SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1966 TUE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE T
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
AP special Correspondent
Americans today eye Thailand
with growing concern. Enough por-
tents and parallels exist to evoke
worry° that another edge of
Southeast Asia could involve U.S.
forces in a new war with Com-
munist guerrillas in the pattern of
"We ought to know what we are
getting into," said Chairman J.
W. F'ulbright of the Senate For-
eign Relations Committee recently.
"Are we to have another Viet Nam
war?" To inquire into the possibil-
ities he announced his committee
A soon will hold hearings on the U.S.
commitment ,in Thailand. j
Worry over Thailand's place in
a Communist timetable dates back
to the founding of the Southeast
Asia Treaty Organization in 1954,
and has deepened considerably in
the past two years.
Two years ago the Communists,
with the blessing and backing of
Red China, announced formation
in Thailand's impoverished north-
east area of the "Thailand Inde-
In January, 1965, Chen Yi, Red
China's vice premier and foreign
minister, declared, "We may have
a guerrilla war going in Thailand
before the year is out." Days later,
a Thai-language broadcast, pos-
sibly emanating from China,'an-
nounced establishment of a "Pa-
triotic Front of Thailand." This
was patterned after the National
Front for Liberation of South Viet
Nam, set up late in 1980 as the
political arm of the Viet Cong.
The Thai guerrilla movement is
small, but in scale and technigue
it is ominously similar to the Viet
Cong movement of the 1959-1960
But-there are big differences
in the two situations.
Thailand, for the most part, is
prosperous and stable. Its people,
90 percent Buddhist and far more
united than the Vietnamese, on
the whole dislike and distrust
Communists and Chinese alike.
Unlike Viet Nam, Thailand has a
sturdy middle class and many of
its peasants-80 percent of the
population-are well off by South-
east Asia standards. Unlike Viet
Nam, Thailand never was colon-
ized, never partioned. Since World
War II it has been one of the
staunchest allies of America in
the Far East.
Thailan's role in the Viet Nam
war, as the site of bases whence
U.S. planes take off, probably has
made the ,country even more an
attractive target for subversion
and guerrilla tactics inspired and
supported by the Red Chinese.
Since early 1965, Communist ac-
tivities in the northeast-suscept-
ible to infiltration across the bor-
der from an area of Laos held by
the Communist Pathet Lao forces
-have risen considerably. The
Thai government says there were
35 assassinations of government
representatives in the northeast
in 1965 and more than twice that
number thus far in 1966. Red Chi-
na has broadcast a report that
battles between government forces
and guerrillas numbered 24 in 19-
65 and 43 in the first half of
There are as many U.S. troops
in Thailand as there were in Viet
Nam early in 1965. The Pentagon
has declined to disclose this figure.
Unofficial estimates recently put
it at 27,000 to 35,000. William P.
Bundy, assistant Secretary of
State, said last week the figure
was 25,000, mostly Air Force units.
That would represent more than
twice the number there in early
A U.S.-backed air and naval
base complex has been enormously
expanded. Last month, the U-
Tapao airfield, built by the Ameri-
cans in less than eight months,
was turned over to Thai officials.
This installation to the south of
Bangkok has a field 11,500 feet
long with 200-foot-wide runways,
capable of accommodating the
biggest U.S. bombers. It is 650
miles from Hanoi.
Besides U-Tapao, built at a cost
of $40 million, there are four oth-
er U.S.-built jet air bases in
Thailand. All have been turned
over to the Thai government.
There is little secret about the
use of That bases in the Viet Nam
war. As long agd as January, The
Associated Press reported from
Saigon that probably 60 percent of
air strikes against North Viet Nam
were taking off from Thai bases.
With the U-Tapao base now avail-
able, the percentage seems bound
to rise. It should be far easier
for B52 bombers to reach North
Viet Nam from there than from
At the enormous Sattahip naval
base complex, 100 miles south of
Bangkok, Americans are building
a complete major port at a cost of
about $90 million. When it is com-
pleted within two years it will
have deep-water berths, rock
breakwaters, new fuel storage
tanks, pipeline supply systems,
improved port installations, ord-
nance depots, telecommunications
and supporting facilities.
In addition, new roads with
military meaning are being built
in the country and existing trans-
port routes are being upgraded.
Military supplies which would be
needed in the event of attack have
been placed in forward positions.
Thailand has had a military
government, ruling in the name of
the king, since 1958. There is some
unrest about this particularly
among intellectual elements who
say they want more democracy, a
new constitution and elections.
The government under Prime Min-
ister Thanom Kittikhachorn says
the time is inappropriate because
of Southeast Asia conditions and
the Communist threat.
The nation, about five-sixths the
size of Texas with 31 million peo-
ple, is in enviable condition apart
from its northeast, so far as its
economy and prospects are con-
By government estimate, the
guerrilla movement i s small.
Bangkok says the Communist hard
core amounts to no more than
1,500 in the northeast, operating
in roaming bands of 80 to 100
To counter Red activity, the gov-
ernment has instituted, with U.S.
help, a civic action program in
the northeast involving mobile de-
velopment units, police training
in counterinsurgency and estab-
lishment of a government presence
in an area neglected for years
by Bangkok. The Americans have
provided $35 million for this pro-.
Communism has never caught
on in Thailand. The Thai Com-
munist party, formed in 1946, was
made up mostly of overseas Chi-
nese, of whom Thailand has four
million. Like overseas Chinese
pressures from Red Chinese agents.
The Communist party was outlaw-
ed and went underground in 1952.
But infiltration in the northeast
and central parts of the country
by Lao and Thai-stock people, and
of Malay-stock people in the ex-
treme south, is easy. Underground
radio broadcasts boast of "a vio-
lent counteroffensive" to over-
throw the Thanom government.
In comparison with other South-
east Asia countries, Thailand is
thriving. Its annual growth rate
reached a record 10.6 percent in
1963 and leveled off thereafter at
6.3. Its 1965 gross national pro-
duct was 80.2 billion baht-$4 bil-
lion. Real output rose between 19-
61 and 1965 by 7.5 percent each
year. Real income per person was
25 percent higher this year than in
Export earnings grow steadily.
So do agricultural surpluses, main-
ly rice, making the country an
Asian rice basket.
U.S. officials in Thailand say
they operate on the theory that if
the United States provides the
tools, the Thais themselves will do
the job of combatting Red sub-
'ALL OR NOTHING':
Rights Bill Appears Doomed
For Election in South
Voters Excluded as
SAIGON, UP) - Amid terrorist
grenade explosions and a mingling
of pep rallies, millions of war-
weary South Vietnamese voters
went to the polls today to elect
108 delegates to a new national
About 500,000 troops, police, and
militiamen guarded 5,238 polling
places against Viet Cong attacks.
Exploding grenades in Saigon kill-
ed one and wounded at least 28
Although a handful of generally
illiterate voters were aware of it
the prestige of President Johnson
was on the line.
In.effect the election is a popu-
larity contest, between Gen. Ngu-
yen Cao Ky's government and the
Viet Cong. The contest will be de-
cided by the number of voters who
actually go to the polls in defiance
of the Viet Cong terror campaign.
Premier Ky said if 60 percent of
the eligible 5,288,512 voters go to
the polls he would consider the
election a success.
However, Vice-President Hubert
H. Humphrey set theJohnson ad-,
ministration's target by predicting'
75 pr cent of the voters would cast
The elected assembly will con-.
vene two weeks after the election
and have six months to write a
new constitution. The military'
government has retained veto
power, but the Assembly can over-
rule a veto by two-thirds vote.
Practically no political parties
are represented in the election. All,
Communists and neutralists were
excluded and the minority Uni-
fled Buddhist Church is boycott-
ing the election.j
Many among the 530 candidates,
are critical of Ky, the Air Force
commander, and other military
officers who have run this countryj
for 14 months.
They are neither Communists
nor Buddhist radicals, but disap-
pointed and disillusioned men who
see little difference between the:
premier's promises and those of
tion determination to lets its 1966
civil rights bill sink or swim on a
hotly disputed open housing sec-
tion heightened prospects yester-
day that the measure will sink.
Senate Democratic Leader Mike
Mansfield of Montana said Atty.
Gen. Nicholas Katzenbach has
made it clear to the leadership
that a bill without an open hous-
ing provision would not be ac-
Mansfield said in an interview
Katzenbach set forth the admini-
stration position Friday in a talk
with him and Sen. Everett M.
Dirksen. the Republican leader
Even before the White House
stand became known, a captain of
Souther forces opposing the
whole bill predicted the admin-
istration "will throw in the towel
to obtain Senate approval of the
next week" and abandon efforts
House-passed measure this year.
Sen. Allen J. Ellender, D-La..
said racial disorders in the North
have killed the bill's chances and
the administration actually "has
lost interest in it." "President
Johnson," Ellender said in an in-
terview, "is beginning to take note
of what's happening in the coun-
As passed by the House. the
bill would provide a ban on racial
discrimination in the sale and
rental of private housing except
owner-occupied dwellings and
The Senate moved to take up
the week the lack of a quorum of
the bill last Monday but through~
51 senators repeatedly forced the
chamber to adjourn. As a result,
a well-planned-Southern filibuster
to prevent a vote never really got
But it is this prospective fili-
buster that has administration
A SMALL GROUP OF BUDDHIST demonstrators protest against today's government election in
South Viet Nam. The group was assembled outside the U.S. embassy in Saigon.
World News Roundup
High Turnout Likely;
Issues Not Clearcut
DA NANG, South Viet Nam (P)
-"I think he is a good man, and
if he will do what he says he will
do, things should get better."
That is a more-or-less typical
Vietnamese voter speaking.
A survey of farmers, shopkeep,
ers and housewives indicates that
the Vietnamese voter in this area
is often like voters in many other
countries. The sampling also indi-
cates almost everyone will vote.
The voter is uncertain of the
issues and skeptical of promises
but still hopes the outcome will
mean a brighter future.
It was a watch repairman tink-
ering with a cheap clock who said
he hoped his favorite would keep
"They-the candidates-can say
much, but who can tell what they
will do?" he asked.
A 21-year-old sergeant in the
Vietnamese air force had a special
yardstick to measure his candi-
date: "This man hates the Viet
Cong-he will fight them."
He added he expected Commun-
ist guerrillas to try and disrupt the
election but "they will fail so
badly it will show to the world how
the people hate them."
The voters will select a 117-man
assembly to write arconstitution.
However, many voters feel they
will be electing a regular legisla-
"I didn't know the difference
and it is difficult to find the right
answer," said a calloused farmer
from Quang Ngai
B'ani B'rith Hillel Foundafion
HIGH HOLIDAY SERVICES
In Rackham Lecture Hall Auditorium
Sept. 14, Wednesday evening, 7:30 P.M.*
Address: Prof. Abraham Kaplan
"Between Mar and Man"
Sept. 15 and 16, Thursday and Friday, 9 A.M.
Sept. 22, Friday evening Kol Nidre, 7 P.M.*
Address: Prof. Philip J. Elving
... That We May Search Our Ways"
*At these two services, seats are reserved for affiliated
until a half hour before service starts.
By The Associated Preis
TOKYO-Thousands of Chinese
Red Guards summoned to Peking
to help carry out Mao Tze-tung's
cultural revolution purge are
hurrying back to their home dis-
tricts to spread the revolution to
the masses, Peking's New China
News Agency said last night.
"They have organized teams,
groups and stations to carry out
propaganda work on a wide
scale," the broadcast dispatch said.
"They have handed out leaflets,
pasted up slogans and made
broadcasts in the streets to popu-
larize the decision to the revolu-
CHICAGO - Six persons were
injured and George Lincoln Rock-
well was arrested yesterday as 125
American Nazi party members and
sympathizers were greeted with
isolated incidents on a march
through a Negro neighborhood.
Negroes threw rocks and bottles
at passing white motorists a block
from the march after the proces-
* * *
two top executives predicted yes-
terday that auto business will con-
tinue strong in 1967, although
slightly below this year's sales.
Chairman Frederic G. Donner
and President James M. Roche
estimated that retail auto sales in
the United States this year would
total about 9.1 million cars, in-
"If the expansion of the econ-
omy continues with consumer con-
fidence maintained' at a higher
level, total new passenger car sales
can be expected to approximate
closely the current model year
record, in the area of nine million
units," they said.
CAPE KENNEDY, Fla.-Gemini
11's two eager pilots suffered a
second frustrating delay yesterday,
this time untilrMonday, in their
attempt to soar skyward for a~
challenging satellite hunt and
space walk journey.
With familiar suddenness, trou-
ble struck at the last minute-in
the automatic pilot system of the
mission's Atlas - Agena t a r g e t
REFORM STUDENTS are invited, as usual, to worship with HILLEL,
as above, or with the, new Congregation, Eempte Beth Emeth, at
the Unitarian Church, 1917 Washtenow Ave. on Sept. 14 and 23
at 8:15 p.m., on Sept. 15 and 24 at 10 a.m.
Cien uiki P*eent4
"THE LONELINESS OF THE
LONG DISTANCE RUNNER".
(dir. Tony Richardson-1962)
English. Starring Tom Courtney and Michael Redgrave.
Tony Richardson, director of Tom Jones, in a bitter, biting
study of the physical and emotional confusion of adolescence.
GILBERT' & SULLIVAN
DETROIT - General
BEGINNING A SERIES
Saturday & Sunday
"The Great Society"
EVERY MONDAY NOON LUNCH
This Monday: IRAJ MAIDEVI
Dept. Political Science, Iranian Intellectual
Next Monday: FRITHJOF BERGMANN
Dept. of Philosophy
END THE WAR IN VIET NAM
Public meeting to establish an
Ad Hoc Group
To run a Write-in Peace Candidate
Sunday, Sept. 11I
For U.S. Congress in the