United States officials predict,
that American casualty tolls willI
increase from now on as Ameri-
can Marine Corps and Army para-
trooper units move deeper into the1
U.S. air strikes on North and
South Viet Nam have increased in
recent months to the point that!
they are now round-the-clock'
In the North, strikes have been
limited to military installations,1
roads and waterways well south
of Hanoi. There seems no imme-
diate prospect of bombing North
Viet Nam's cities or civilian indus-
But in the South, huge sectors
of the nation have been declared!
"free bombing zones," in which
anything that moves is a legiti-
mate target. Tens ofsthousands
of tons of bombs, rockets, napalm
0 and cannon fire are poured into
these vast areas each week. If
only by the laws of chance, blood-
shed is believed to be heavy in+
Ambushing of two more de- Can MassSloc
tachments-a relief force near
Lao Thien, about 150 miles north-
east of Saigon, and a six-truck By RUTH F
food convoy near Kontum, 285,
miles northeast of this city- Can a mass society be a great
boosted to 239 the toll of govern- will be debated this fall by Chall
ment troops killed, wounded or sponsors a lecture and discussion
missing in action over a 48-hour A special fund containing $3,t
period. dent Harlan Hatcher to finance
U.S.-Vietnamese air power was According to one of this year
reported to have beaten off Viet Challenge of the Great Society"
Cong strikes at two outposts in-
Quang Ngai province, farther
north, where troops and planesS
halted a Communist drive toward!
the sea in heavy fighting last a
U.S. Navy and Air Force planesA
kept up the heat on North Viet
Nam, staging seven strikes across,
the border. By DEBORAH ISACKSON
A military headquarters and Director of Financial Aids Wal-
AmmilitarynsheadqutersBandter Rea announced yesterday that
communications center at Ban Ma, applications for National Defense
about 90 miles southwest of Hanoi, Education Loans are still bein
was a major target. A spokesman Edctdnfo nshe re6s-6lacaein
said the bombing destroyed the accepted for the 1965-66 academi
main communications building, year.
other structures and one of At present, undergraduates ar
two eiil obro pt 10
the installation's two antennas. to borrow up to $1000
Inhn fahighUSyear. However, a 1964 amendmen
In the opinion of a h S. to the National Defense Education
military spokesman in Saigon, so Act allows graduates to receive
many North Vietnamese troops are a yearly maximum of $2500.
now fighting min South Viet Nam "Generally the graduate studen
that "it is becoming academic" has been the forgotten person
whether. they are here as regular when it comes to financial aid,'
North Vietnamese units. Rea explained. "This bill is a big
Meanwhile, the Saigon political help to all graduates," he said.
crisis eased. Maximum Sum
The 20-member national legis- The total amount that a stu
lative council issued a communique dent may receive from the NDEA
declaring Premier Phan Huy Quat fund including that borrowe
constitutionally competent to while an undergraduate, canno
shake up his cabinet, exceed $10,000.
ietV Be Great?
society? This is the question which!
enge, a student organization which
series each semester.
000 has been appropriated by Presi-
this year's program.
s co-chairmen, Dave Hewson, "The
vinced that a withdrawai of in-
vestments would have any effect
on the South African economy.
They are doubtful of the means,
not the end, Krystall explained.
Future plans of the new com-
mittee include a general planning
meeting early next week to ini-
tiate work on the committee's im-
mediate goal - informing and
arousing the interest of the gen-
eral public in the issue.
THIS MAP ILLUSTRATES THE PROJECTED paths of the three final orbits of the Gemini 4 cap-
sule-orbits 60, 61, and 62. Astronauts Edward White and James McDivitt have settled down to the
"routine".business of outer space travel after taking a spectacular walk in space and setting a new
American space endurance record.
Spacemen Set Time Mark
By ROBERT MOORE
Soviet foreign policy has gone through a historical de-
velopment which has placed it in an altogether new position in
world affairs, Prof. Richard Lowenthal of Columbia University
said yesterday in the second speech of a University "Con-
ference on the Khrushchev Era and After."
Russia's new position and attitude in world affairs has
three important aspects, Lowenthal said:
-Increasing emphasis upon internal stability and firm
-4 tendency to rely upon politics and colonial revolutions
for world power struggles, and
-Conscious acceptance of the fact that Russia does not
have to be sole arbiter of the Communist world.
Lowenthal said these and other new developments make the
old concept of a."cold war" impractical, but he emphasized that
we are still in a "power conflict" with the Russians.
The techniques of this power conflict "should, in principle,
be more manageable for the West," said Lowenthal. "But this
also implies that they have to be managed. The degree and
pace of change depends on the ability of the West to manage
the conflict," he -added.
Lowenthal traced the changes in Communist ideology and
attitude from the time of Stalin to today. The Russian attitude
toward foreign policy has gone from caution to confidence and
back again to a point somewhere between, he explained.
Stalin, faced with the post-war emergence of Russia as
the world's second-largest power, was never able to, use that
power, Lowenthal said. Stalin confined his political manuevers
to the Eurasion continent and, even after the atomic bomb,
acted with caution.
But after the two major powers reached a stalemate on
nuclear bombing capacities, the Russians, led by Khrushchev,
moved toward a policy of self-confidence until finally a com-
bination of internal and external causes forced them to adopt
their present attitude.
The last stage of development to the present attitude was
caused to no small extent by the Chinese ideological differences,
While the Soviets were developing a more "practical" and
economic-oriented foreign policy, "China felt the need to retain
the stand of a besieged fortress," Lowenthal said. "The Russians
found they could not longer harmonize with the Chinese and
discovered the Chinese were applying ideological pressures."
In 1962, after the Soviet Union found it could no longer
control Red China, Cuba's Fidel Castro or even little Romania.
The Soviet Union, Lowenthal said, had effectively lost its
previous world-wide control over the Communist movement.
The realization called for a revision of Russia's attitude,
A.nin.rlytivo nrinin1 nnnn which it had based its stand
According to the NDEA, ans
student who "carries at least one
half the normal full time academic
workload as determined by the
institution" is eligible for funds
Eligibility, continued Rea, i
determined by need and grade
point average. The standard, na
tionally established college schol
arship form is used by the offic
to consider qualifications. Re8
pointed out that there is no dis
crimination against out-of-stat
students since NDEA funds arn
appropriated by the federal gov.
Graduate students in the med
ical, dental and nursing school
are the only students ineligible fo
funds, he said.
Rea added that by last year th
University received $800,000 from
the federal government under th
NDEA and that the average loar
per student was about $600. Thi
year, K. D. Streiff, assistant t
the director of financial aids, sail
that the University was hopefu
of an NDEA loan raise, whic]
might boost the fund to $1.4 mil
lion. This, Streiff continued, woul
also increase the student averag
yearly loan to $900. This rais
would enable the University t
assist nearly 1400 students during
the 1965-66 academic year throug]
is the overall title for the fall dis- "We plan to place new kinds of
. cussions. Speeches will primarily signs on the Diag-informative
ones. These signs will provide in-
concentrate on the sociological as- formation about apartheid," Sam
pects of society, and a diversity of Friedman, Grad, committee mem-
opinions will be expressed by the ber, said.a
speakers. j The committee will also publishA
Tentative a reading list. It is hoped that r
Hewson stated that, at the conference-like workshops can bed
present time, the list of speakers organized next year. Prominent I
who will lecture at the meetings experts, including pro-apartheid;
is only tentative. The first is speakers, will be invited to ad-
Joseph Wood Krutch, a former dress the workshops. Friedman j
t professor of English at Columbia said the organization eventually I
e University. Krutch, a well-known hopes to hold a public debate ont
authority on nature and compe- the subject.C
c tent in many other areas, has re- Several other recent attempts
cently published articles in the have been made to convince thep
e "American Scholar." public that withdrawal of heavyc
a R. Buckminster Fuller, an ar- United States support throughL
t chitect, and Eric Hoffer, the au- business investments could leadg
thor of 'The True Believer" also to a re-examination of South Af-&
e may attend. It is hoped that David rica's apartheid policies.-
tReisman, author of "The Lonely With these ends in view, the'
SCrowd," will be able to lecture Nat nal StuendAssociatinlast
~a meeting. 'ainlStdncsocainls
" Challenge attempts to focus at- year organized a conference pre-C
g tention on topics which have not senting the issue of apartheid
benicovee by the unversty x and its implications to inform and a
perience. Throughout the world, interest student activist groups
- people are trying to combat, live This year, the Students for a
q with, or understand the complex- Democratic Society held severalc
d ity of forces which surround them. demonstrations against economice
t Challenge is based on the premise support of South Africa. One wasu
that students attending the Uni held March 18 and another Marchc
y versity and all over the country 22, the fifth anniversary of thef
- wish to explore these issues. "Sharpville Massacre," in which
c 'Create Awareness' about 70 South African Negroesn
e According to its constitution, were killed and another 200 weref
the goals of the organization "are injured. t
the creation of a widespread The Chrysler Corp. plant wast
s awareness of major contemporary picketed the same day to protesto
- problems, and the encouragement its investments in South Africa,
- of an active response to them."
- In the past, Challenge has con-
e centrated on such issues as nuc- Acs
a lear disarmament, the emerging Senate .A cs on
- nations, American civil liberties,a
e and Communist China. Bonding Issue s
e The meetings are structured inr
one of the following ways:c
-Important visitors or members LANSING W)--The Senate in-
- of the University faculty conduct creased bonding limits for Com-t
s lectures, panels or debates on the munity College districts yesterdayt
r topic under consideration; but delayed decisions on othert
bills in a day devoted mostly toi
e -Residents of living units and education matters.r
n faculty members engage in small- It passed a House-proved billr
e er, more informal discussions; permitting Community , Colleger
n -Menodistricts to increase the bonding1
s couct a eenationlscu son r limit to slightly over one per cent.P
o ing which the topic is treated not Public approval is required fort
d as an academic question, but as districts to bond beyond thatk
il a problem which requires immed- limit.t
h iate action. The limit is now on a millage1
d Challenge is a non-partisan Sen. Gerald Dunn, chairman of
e group which works with other the Senate Education Committee,t
e campus organizations in an at- explained eight districts would beE
o tempt to give students the oppor- primarily affected by the new1
g tunity for informative and con- limits: Cass, Montcalm, Monroe,
h structive understanding of na- Jackson, Washtenaw, Lansing,c
tional and international affairs. Macomb and Oakland.1
HOUSTON (3)-America's talk-
ative space twins set a new
American endurance record with
remarkable nonchalance yester-
day, then settled back to drift
eisurely through the heavens.
At midnight space stroller Ed-
ward White and command pilot;
James McDivitt were completing'
their 24th circuit of the globe-
two more than astronaut Gordon
Cooper completed May 16, 1963.
And during an otherwise com-
paratively routine day, the loqua-
cious pair also chatted breezily
with their wives and caught a
glimpse of another artificial
satellite orbiting in the vastness
The record-breaking moment
came at 8:36 p.m. while the
Gemini 4 spacecraft was hurtling
across the Pacific and' McDivitt
was exchanging technical data
with the Hawaii tracking station.
When the brief exchange was
completed, Gemini 4 had surpass-
ed Cooper's 34 hour and 20 min-
ute flight, and capsule communi-
cator Stuart Davis offered his
From that point on through
midnight there was virtually no
further informal talk of the sort
that thus far has characterized
the McDivitt-White flight; only
occasional technical reports were
Gemini 4's ultimate goal is to
complete 62 orbits and drop back
to earth Monday after 97 hours
and 50 minutes in space. That
still will be short of Russian cos-
monautValery Bykovsky's record
of 119 hours and 81 orbits.
The most glamorous phase of
their four-day adventure behind
them, McDivitt and White spent
the second day of their cosmic
journey simply trying to live
routinely in their unreal environ-
ment. Both were reported in fine
mental and physical condition.
White's thrilling space walk and
McDivitt's exciting but futile at-
tempt to catch the orbiting rocket
booster were experiments added to
the flight plan on a sort of "as
long as they're up there" basis.
Space scientists mainly wanted
to learn how the human body,
especially the heart, reacts to pro-
longed periods of weightlessness.
There were, however, a few in-
cidents yesterday to relieve the
Hail Fih Gemini 4 Fih As
By BARBARA SEYFRIED
The Gemini 4 was hailed as a technological success but with
little political significance by three University professors last night.
It was called a milestone by two professors in the aeronautical
and astronautical engineering department because it is sending back
"urgently needed aero-medical information dealing with the effects
that prolonged conditions of weightlessness have on the human body."
According to Prof. Wilbur C. Nelson chairman of the department,
scientists need this information in order to plan more extensive
programs. If some form of gravity is necessary, engineers will have
to provide it artifically by puttingt',
At one point White gave capsule
communicator Virgil G r i s s o m
some added details about his
space stroll which occurred dur-
ing Thursday's third orbit. Only
after some urging did White re-
turn reluctantly to the space ship.
White provided a word picture
of his adventure. He described the
"vivid blue" waters of the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean, and
said he clearly saw Houston, Gal-
veston Bay and even a small
Texas lagoon, Clear Lake, as he
floated on the end of his golden
Neither astronaut was able to
sleep too well during their alter-
nately scheduled four-hour rest
periods following the space walk.
a spin on the rocket.
Nelson explained that this is not
a simple problem. Aeronautical
engineers would have to find a
way to provide a stationaryarea
within a spinning area for dock-
From the political standpoint,
Nelson said the Gemini had no
effect. "There is no space race,"
he said. We are merely following
pre-set criteria to develop the
United States' space technology."
Prof. David Singer of the poli-
tical science department also said
the political impact was minor.
Economically, Singer pointed out
that the space race requires too'
much money. He suggested that
the resources might better be al-
located to other areas such as
pollution control, arms control or
distribution of food.
The one important virtue of
the space race, according to Sing-
er, is that it takes the minds of
citizens and the political elite off
military conflict. It places the
conflict in a cultural and technical
He also said the space race
might lead eventually to tech-
nical cooperation between nations;
for example, he speculated, the
first rendezvous might be between
Russian and American ships.
Prof. Richard Morrison also ex-
pressed a similar view. He suggest-
ed that there is a possibility that
the U.S. and Russia might want
to compare data on the Gemini 4
flight and the Voskhod 2 flight.
According to both Morrison and
Nelson, the U.S. has passed Russia
in technical knowledge.
Nelson explained that the Unit-
ed States is ahead of the Russians
in its unmanned satellite program
while Russia has the advantage in
terms of its manned satellite pro-
gram, since it has had larger
However, Nelson expiained that,
by early 1967, Apollo rockets
will be built which will be cap-
able of earth orbiting an object
weighing over 110 tons.
According to Nelson the next
step in the Gemini program is to
find out if a between-ships ren-
dezvous is feasible. This is neces-
sary because extensive future pro-
grams will necessitate the ex-
change of men and materials be-
,,TP ,hC n d ~ C~A+&.P ItPc. tf is
By CHARLOTTE WOLTER
This summer and fall Student
Government Council will undergo
a reorientation and restructuring
that will greatly increase its serv-
ices and activities, according to
SGC Administrative Vice-Presi-
dent Charles Cooper, '64.
The increased willingness of the
Office of Student Affairs to dis-
cuss student problems and a high-
ly successful personnel recruit-
ment campaign have given SGC
the firm basis it needs, he ex-
Cooper said that the council
has many areas in which this re-
organization will -take place. His
own office would try to strengthen
the SGC committees as the first
step in an expanded program.
The committee chairmen will be
given both more autonomy and
more responsibility. With their ex-
panded personnel they will be giv-
en more substantial programs to
work on and will be expected to
give reports of their activities.
Council intends to increase ac-
tivity in the areas of coordi-
nation of alumni activities, inter-
national organizations, and stu-
dent activities organizations. It
will also try to acquire more in-
formation on the theory and prac-
tice of higher education in order
to work more effectively with the
administration. Plans are to or-
ganize a new central file and to
increase the resources of the SGC
In the fall and late summer the
council will be working first on
the NSA Congress at the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin. The SGC elec-
tions in the fall will use a system
of IBM cards that will not only
record votes but will give the
council some information on the
individual voter. New projects con-
cerned with student economic wel-
fare include plans for an Ex-
change Bookstore, higher wages,
and better parking facilities.
Causes of Soviet Policies Complex
By SHREESH JUYAL
In the formulation of United States foreign policy, Soviet
policy should not be used as a touchstone for comparison, Prof.
Marshall Shulman said yesterday at the "Conference. on the
We need to recognize as a major concern defining our vision
of an international system capable of handling problems, he
said, with due impact on the larger part of the world-the
underdeveloped areas. Thus, if we can discover and enunciate
that conception of our policy for solving immediate crisis, it
will not only have a substantial effect on the Soviet Union, but
will also unfold the ways to avoid war in a decade which is
bound to be full of turbulance and upheavals, he said.
Shulman, from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
at Tufts University viewed the present Soviet foreign policy as
a process of realization of realities of external influences.
The political mapping has been changed by new forms of
power with the immense increase in their destructive power,
and the communications and transportation system has been
revoluntionized; consequently even a local flare up of minor
significance becomes global. The diplomatic channels have
the Soviet eyes needed a realistic attitude. Importantly, they
rise of the People's Republic of China as a great power encircled
the Soviet Union with a challenge of unexpected magnitude.
Finally, he said, the enormous, increasing military strength of
the Western powers compelled her to study new dimensions
These developments, having stamped the currents of Soviet
attitude in the international horizon, brought about a neta-
morphosis. A far-distant goal, a revolution in the politics and
economy of the entire region, was sought, he explained. This
metamorphosis grew in the direction of priority scales, setting
economic expansion as internal and external policy.
Economic growth thus became a centripetal objective and a
first priority. The transformation of the policy towards achiev-
ing rapid progress in advance industries was the target of the
second priority. With industrial advancement, the Soviet Union
also strode toward a secure and integrity-winning role in Eastern
Europe, obviously a major objective, Shulman said.
Meanwhile, the contest became triangular; the Soviet Union
found herself in competition with the West and China with re-
spect to the large number of developing countries. The advanced