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January 15, 1967 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-01-15

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Viet Pacification Requires Peasant Coope



EDITOR'S NOTE: In the dreary
picture of pacification efforts In
South Viet Nam, one bright spot
is provided by the U.S. Marines.
In this final article in a series on
the pacification program, Associat-
ed Press reporter Peter Arnett ex-
amines this hopeful innovation and
its limitations.
SAIGON (JP)-"The only way to
pacify Vietnam is to put a U.S.
Iarine squad in every hamlet and
ieep it there."
This comment was not made by
a boasting Marine but by an ex-
perienced U.S. AID official, Earl
Young, after he saw pacification
programs founder in three parts
of Viet Nam.
Young, a tall, lean bachelor
from Dunkirk, Ind., has devoted
the past 10 years to the anti-
Communist' struggle, working in
Vietnamese provinces and on the
Viet Nam desk at the AID head-
quarters in Washington.
Currently he is deputy Aid di-
Mao Faction
Strikes Back
At Enemies
Shanghai Regained;
Uncertainty Over
President Li's Fate
TOKYO (1P)-Japanese reports
from the Chinese capital declared
that supporters of President Liu
Shao-chi fought back in the con-
tinuing power struggle gripping
Communist China.
Peking Radio, however, said
yesterday that forces loyal to Mao
Tse-tung dealt new blows to their
foes both in army and civilian life.
Japanese correspondents for
Ymirui, Sankei, and the Japanese
Broadcasting Co. all filed reports
from Peking saying President Liu
was demanding a retraction of his
alleged "self-criticism" given wide
publication last month.
They quoted the wall posters
which were being used apparently
by both factions as a major pro-
paganda device.
A Japanese reporter in Peking
said that Red army troops storm-
ed a hideout of pro-Liu army of-
ficers in the western China city
of Lanchow and captured scores
of dissidents. The correspondent
quoted a wall posters as saying
the raid occurred last Tuesday in
the Yellow River city 700 miles
west of Peking.
"Black Military Elements"
The wall poster reporting the
Lanchw raid identified the dis-
sidents as "black military ele-
ments" loyal to Gen. Liu Chih-
chien, the No. 2 man in charge of
ideology for the army.
Peking radio has spoken pre-
viously of a struggle involving a.
small but influential group of
anti-Mao military leaders, and
among the latest purge victims
was Gen. Liu.
Yesterday Peking radio said the
pro-Mao forces had gained the
upper hand in Shanghai, where
earlier in the month there were.
reports of labor unrest and clashes.
between workers and the Red
. According to the broadcast,
Marshall Yeh Chien-yang, a mem-
ber of the Politburo, said the Mao
forces had launched "an all-out
total offense against bourgeois
reactionaries" and that they have
begun "to score a great victory."
He concedede that a handful of
"those within the party who are
in authority and a small number
of diehards" are offering resist-
Pro-Mao Alliance

Peking radio also said that re-
volutionaries in factories, agricul-
tural areas, party organizations
and schools have, "joined hands in
forming a pro-Mao grand alli-
It quoted a correspondent of
Wen Jui Pao, a Shanghai news-
great proletarian cultural revo-
lution that had swept every sec-
paper, saying the alliance has
generated "a red storm of the
tion of the city."
The braodcast added that the
pro-Mai forces in the League of
Communist Youths had seized a
handful of revisionists described
as taking cover in the league's
City Committee, but did not say
The correspondent of the Kyodo
news service in Peking reported
that pro-Mao Red Guards and
workers seized the took control
of Peking's central radio broad-
casting station, thus giving Mao's
supporters a vital outlet to broad-
cast rallying calls.
The report had some puzzling
aspects, since there had been no
indication in Peking broadcasts
that the pro-Mao forces were not

rector in the 1st Corps region and'
is credited with being the opera-
ting genius behind a unique or-
ganization called the Joint Co-
ordinating Council. This brings
together in regular meetings those
who determine the pacification
destiny of the 1st corps-the U.S.
Marine Corps, the Vietnamese
military, and the civilian U.S.
With no fuss, Yankee ingenuity
and a high batting average as
far as action goes, the council at-
tempts to solve the most pressing
problems of pacification logistics.
Young realizes that a U.S. Mar-
ine squad in every Vietnamese
hamlet would amount to virtual
occupation. There are approxi-
mately 12,000 hamlets in the
country, so the Marine Corps
would be hard pressed to man
them even if the idea one day
were accepted.

But Young, and other American
officials who have seen the ef-
fectiveness of 50 Marine "guinea
pig" squads operating in hamlets
around the marine enclaves of
Hue-Phu-Bai, Da Nang and Chu
Lai, are beginning to feel that in
the end, when and if all other
efforts fail, the U.S. military might
have to do the job.
The 15-man Marine squads,
comprising three fire teams, a
squad leader, a deputy and a Navy
medic, seclude themselves within
a hamlet, ostensibly "advising"
the platoon of popular force per-
sonnel who normally guard a
semi-pacified hamlet.
The objective is to train the
hamlet defenders, popular force
soldier recruited from the hamlet,
to do the job of security on their
own. Poor security has been re-
sponsible in large part for the
death of previous pacification

programs because all the attempts The idea caught on, partic- have long talks with the village'
to train the popular forces have ularly in Chu Lai, the lonely Mar- friends. The local priest told S.
failed. ine enclave carved out of the sand Sgt. Gerald Lyner of Atlanta, Ga.:
In the past, hamlets protected wastes of southern Quang Tin pro- "You know that some of Your pop-
by a company or a battalion of vince. There are now 11 teams in ular force people might be Viet
.Chu Lai, 29 teams in the Da Nang Cong." Lyner replied, "We'll con-
Vietnamese troops lapsed back in- area and 10 at Phu Bai. vert them."
to the hands of the Viet Cong Permission has been given to A village elder told Sgt. C. P.
when the troops left. increase the teams to 70, with Soape of Dallas, Tex.: "You are
The Marines intend to leave more teams scheduled for 1967. like the French, the Japanese, the
each hamlet, too, when they figure The Marines squads, usually Viet Cong. You say you will leave
their training mission is com- commanded by a sergeant, find when the war is over. But you will
pleted. But it is significant that villagers initially shy and afraid stay, I know."
no marine squads have yet been to talk with them. But the longer Soape replied, "I'm going home
pulled out of hamlets, and some the Marines remain in a village, when the job is done."
have been there since August 1965. the friendlier the people become. Some of the Marine squads have
The concept was developed by In one hamlet the children may been hit badly by superior Viet
Lt. Col. Woodrow Taylor, a bat- run up to the marines with a cry, Cong forces, so there is a need to
talion commander in the Phu Bai i English, "Viet Cong tax collec- kee them in fairly secure areas,
region in 1965. He beefed up Viet- tor over there," or "Viet Cong will restricting their role.
namese popular force platoons try to attack tonight." Sometimes But there can be no question
around his base are with Marines the information has been accu- that where they operate they give
and found that the Marines got rate, and the Marines round up hamlet security, with the side ef-
along fine with the Vietnamese, the Viet Cong. fect of building up the popular
and security improved. The young Marines sometimes forces in the hamlet.

"Our biggest need is to build
the popular soldiers up to our'
level, and not let ourselves drift
down to theirs in this very in-
depentdent, casual hamlet en-
vironment that we have," Lyner
The U.S. 25th Division has in-
dividual battalions operating out
of district towns in the well-pop-
ulated regions west and south of
Saigon, providing umbrellas of
One 25th Infantry Battalion has
the job of pacifying the area
around Rach Kien, a town 25
miles southeast of Saigon. The
U.S. high command has given this
project top priority, but for some
reason there has been no coordi-
nation between the military and
civilian agencies.
Consequently, there is little
money to use in Rach Kien for re-

building the town that has fallen
into ruin since it was abandoned
by the government 15 months ago.
All the American units conduct
"festivals" and "county fairs" in
which suspected villages are sur-
rounded and all the men inter-
rogated while the women and
children are entertained with
brass bands, food and candy
handouts, and medical treatment.
"People smile and wave when
we pass through these villages
again," one officer explained. The
lasting effect of these programs is
doubtful, however.
Most American units are still
mainly involved in the search for
and destruction of hardcore enemy
But as more and more hardcore
enemy are destroyed, American
trops are expected to move into
increasing pacification work, par-
ticularly in the delta.

Bonn, Paris
Smooth Out
Kiesinger, De Gaulle j
Predict Harmony D
Between Two NationsI in
PARIS (M)-West German Chan-
cellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger ended pr
his visit to France yesterday with wi
the satisfaction of having patched m
up relations with President Char- m
les de Gaulle's government. m
Both F r e n c h and German va
spokesmen declared themselvesj
pleased with the results of Kie- us
singer's trip, and spoke of a new So
era in French-German coopera- us
tion. va
On his return to Bonn last r
night, Kiesinger told newsmen: ni
"We have succeeded in reactivat-
ing the French-German treaty of
cooperation in the spirit in which
it was signed." The treaty was
signed in 1963 by Konrad Ade-
nauer, then chancellor, and De

-Associated Press
A TYPICAL CROWD OF more than 100,000 supporters of Mao Tse-tung in Shanghai is represent-
ed in this picture, according to the Chinese news agency which released it. The banners being waved
by the crowd relates the purpose of the demonstration as the "destruction of the new counter-at-
tack of the burr eis reactionarv line-"
mt~n ,fl Wflt *~~a ~flO * ~ S~f~fl *A* "'

Southern Democrats Envision
Powerful Independent Bloc
WASHINGTON (G) - Southern open the Republican - Southern formed on the status of bills-
emocrats in the House are con- Democratic coalition that has long mainly President Johnson's do-
lering formally organizing as an been a potent backstage factor in mestic program, decide what would
dependent bloc that would hold the House legislative process. be in the best interest of the
e balance of power on key votes. Envision Potent Force South and the tactics to achieve
The Southerners see in the What the Southerners behind it, and negotiate directly with the
esent alignment of the House, the move envision is an organiza- Republicans on occasion.
th neither Republicans nor ad- tion patterned on the Democratic At this stage, the GOP attitude
inistration Democrats holding a Study Group, through which lib- isn't fully known. Some Republi-
ajority, a ripe opportunity to eral House Democrats seek to in- can House members probably
ake their conservative views pre- fluence the leadership., would be reluctant to line up with
il in the shaping of legislation. The potential membership of any formal conservative coalition.
"Neither side can win without such an organization is about 50
," says one of the principal of the 247 Democrats in the Party Caucuses
uthern strategists. "It's up to House, enough to deny adminis- The approach has already been
to make the most of this ad- tration forces a majority, or to used successfully this season on
ntage." help the 186 Republicans make an informal basis. Last Monday
The move, well into the plan- one. night, after the Democrats and
ng stage, would bring into the It would keep the members in- Republicans had held party cau-
_---- rcuses to prepare for the opening
"~ ~of Congress Tuesday, the South-
O.40MM i S u er Hea"erners held their own secret
Working closely with some Re-
Os sesinA merica n Drive publican leaders, they planned the
OSJ istrategy that led to defeats for
the Democratic leadership the
SAIGON ()) - Sharp fighting 'ed putting 54 junks and barges next day on the seating of Adam
ared up and down South Viet- out of action. Clayton Powell (D-NY) and the
im yesterday and the big A South Vietnamese military adoption of House rules.
merican drive in the "Iron Tri- spokesman said two battalions of The Southerners have played
igle" pushed Communist losses Viet Cong-a force estimated at coalition politics with the GOP on
yond 450 men. 400 men-overran a military post some issues for 30 years without
There were no major engage- 325 miles northeast of Saigon and being formally organized. For
ents reported but the U.S. and the defending platoon of 30 Pop- most of that time, they had the
etnamese commands listed many ular Force militiamen pulled out. canny leadership of Rep. Howard
nall clashes and these other The spokesman said the militia- W. Smith (D-Va). As chairman
velopments: men dispersed and he had no re- of the Rules Committee and as a
-Two U.S. planes went down port on casualties. At last report, master of parliamentary maneu-
combat, one over North Viet- the post was still in Communist vers, Smith was a powerful force
3m and the other in the south, hands. ' by himself and 111. prestige among
-A Norwegian motor ship and Elsewhere, however, South Viet- the Southerners was such that
U.S. Navy minesweeping boat namese troops reported killing 38 most would go along at a nod
lided in a river 30 miles south- Red troops in four small clashes. from him.
st of Saigon and the Navy boat U.S. Marines operating in the Need for Organization
nk with the loss of three of her northern provinces of South Viet-r
ven-man crew. nam reported killing 74 of the But Smith is gone, defeated by
-U.S. B52 heavy bombers struck enemy in a series of light skirm- a younger man after 36 years in
a suspected concentration of ishes and with artillery barrages. Congress, and no single Southern-
orth Vietnamese troops less than In Operation' Cedar Falls, the er remaining in the House can
mile south of the demilitarized week-old drive to clear out the replace him. So the talk has now
ne. jungles of the Iron Triangle 20 turned toward organization.
-Bad weather continued to to 30 miles north of Saigon, U.S. If such an organization should
amper U.S. air raids over the forces counted 286 Viet Cong dead emerge, the man most often men-
ommunist north but pilots at- so far, 64 captured and an addi- tioned as its likely leader is Rep.
cked coastal targets and report- tional 105 who surrendered. Joe D. Waggonner Jr. (D-La).

wSI ltr gCl liC1Idy II.
Congress Begins To.
Johnson's Domestic]

Associated Press News Analyst
WASHINGTON - The four-
day old 90th Congress already is
beginning to restrict President
Johnson's political options in
fields likely to have an impact
on the 1968 elections.
Although the President obvious-
ly foresaw many of the difficulties
that lie ahead, he is represented
as somewhat surprised by the
controversial reaction to his tax
increases and Social Security pro-
Congress apparently is going to
wait several months to gauge the
progress of the economy before
deciding whether to grant his re-
quest for a 6 per cent surcharge
on corporate and most individuals'
income tax payments.
This delay is not calculated to
encourage the independent Fed-
eral Reserve Board to hasten ac-
tions which would ease the tight
money situation. The board may
be inclined to wait and see what
Congress does before it makes
loan money much easier to come
Wrapped up in this is the
course of the construction indus-
try which has been pinched back
by interest rates higher than
those which have prevailed during
any modern Democratic adminis-
tration. The White House is more
worried about this segment of
the economy than any other at
this point.
Opposition Grows
But there is some hard-core op-
position to any tax increase. In
the Senate, for example, it is op-
posed by Chairman Russell B.
Long (D-La) of the Senate Fi-
nance Committee.
He has vigorous support in this
position from Sens. Vance Hartke

(D-Ind), Herman. E. Halmadge
(D-Ga), and John J. Williams
(R-Del), all members of his com-
Johnson evidently assumed that
Congress would go along with his
proposal for a 20 per cent increase
in Social Security benefits. In the
customary course of benefits, it
would be safe to assume that a
politically minded Congress would
jump at the opportunity to vote
more money for the elderly and
the disabled.
But the matter of financing
these expanded benefits is thel
subject of deep controversy with-
in the committees which will
handle the legislation.
The Social Security payroll tax
now is scaled to reach a maximum
of around 11 per cent on employer
and worker over the years. John-
son's proposals -including a $70
monthly minimum payment to
beneficiaries-could carry this be-
yond 13 per cent, according to the
best Capitol Hill estimates. '
Republicans advocating the $70
minimum-which Johnson has op-
posed in the past-want to dip in-
to general revenues to finance it.
This is the position also of Sens.
Robert F. Kennedy (D-NY) and
Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass).
Deficit Woes
If even, a part of Social Security
is thus financed, it would put
pressure on Johnson's budget and
possibly force the President into
a considerably larger deficit than
the $8.1 billion he forecast for
the year beginning July 1. That
deficit took into account the $4.5-
billion tax increase he asked.
Any threat of a higher deficit
would be an automatic signal for
even greater spending cuts than
the White House now anticipates

Continental Cooperation
Though it was clear there were
major limitations to this coopera-
tion. France and Germany agreed
- eto put their major differences
R estrict aside and work in areas where
R cprogress was possible.
One of the differences is the
role of the United States in Eu-
Cl icie0s 1rope as seen from Bonn and Paris.
The German view is that U.S.
presence in Europe is necessary
will be made by a Congress that for stability. De Gaulle has been
is reading the November election working to diminish U.S. influence
results as a mandate for economy. on the Continent in the name of
These cuts could affect the a "European Europe."
whole range of "Great Society" Plan of Action
programs, pinching them down Spokesmen said De Gaulle and
and possibly scuttling some of Kiesinger pigeonholed this dispute
them. and agreed on the following
The feeling at the beginning of points:
the 90th Congress thus is that at -That France, on. the basis of
the end of it next year Johnson its courtship of Eastern Europe,
may have relatively few fresh do- would plead the cause of German
mestic accomplishments to cite in reunification with the Soviet Un-
his expected bid for a second elec- ion and Germany's Communist
tive term. neighbors.


World Neu
By The Associated Press
MOSCOW-A young American
sentenced to three years in a
Soviet labor camp, Buel Ray
Wortham Jr., was released yester-
day on 20,000 rubles-$22,222.22-
bail pending an appeal to the
Russian Federation S u p r e m e
A Leningrad court granted bail,
the U.S. Embassy announced after
its consular officer, Harlan G.
Moen, had telephoned from Len-
Wortham was convicted last
month of three counts of selling
dollars illegally on the Leningrad
black market and of stealing a
statue from his Leningrad hotel.
NAIROBI, Kenya - Fossilized
remains of a pygmy-sized man
who lived 20 million years ago
have been discovered at diggings
in two areas of Kenya, a promi-
nent prehistorian said yesterday.
Dr. Louis Leakey said the find

is Roundup
has reinforced the theory that the
family of man was separated from
its cousin, the ape, many millions
of years earlier than previously
was believed.
Named the Kenyapitheous Afri-
cans, the creature lived on meat
and vegetable matter and showed
many manlike characteristics not
found in the ape.
HAMBURG-Cowles Communi-
cations Inc. will bring a legal ac-
tion against the West German.
magazine Der Stern over publica-
tion of William Manchester's "The
Death of a President" its editor-
in-chief William Attwood said
He announced the decision in a
statement after meeting Stern
Editor Henri Nannen Friday night
to try to persuade him to have
certain portions of the German
serialization cut. Nannen said
after the meeting no cuts would
be made.





in a reading of


JANUARY 18 and 19
8:00 P.M.





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