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March 28, 1967 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-03-28

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LONDON ()P)-From the Arctic
to the Aegean allied peoples and
governments are loosening the
American embrace, bent on pur-
suing their interests in their own
ways. Eastward, Hungarians, Ro-
manians, Bulgarians are providing
sinmilar displays of reborn nation-
alism not always to Moscow's
Yet neither Washington nor
Moscow appears unduly perturbed
-possibly because they feel the
balance. of international danger
has moved from Europe to Asia.
An Associated Press survey of
trends in four key capitals of al-
lied Europe suggests political as
well as military support is eroding
from the 15-nation North Atlantic
Treaty Organization. Most of the
major allies want to recast NATO's

strategy and purposes before it
enters its second 20-year term in
Fresh friendships are overshad-
owing old loyalties, with Paris
replacing Washington as a focal
Factors of economic nationalism
are spurring the process. West
Germany and Italy dislike the
eurbs on their industrial advance-
ment they discern in the projected
treaty to stop the spread of nu-
clear weapons.
Even stalwart Britons have
joined the European protest
against what is seen as United
States economic domination.
Europeans, who evolved bal-
ance-of-power politics, see a
combination of causes behind
these developments.
The Americans and Russians,

uneasy over Communist China,
are moving gingerly into an era
of superpower diplomacy..
More important, some of the
continent suspect a major political
bargain between Washington and
Moscow is emerging, looking like
-The Americans would accept
the status quo in Europe, mean-
in, in practical terms, the inde-
finite division of Germany.
-The Russians in return would
accept the status quo in Asia,
meaning a Vietnam settlement ac-
ceptable to Washington.
True or false, this was how
President Johnson's Oct. 7 speech
in New York was interpreted
when he bid publicly for a mutual
U.S.-Soviet cutback in forces in
Europe as a step toward per-
manent peace on the continent.

From that interpretation, or
suspicion, various things follow:
The Vietnam war has become,
to Europeans, a symbol of Wash-
ington's greater interest in Asia,
while the turmoil in China has
dramatized Russia's need for
stability on her western front to
leave her free to deal with any
emergency on the east.
These two situations, as seen
from Europe, could transform
classical patterns of international
Intense discussions are reported
from Paris, Bonn and Rome, as
well as London, about changing
European attitudes toward the
Each country seems to feel Eur-
ope can play a world role ef-
fectively only if it is united.
At the same time the main

European allies have their own
national reasons for wanting to
shake loose from the Americans.
De Gaulle, for instance, wants
to lead a "third force Europe."
He has long foreseen others would
follow, and Chancellor Kurt
Georg Kiesinger's evident conver-
sion pleases him. Kiesinger's men
consider that, somehow, the Amer-
icans have failed them in their
aim of reuniting Germany.
There have been other factors
influencing them-a wish to as-
sert themselves more, a certain
resentment against having to bow
to the hard-sell of American arms
salesman and a reaction to Amer-
ican investment in their industries.
Prime Minister Aldo More leads
a coalition government in Italy
with socialists in it and to some

extent the concept of "a third projected into positions of power

force Europe" is traditional to
European socialists. But he has to
watch the influence of the Com-
munists, whose vote rose in 1963
and could rise again in next year's
Moro has been careful to con-
fine himself to "understanding,"
not "supporting," American policy
in Vietnam. After the end of last
nonth's bomb-pause Moro's Cab-
inet expressed regret at the Amer-
ican action.
Wilson has managed to remain
loyal on most issues to the John-
son administration, not without
political risk,
Recent governmental shifts in
West Germany, Italy and Britain
have produced another common
factor: Socialist parties have been


of challenge.
The German coalition includes
Vice-Chancellor Willy Brandt's So-
cial Democrats. Some diplomats
believe the real strong man of
the regime is Finance Minister
Franz-Josef Strauss-and that he
is resolved eventually to oust
American and British troops from
his country and to come to terms
with the Russians. Others see him
as a forceful German patriot con-
vinced the transatlantic connec-
tion with Washington is valuable
to Germany.
Moro's political strategy seems
to be designed mainly to keep
the Communists at bay.
On most big issues he is expect-
ed to play his cards well enough
to keep the Socialists from palling

out of his coalition before the
1968 ballot.
Wilson, a socialist premier, has
run into a bad period of govern-
ment but some signs suggest he
may be over the worst. His austere
economic recovery program ap-
pears to be balancing the nation's
books after years of chronic over-
spending abroad.
Russia's preoccupation with the
Chinese peril has fed the con-
viction - or hope -- among the
European allies that there is little
or no chance of a Soviet march
against the West in the foresee-
able future.
Consequently certain peoples
-including the French, West Ger-
mans, Italians and British-see
little need for maintaining back-
breaking military barricades acre-s
the continent.



r _ .... __ .......,





Take Effect Saturday

Elections Set
For' Sept. 1
Council Chooses Dates'
For Voting on Senate,
Assembly Seats
SAIGON (P)-South Vietnam's
new constitution will go into ef-
fect Saturday and presidential
elections will be held Sept. 1 the
Armed Forces Council announced
here yesterday. Premier Nguyen
Cao Kay, the real power in the
council, is expected to be a can-
The decision came on a day that
saw warfare ebb after a Sunday
of vigorous fighting stretching
from the mountains along the
demilitarized zone to the Mekong
giver delta.
After a day-long meeting, the
council announced that elections
to the Senate also will be held
Sept. 1. Voting for the lower house
of the l'ational Assembly was set
for Oct. 1.
Civilian Rule
The constitution, written by the
117-member Constituent Assembly,
will restore true civilian rule for
the first time since the military
overthrow of President Ngo Dinh
Diem Nov. 1, 1963.
There have been brief periods
of civilian government since then,
but the military was the actual
power. The last civilian govern-
ment was kicked out by the mili-
tary Jan. 27, 1965, after three
months in office.
The president military regime
has been in office since June 20,
1965, with Premier Ky, an air
force marshal, as head of,the gov-
ernment, and Maj. Gen. Nguyen
Van Thieu as head of state.
Thieu and Ky are considered
leading possibilities for the presi-
dency. In order to run, they would
have to shed their military ,rank
because the constitution requires
that the president be a civilian. .
Presidential Form
The newsconstitution provides
for a presidential form of govern-
ment much like South Korea and
France. The president will be both
head of state and government and
will appoint a premier as chief
of cabinet.
A communique said the military
council would "accept in full the
draft constitution of the Consti-i
tuent Assembly voted on March
18, 1967, and will promulgate this
said constitution on April 1, 1967.",
This was a month earlier than
Also yesterday, Radio Hanoii
said a foreign ministry spokesman
had in effect rejected U.N. Secre-i
tary-General U Thant's peacei
plan. It said his views as released
by the United Nations "do not
tally with the reality in Vietnam;
and are contrary to the views" of1
North Vietnam.
'No Distinction'
The North Vietnamese spokes-;
man particularly objected to
Thant's proposal for a cease-fire
and unconditional negotiations,
saying it made "no distinction
between the aggressors and the
On the war front, fighting in
the Mekong 4iver delta centered
around Can Tho, 50 miles south-
west of Saigon.
This is essentially a battle for
the rice paddies that the Viet
Cong needs for food supplies, and'

-Associated Press
The American tanker Torray Canyon which split in two off the southwest coast of England Sunday
continued to spill its oil cargo yesterday, further polluting British beaches and waters. The vessel,
written off as the most costly loss in merchant marine history, ran aground ten days ago and spilt
during the failure of Dutch salvage tugs to free her from the rocks.
Pentagon AmiUS Planes
Attacked byCo-m-munist Ships

Court Asks
ICC Study
On Merger.E
Pa.-N.Y. Railroad
Union May Adverselyt
Effect Other Lines
preme Court sidetracked the1
Pennsylvania-New York Central
railroad merger yesterday until its
effect on the fate of three smaller
eastern roads is determined.
This can be done quickly by the
Interstate Commerce Commission.
possibly by June, Justice Tom C.'
Clark said in the 5-4 decision.
"We do not believe it is too high
a price to pay" for a just settle-'
ment, he added.
The $6-billion merger, studied
for more than 10 years and in the
works more than five, represents
the biggest corporate union in the
history of American business.
Wayne M. Hoffman, executive
vice president of New York Cen-
tral, commented "Needles to say,
we are disappointed." He added
"even a temporary delay will have
adverse effects on the health of
the entire eastern railroad pic-
Penn's spokesman said his line
is "disappointed but not disheart-
The Pennsylvania, the nation's
largest railroad, and the Central,
the third largest, had a net in-
come in 1965 of more than $75
million and operating revenue in
excess of $1.5 billion.
Later Consideration.
Their merger was approved last
April by the ICC, which left for
later consideration the future of
the Erie-Lackawanna the Dela-
ware & Hudson and the Boston &
The three claimed they could
not survive as independent car-
riers. U.S. Solictor General Thur-
good Marshall referred to them as
"little orphans" in asking the
court for a delay until the ICC
finds them a home.
The three have asked that they
be included in the present Nor-
folk & Western railway system.
However, the Norfolk & Western
has said it doesn't want them un-
less they are part of the package
deal that would also include
a merger with the Chesapeake &
Ohio railway.
The ICC is now studying these
two approaches. It expects to have
a decision on the three smaller
roads' request sometime this sum-
mer. But it may not decide the
N&W-C&O case for years.
Clark emphasized the court was
not passing on the merits of the
Penn-Central merger. But he said
the ICC's order approving imme-
diate consummation while the
fate of the three roads is still up
in the air is "unsurportable."
Chief Justice Earl Warren and
Justices Hugo L. Black, William
0. Douglas and William J. Bren-
nan Jr. voted with Clark to form
a majority.
JusticesyJohn M. Harlan, Potter
Stewart and Byron R. White join-
ed Abe Fortas in dissenting.
"The courts may be the prin-
cipal guardians of the liberties of
the people," Fortas wrote. "They
are not the chief administrators
of its economic destiny."

ert F. Kennedy (D-NY) acted yes-
terday to avoid a contest with
President Johnson by announcing
through an aide he will take steps
to keep his name off 1968 presi-
dential primary ballots in Oregon
and Nebraska.
Kennedy has been saying for
more than a year that he will not
bid for the Demrocratic nomina-
tion and will support a Johnson-
Humphrey ticket.
In what seemed an obvious ef-
fort to tone down the friction that
exists between him and Johnson,
the New York senator let it be
known that he will submit a
sworn statement that he is not a
candidate for president if that be-
comes necessary to bar his name
from free-for-all primaries.
Clay Myers, the Oregon secre-
tary of state, said yesterday he
doesn't know whether he will put
Kennedy's name on the ballot 11
months from now and won't say
whether he will-until then.
Myers said last week that if
Kennedy continues to run strongly
in the political spotlight and in
polls he will consider placing his
name on the state's primary bal-
lot. Meyers has until March 19,
1968, to decide.
Under Oregon law withdrawal
can be accomplished only by a
sworn statement of the individual
imvolved that he does not intend
to become a candidate for the
presidential nomination.
The same conditions apply in
the Nebraska primary. Kennedy's
press secretary, Frank ?Aankie-
wicz, said the senator will take

withdrawal action in both states
if his name is listed.
Kennedy apparently is being
embarrassed by his name as a pos-
sible candidate against Johnson.
He recognizes the political futility
of challenging an incumbent pres-
ident for the nomination and has
indicated clearly he wants to avoid
any party split.
The New York's senator's an-
nouncement may dampen but is
not likely to snuff out independent
efforts to Democrats opposed to
Johnson's Vietnam war policies to
offer Kennedy as an alternative.
The Kennedy for President or-
ganization in New York already

Robert Kennedy Not Bidding
For Presidential Primary

Soviet Officials Expelled
By Greece in Spy Hunt

ATHENS, Greece (,')-Two So-
viet diplomats were ordered last
night to leave Greece within 48
hours, accused of activities incom-
patible with their status. They are
believed to have been accused of
A Greek Foreign Ministry an-
nouncement said simply that the
two had been expelled because in-
criminating evidence had been
compiled against them. They were
identified as Albert Zaharov, sec-
ond secretary in the Soviet Em-
bassy, and Igor Ochurkov, a mem-
ber of the Soviet commercial
Unofficial quarters expressed
beliefh the two were considered

members of a large Soviet spy net-
work exposed with the recent
arrest of three Italians in Turin,
Police have arrested civilians in
Athens+ and in Cyprus in connec-
tion with the espionage investiga-
tions. Two Russians, one a diplo-
mat, were expelled from Nicosia
last Friday, and police in Cyprus
disclosed Monday the arrest of a
third Cypriot.
The newly arrested man was
identiifed by Cyprus police as
Yannakis Pelekanos, who was
taken into custody in Nicosia last
Saturday when he stepped off a
plane from Athens.
Police sources said Pelekanos'
arrest followed a visit to Athens
by a senior Cypriot police officer,
J. Rigas, who flew to the Greek
capital as soon as Italian police
informed both Greek and Cypriot
governments that a Soviet espion-
age net uncovered in Italy extend-
ed also to their countries.
The sources said Rigas is work-
ing with Greek security in an ef-
fort to establish whether the spy-
ing activities encompassed the
Greek forces in Cyprus.
Police sources had said earlier
spying activities in Cyprus were
mainly directed against British air
bases and American installations.

is making preparations for a write-
in campaign for the senator in the
nation's earliest primary in New
After a stormy Feb. 8 White
House session with Johnson, Ken-
nedy has been at pains lately to
play down his difference with the
He has called Johnson "an out-
standing President" and added:
"I tthink we agree on most major
issues. It is one of the prices of
democracy that there is sometimes
a difference of viewpoint. But
sometimes we benefit by these dif-

Humphrey Opens European
Tour Defending Viet War

WASHINGTON ()-Communist
ships delivering war supplies to
North Vietnam's major port, Hai-
phong, have fired at American
planes on at least two occasions,
the Pentagon acknowledged last
The U.S. planes were not hit,
nor did they return the fire, the
Defense Department said. The ac-
tion occurred last year.
Earlier the Pentagon had de-
clined to discuss the incidents,
saying it could not go beyond con-
gressional testimony given by
Gen. John P. McConnell, Air Force
chief of staff.
A short time after the appear-
ance of an Associated Press story
reporting the hostile fire from
Haiphong, the Defense Depart-
ment said it had continued to
check reports and come up with
"two reported instances."
Disclosure of the apparently
onesided attacks on U.S. airplanes
in the Haiphong area came amid
these other developments:
-A Senate preparedness sub-
committee called for a lifting of
bombing restrictions in North Viet-
nam. It said: "The most pressing
need is an affirmative response to
some of the recommendations of
responsible commanders to strike
more meaningful targets in North
-A Defense Department state-
ment taking exception to some of
the subcommittee's findings of-
fered no denial of the statement
that "selection of targets to be
struck in North Vietnam is still
controlled in large measure from
Washington," and that "the strik-
ing forces must operate outside of

certain prohibited areas and to
the exclusion of specific targets."
-Sen. Stuart Symington (D-
Mo), a subcommittee member who
visited the war theater in Decem-
ber said in a separate statement
that U.S. pilots want to be freed
from restrictions against hitting
Communist airfields in North Viet-
-White House sources affirmed
that President Johnson is holding
his plan to meet about twice a
year with Vietnam commanders
and strategy directors. Johnson
has had three such meetings in
the past 11' months, at Honolulu,
Manila and Guam.

Almost from the outset of the
Vietnam war the Joint Chiefs of
Staff have recommended closing
Haiphong harbor through bomb-
ing or mining operations. The
administration, however, fears this
might bring on direct Soviet or
Communist Chinese participation
in the conflict.
There is some apprehension, too,
that ending or crippling Soviet aid
would force Hanoi deeper under
the influence of Peking.
The ban on hitting Haiphong
was lifted only once, last sum-
mer, when Navy planes smashed
pumps and piping used to transfer
fuel from tankers to storage areas.

GENEVA () - Vice President
Hubert H. Humphrey opened his
two-week European swing yester-
day with a defense of U.S. Viet-
nam policy and a counterattack
against crriticism from both sides
of the Atlantic.
"We have nothing to apologize
for," the vice president told mem-
bers of the American mission here
in a 45-minute pep talk before
being briefed on negotiations to
curb the spread of nuclear tea-
pons and lower trade barriers.
Humphrey likened the Amer-
ican effort in Asia to the U.S.
stand against Communist aggres-
sion in Europe and in Korea.
Humphrey, who takes off for
The Hague Tuesday on the second
leg of his six-nation swing, told
newsman "I carry no special mes-
sages nor am I attempting to act
as a negotiator. I come to learn
on the spot from our negotiators
and from our friends in Europe."

Humphrey said he wanted first-
hand experience to "update" him-
self on the European situation,
particularly nuclear limitation
and trade talks.
His mission, he said, was "to
come as a friend, to come as a
student, to come as a partner not
seeking to tell anyone what to
do but hopefully to learn what we
can do better."



World New
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK - Seven big New
York banks joined yesterday in
the parade to lower prime interest
rates. The move sparked other re-
ductions across the country.
The trend to a lower interest
rate began Jan. 26 when Chase
Manhattan Bank of New York,
the nation's second largest, cut to
52 per cent from 6 per cent.
Chase's action followed a call by
President Johnson in his State of
the Union message for lower in-
terest rates as a means of stimu-
lating the economy.
*, * *
FREETOWN, Sierra Leone -
Without explanation, the military
bosses of Sierra Leone yesterday
removed their leader, chosen Sat-
urday, who had not yet taken
office, and named another army

's Roundup
man in his place. Military leaders
assumed power in this West Afri-
can country Thursday after a
deadlocked election.
* * *
LA PAZ, Bolivia - President
Rene Barrientosydecreed a state
of emergency yesterday in the
Bolivian southeast and and an-
nounced the government's deter-
mination to crush a Communist-
inspired guerrilla movement. He
announced the air force was using
napalm in attacks on the guer-


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