THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY"
THRDY ETMBR1 96TlEMCIA iL
ra~uG zan v GA.i
By ROGER RAPOPORT
In 1963, Congress debated 12
minutes before voting to renew the
Selective Service Act. That exten-
sion doesn't expire for another 12
months, but already the draft de-
bate has reached a fever pitch.
Defense Secretary McNamara,
perhaps unwittingly, declared
open-season on the current draft
set-up in May when he pointed
out some of its "inequities" in a
widely-publicized speech. Since
then, one commencement speaker
after another has tossed a log in
the fire. More recently President
Johnson told government interns
that he has asked a special panel
to recommend revisions in the
draft law and to take a specific
look at alternative forms of serv-
But even before the draft
speeches started making head-
lines, the search for acceptable
alternatives to the current system
was on, The steadily-mounting re-
quirements for soldiers in Viet-
nam suddenly made the draft
again a 'life-or-death matter for
many young Americans.
Education leaders and govern-
ment officials began looking for
a "fairer" way to pick draftees
while Junking the current quilt-
work of exemptions, classifica-
tions and deferments that is as
outmoded as "the horse cavalry,
the B-17 or the Springfield rifle,"
according to one Congressional
critic. They also hoped they'd
come up with a system that would
make it possible to serve Uncle
Sam, without toting a gun.
But they're learning . it isn't
easy. Every alternative-whether
it be a lottery for selecting draf-
tees or permitting acceptable al-
ternate service in organizations
like the Peace Corps-poses its
own problems and has its critics.
Critics say the exemptions and
deferments are unfairly distribut-
ed. About one-third of all the eli-
gible men today have been ex-
empted from the draft because of
" medical and 'mental reasons. An-
other 1.8 million-or roughly one
out of every six-have received
student deferments, and by even-
Wants, New/ T
WASHINGTON ()-FBI Direc-
for J. Edgar Hoover, citing recent
court rulings, called Wednesday
for upgrading of ?awexforcement
standards in the fight 'against
In 'a message in the° FBI's
monthly Law Enforcement Bulle-
tin, Hoover noted court decisions
on confessions, interrogations.
searches and rights of accused
"We, as citizens, expect the busi-
ness and technical segments of
our society to keep abreast of
the latest developments in their
respective areas and to conduct
research to foster progress," Hoo-
"Our profession certainly can-
not exempt itself from a similar
Hoover added that "increased
police training is no longer a de-
sirable goal-it is an absolute ne-
resh Air for the
tually becoming fathers, they may
Others say the system of educa-
tion deferments discriminated
against poor students, or youths
-often Negroes--with less educa-
tional opportunity. Some civil
rights leaders view the higher
draft calls of Negroes a subtle
form of racial discrimination, if
One solution would be to draft
everyone, without exception. But
this Universal Military Training
idea has never had much support.
For one thing, it would create a
and might bankrupt the country in
far larger army than is needed-
the process. When it was seriously
proposed in 1952, it was soundly
Reviving the lottery, used in
world war II, might be more equit-
able, and it's rumored that the
lottery approach will soon get a
push from an unexpected source:
a special Pentagon committee.
Set up to study the draft over two
years ago, its report, supposed to
favor a lottery for all 19 year olds,
is due any day.
But critics, including Lt. Gen.
Lewis Hershey, head of the Selec-
tive Service reject a straight lot-
tery because it might place undue
hardships on some and also di-
minish the nation's pool of crit-
ically needed special talents, like
Many of the status-quo critics
would like to give potential draf-
tees a choice between the military
and some other form of national
service. The idea: The nation
needs social and peace workers,
just as much as warriors.
When a youth reaches draft age,
he would be able to substitute for
the. military, service in the Peace
Corps, VISTA, church organiza-
tions, conservation groups or do
some other public service work.
But this idea also is encounter-
ing rough sledding. "I can't see
the government being able to get
all the military they need," says
Charles Liesenfelt, student advisor
on the draft at the University of
Minnesota. "We'd probably get
99% of the students in the Peace
Corps and 1% in the army."
One idea that hasn't attracted
much attention may provide the
solution if Congress decides to
change the current draft law. It's
a plan that was offered by Har-
vard Dean John Monro.
Dean Monro's plan fuses the
lottery with alternative services--
and seeks to head off some of the
objections to both. There would be
exemptions and deferments, but
they would be awarded on a more
Exemptions would be granted for
mental and medical reasons, as
under the present system. But the
only other exemption from the lot-
tery would go to men who made a
firm commitment to perform some
acceptable non-military service.
The Monro plan would even
try to cut mental exemptions.
How? As a substitute for military
service, a young man could take,
say one year of remedial or on-
the-job training to bring up his
general aptitudes, and then be
subject to the lottery for, say, one
year of military service-a shorter
period than would be normal.
Deferments would be granted
only in cases where the young
man, to get his name removed
from the lottery, would promise to
serve later. A student, for exam-
ple, could get out of the lottery
so he could finish school, but he'd
have to make a commitment to
serve after graduation.
Everyone else-including young
married men-would be eligible
for the lottery.
Why wouldn't every young man
snap up the non-military alterna-
tives? The Monro plan offers
sweeteners to prevent this: longer
service in acceptable alternatives,
say three years in the Peace
Corps instead of two in the Army;
more pay for lottery-picked sol-
diers than non-military volun-
teers. And of course the lottery
candidate would stand a chance of
not serving at all.
Whether Congress can-or will
be in the mood to-change the
draft law amidst an escalating
war in Vietnam is far from clear.
But of all the changes proposed
so far, the Monro plan may be
the best compromise.
By'A e Associated Press
DELANO, Calif. - Two of
America's most powerful labor un-
ions clash Tuesday in a represen-
tation election they claim is the
first in a nationwide effort to or-
ganize farm workers.
To -win the votes of 1,800 farm
workers, the AFL-CIO and the
Teamsters Union have spent hun-
dreds of thousands of dollars on
an organizational campaign at
two nearby ranches.
The union that wins the elec-
tion, labor experts say, will hold
the upper hand in future con-
Whatever the outcome, organ-
izers of both unions promise to
continue recruiting efforts among
California's 80,000 farm workers
and across the nation.
At a time when student unrest ! Read
is being increasingly channeled I
into anti-draft sentiment, a new
policy accommodating the grow-.Daiy
ing desire of many young people .i e
to do non-military public service assifieds
might not be such a bad idea..
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