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January 25, 1967 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-01-25

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A lungryPeople and 'The Great Leap Back

war d'

EDITOR'S NOTE: For years many
Westerners have pictured Mao Tse-
R tung as a sort of monolithic mon-
arch who bent China to his will.
Actually, troubles and dissension
have plagued him since his Com-
munists took control in 1949. An
AP specialist in Communist affairs
traces the story in this second of
five articles backgrounding the cur-
rent upheaval in the world's most
populous nation.
AP Special Correspondent
China, is a land of calamity.
For at least 2,000 years, its peo-
ple have been the victims of dis-
asters, natural and man-made. To-
day it is undergoing a violent con-
vulsion. Yet another man-made
disaster may be just around the
The current upheaval with its
titanic power struggle dates back
at least a decade.
Behind the political troubles
lay the ancient economic ones;
aggravated now by reckless to-
talitarian measures which des-
perately sought cures. An attempt
was made a decade ago to turn
China's nation of teeming mil-

lions into one which a French ob-
server once described as a "nation
of blue ants." It failed, miserably,
and the fuse of today's great polit-
ical explosion began sputtering
even then.
It is difficult for a Westerner
to understand the how and why
of what is going on in China to-
day in the wild confusion of a
"great proletarian cultural rev-
olution" launched last summer by
Mao Tse-tung, chairman of the
Chinese Communist party, and his
chief ally, Defense Minister Lin
Piao. But the "cultural revolution"
was just one more stop in the
developing upheaval which now
has reached a new and critical
At the basis of China's troubles
are backwardness and empty bel-
lies-this despite the fact that
Red China has achieved five
atomic explosions and produced a
nuclear-tipped missile.
For at least 2,000 years, feeding
China's population has been a
major problem. Even as long ago

as that, the balance of nature was'
upset and China ever since has
been subject to floods, droughts
and famines, tormented by eroded
soil and ferocious rivers, con-
demned to plagues of pests.
China is slightly larger in area
than the United States, but much'
of its land is poorly suited to
agriculture. Only a tenth of it can
be cultivated, and less than half
of that is good farmland. This
must feed a population of 750 mil-
lion, growing at a current annual
rate of 15 million.
To feed them, a half-billion
peasants labor mostly in the an-
cient ways of their forebears. If
there were a similarly large pro-
portion of U.S. farmers, 133 mil-
lion Americans would be agricul-
China may have had a chance
with Sun Yat-sen's 1911 revolution
against the Manchu dynasty, but
the agent for destruction of that
revolution was the Kung Chang
Tang-Chinese Communist party
-created by agents of Moscow's

Communist International, includ-1
ing a nian named Nguyen Than,
later known as Ho Chi Minh. of
North Vietnam.
Mao was at the founding meet-
ing in Changhai in 1921. When
he reached a position of authority,
he purged Soviet elements from
the party and it went over to in-
surrection which continued on into
revolution, with Chu Teh as the
organizer of Mao's 4th army. To-
day Chu, at 80, is pilloried by
Mao's "great proletarian cultural
revolution" as a traitor to com-
Mao had many clashes with
Joseph Stalin's Soviet party and
nurtured his revolution out of
Moscow's reach. He took advan-
tage of the Japanese occupation
of northern Manchuria and then
of the Japanese-Chinese war to
sabotage Chiang Kai-shek's Kuo-
mintang forces.
The theory of "People's war"
was born. Chu Teh, master of
guerrilla warfare laid it down. It
often is credited to Mao:

"When the enemy advances, we
retreat. When the enemy halts
and encamps, we harass him.
When the enemy seeks to avoid
battle, we attack. When the enemy
retreats, we pursue."
Today's war in Vietnam is a
"people's war" by the Mao defini-
tion, patterned on the Chinese
Communist revolution, and a test
case for the whole theory.
Mao's revolution almost lost. He
saved it by his famed "long
march" to escape Chiang's troops
-an arduous forced march of
8,000 miles winding through
mountains, deserts, swamps. Often
Mao's men lacked food. Many
thousans died. But the remnants
holed up in 10,000 caves around
Yenan in the bleak northwest and
Mao established headquarters. The
Japanese attack on China, and
then World War II gave Mao's
Communist forces a new lease on
Eight unbroken years of' war
left China prostrate and exhaust-
ed. The ultimate result was a

Communist victory over the main-
land by Oct. 1, 1949.
Mao and his party went through
several convulsions thereafter and
China's people continued to suffer
hardship. Mao took note of dis-
content and sought measures to
deal with it-in a typically Com-
munist way.
He announced in 1957 that
"contradictions among the people"
in a state like Communist China
were possible. Evidently he had in
mind the frightening lesson of
Hungary's 1956 revolution. He
wanted to know who his opponents
were. So he announced a pro-
gram: "Let a hundred flowers
bloom, let a thousand schools of
thought contend."
The flowers bloomed in a wave
of criticism. Mao reversed gears
and cracked down on those who
permitted the flowers to bloom.
They were purged.
But this was only the begin-
ning of Mao's troubles.
The current convulsion in China
may trace directly to early 1958.

It was then that Mao's Politburo
held a meeting at Peitaiho com-
munes in agricultural communes
in agricultural communities." This
was Mao's "great leap forward,"
by which he expected to transform
China's backward economy.
Opposition became evident by
th end of the year at the eighth
Communist party congress at
Wuchang. This congress passed
resolutions to "check excesses" of
the "great leap forward."
The leap envisaged not only a
new regimentation for agricul-
tural production, but a big ad-
vance in steel production by the
device of backyard smelters. In
1958, about 60 million men and
women in towns and cities were
dragooned into this steel produc-
tion effort.
By the end of that year 98 per
cent of all farms were on the
"people's commune" system, a
total of almost 125 million fam-
ilies. Those who objected that this
was a desperately reckless attempt
to cure China's ills were branded

"right-wing opportunists."
The objectors included many
who today are judged to be among
Mao's chief opponents in the sur-
ging upheaval which is called "the
great proletarian cultural revolu-
The "great leap" became the
object of scorn and ridicule from
the Soviet Communist party. Niki-
ta S. Khrushchev was outraged
at the presumption of the Chinese
leaders and Mao, who assumed
that there was a shortcut to com-
munism which had not been laid
down by the Soviet prototype.
So the "great leap" itself was
one of the contributing factors
not only to today's convulsion, but
to the deep split in world com-
munism whiich developed swiftly
after 1958.
It proved to be a great leap
backward. China was in more
economic distress than ever. Mao
faced rising discontent and in-
sistent demands to reverse his
Next: The cultural revolution

WASHINGTON (R) - President]
Johnson's $135-billion budget for
the fiscal year beginning July 1
includes a projected deficit of $8.1
Johnson estimated income at
$126.9 billion, including additional
revenue if Congress approves his
request for a 6 per cent surcharge
on income and corporation taxes
and higher postal rates.
If Congress fails to approve the
surcharge, the red ink spending
will soar another $4.5 billion to a
{ total of $12.6 billion.
Of the $135-billion total, $22.4
billion is designated for Vietnam
war spending and $18.3 billion for
Great Society programs such as
health, education, highways, nat-
ural resources and the war on pov-
erty. The welfare appropriation is
an increase of $1.9 billion over

spending this year.
The record budget, which John-
son says is designed to defend
freedom abroad and promote dig-
nity at home, includes the largest
request for military outlays-$72.3
billion-since World War II.
This figure represents a $5.4 bil-
lion increase over the estimate for
the current fiscal year.
Other budget highlights include
funds for possible first production
of the Nike-X ballistic missile and
the beginning of a space venture
aimed at an unmanned landing on
the planet Mars in 1973.
Space Program
But total spending for the na-
tion's space program is down $300
million from the current fiscal
year, the only major spending cut
in evidence.
Johnson describes his budget as

a careful balance between the na-
tion's abundant resources and its
"awesome responsibilities."
The projected administrativel
budget deficit of $8.1 billion is
held in check, Johnson says, by
reducing or postponing programs
wherever possible.
He cautions Congress against
making substantial changes for
fear of jeopardizing the economy,
the budget itself and the aims of
Congressional reaction was im-
mediate and mixed. Some Repub-
licans called for cuts, some liberal
Democrats said insufficient money
is allowed for domestic programs
while others promised a hard look
before voting on Johnson's spend-
ing proposals.
Senate Democratic Leader Mike
Mansfield of Montana said the
President has done his best to

keep the budget within "minima
manageable limits" but predicte
Congress will approve less tha
Johnson recommended.
Dirksen Reacts
Senate Republican Leader Ever
ett M. Dirksen of Illinois crit
cized what he described as budg
gimmicks, suggested a furthe
stretching of the space prograr
and called for cuts in antipoveri
Rep. Melvin R. Laird of Wiscon
sin, chairman of the House Repub
lican Conference, said the Vie
nam war budget is already outo
date when compared with presen
spending levels.
Chairman George E. Mahon (D
Tex.) of the House Appropriation
Committee said he plans a critica
look at the budget with a view t
ward cutting "everything as muc
as we safely can."

This table from President Johnson's fiscal 1968 budget
shows where the government's money will come from and where

it will go, with comparisons
1966 in billions of dollars:
Individual tax
Corporation tax
Natural Resources
Health, Labor and Welfa

for the 1967 fiscal year and fiscal

re 7.6




Uneasy Peace. Settles
Over Shaken Nicaragua

Proposed Spending'
WASHINGTON () - President for-freedom program would com p
Johnson put a $4.8 billion tag yes- to $1.8-billion, an $89 million in
terday on his proposed spending crease.
for non-military items in the for- South Vietnam would get $55
eign affairs-field in fiscal 1968. million next year, a $25 millio
This figure, in Johnson's budget increase, for nation-building ecc
message on Congress for the fis- nomic aid ranging from counter
cal year starting next July 1, is inflation measures to the con
approximately higher than this struction of schools and hospita
year's rate and does not include and improvement of farms.
more than $1 billion for overseas The President predicts "contin
arms aid, used improvement" in Vietnam
William S. Gaud, head of the economy next year which "is ex
aid-administering Agency for In- pected to permit increased empha
ternational Development, estimat- sis on building the foundation
ed that ne weconomic aid funds for long-range development."
sought in the budget total $44- Concerning aid to underdeve
billion. oped areas generally, Johnson in
This includes $2.5 billion for tends to put forward a five-poin
AID, $1.8 billion for food ship- revision of the program.
ments overseas and $104 million His five points emphasize self
for aid-dispensing international help, increased aid for agricul
financial institutions. The eco- ture, health and education, sup
nomic aid total runs about the port for multicountry aid effort
same as in the current fiscal 1967. encouragement of private enter
However Gaud was unable to prise in economic developmer,
give an over-all military assist- and concentrating U.S. help i
ance figure because, for the first places where development pros
time, Johnson lumped unspecified pects are best.
amounts of military assistance for
Thailand, Laos and NATO con- UP08.5 MILLION:
struction projects into the regular *
U.S. defense budget.
South Vietnam's arms aid,
which last year'amounted to some L a
$600 million, was wrapped into
0mlinwa wrpeinothe Pentagon total for the second
year running. Thailand, where WASHINGTON (A') - Presiden
35,000 U.S. troops are now sta- Johnson's proposed 1968 spendin
tioned, and Laos have becomei
sites for operations against the increase of $28.5 million for lab
Reds. activities reflects greater empha
Gaud said military aid for the sis on job training for the hard
three was put under the Defense core unemployed, and anticipa
budget because of the war. The tion of a rising number of labo
NATO outlay was transferred to disputes.
the Pentagon's books on grounds In his 1968budget message t
that tlh.s is the U.S. share of a Congress, Johnson proposed $529,
joint effort, rather than aid, he 903,000 for the Labor Departmen
stated. The figures were kept se- an increase of $26,803,000 ove
scae. fiscal 1968. Nearly $20 million c
For military assistance to the the increase would go for addi
rest of the world, Johnson placed tional job training.
the spending figure at $800 mil- Other increases totaling $1,748,
lion in his administrative budget. 000 for the National Labor Rela
On the economic side, he con- tions Board, the Federal Media
tinued -to stress his great society tion and Conciliation Service an
goals abroad-with emphasis on the National Mediation Board fo
furthering agriculture, health and dealing with an expected rise i
education-and to underscore the labor-management disputes.
need for self-help by those re- More than half of Johnson's pro
fusing aid, posed Labor Department budge
Economic aid expenditures are would go for jobtraining unde
listed at $2.43 billion, up $15 mil- the Manpower Administration. T
lion. Spending under the food- total is $295,386,000.

l, i In a related development, John-
d son formally transmitted to Con-
n gress his request -to commit $12.3
,billion more toward the Vietnam
war. This would mean added
r- spending during the current fiscal
i. year of $9.1 billion.
et Lower Dificit
ier Among factors lowering the pros-
rm pective deficit are a delay in a
ty possible decision to build a super-
sonic air transport and the sale of
n- up to $5.75 billion of the govern-
b- ment's financial assets.
t- Fles of these participation cei-
of tificates - securities backed by
nt pools of government held mort-
gages and loans-have long been
D- attacked by Republicans as budget
ns gimmickry. They show up in the
al administrative budget as spending
1- cuts.
ch The slated increase in postal
rates comes to $700 million. The
-President also asked a speedup in
corporate tax collections, new So-
cial Security taxes to take effect
next Jan. 1 and on Jan. 1, 1969,
and more transportation user
Measured in cash payments to
the public, total federal spending
during the next fiscal year will to-
tal $172.4 billion, Johnson esti-
ne mates. This so-called cash budget
n- also envisions cash receipts of
$168.1 billion or a deficit of $4.3
50 billion.
n Income Budget
o- A measure emphasized by John-
x- son is the national, income ac-
- counts budget which calls for re-
ls ceipts of $167.1 billion, spending
of $169.2 billion and a deficit of
n- $2.1 billion.
's Johnson leaves the door open in
- his administrative budget to begin
a- work on the supersonic air trans-
ns port and a nuclear space rocket.
The budget calls for $400 mil-
- lion for unforeseen contingencies
- and the costs of programs on3
nt which definite decisions-such as1
the transport and nuclear rocket
f- -have not yet been made.
l- In addition to the $135 billion
p- in spending, the administrative
s, budget estimates income at $126.91
r- billion for a $8.1-billion deficit.
nt The revised budget for the cur-
n rent fiscal year lists spending at
s- $126.7 billion, receipts at $117 bil-I
lion and a deficit of $9.7 billion. 4

WASHINGTON ({} - President
Johnson laid before Congress yes-
terday the largest defense budget
since World War IL
It includes $375 million for the
possible production of the Nike-X
antimissile defense system and a
more than 10 per cent boost in
Vietnam spending.
In addition, Johnson sent Con-
gress a $12.3-billion supplemental
budget request for the current fis-
cal year. The supplement will add
$9.1 billion to the war costs by
June 30, with the other outlays
to be spent, in fiscal 1968 and
Johnson, outlining details of his1
$72.3 fiscal 1968 defense budget,
stipulates that the Nike-X produc-
tion funds are to be spent only in
case of failure of the current ne-

-Associated Press
PRESIDENT JOHNSON PRESENTED his proposed budget for $135-billion to Congress yesterday.
This record budget includes the largest request for military outlays since World War U1.
Record Defense Budget Seeks
Boost In Viet Nam War Spendin

pending To Increase

gotiations with the Soviet Union
aimed at ending the antimissile
The President's budget provides
also for $21.9 billion to support
the Vietnam war, only $2.5 billion
more than the 1967 budget. De-
fense officials said the relatively
small increase is in line with Sec-
retary of Defense Robert S. Mc-
Namara's repeated assertion that
the rate of buildup will slow this
Vietnam expenditures zoomed
from $5.8 billion in 1966 to an es-
timated $19.4 billion for the cur-
rent spending year, which ends
June 30.
Nuclear Ships
The budget calls also for five
new nuclear-powered vessels for
the Navy, including an aircraft
carrier and a frigate; a hefty in-
crease in helicopters for the Army
and Marine Corps, and more than
$1.74 billion for procurement of
the TFX airplane.
Discussing the Nike-X antimis-
sile system, Johnson explains his
decision to delay deployment this
"Discussions will be initiated
with the Soviet Union on limiting
ABM antiballistic missile deploy-
ments. If these discussions prove
unsuccessful, our deployment deci-
sion will be reconsidered. To pro-
vide for actions that may be re-
quired at that time, approximately
$375 million has beenincluded for
the production of Nike-X for such
purposes as defense of our offen-
sive weapon system."
Officials said this means that if
the go-ahead for deployment is
given, the first Nike-X sites will be
constructed around the present
U.S. arsenal of intercontinental
ICBM missile sites - and not
around cities.

MANAGUA, Nicaragua (P)-The
S o m o z a-controlled Nicaraguan
government shut down opposition
radio stations and newspapers yes-
terday as a fragile peace settled
over the country following a 20-
hour uprising.
The government appeared deter-
mined to keep the lid on the sim-
nering political passions aroused
by the presidential elections
scheduled for Feb. 5.
The uprising-one of the most
violent political battles in Nicar-
agua-left 21 Nicaraguans dead
and more than 100 wounded, ac-
cording to official accounts. The
opposition claimed the toll was
31 dead.
The government said three radio
sations and a newspaper were sus-
pended because they were inciting
Dr. Fernando Aguero, 49, a pres-
idential candidate of the opposi-
tion Conservative party, said the
uprising had resulted in opposi-
tion strength "...reinforced by
this repudiation of the Somozas."
Augero's onnonent in the race.

rendered their arms and were al-
lowed to go free.
The Conservatives and the gov-
ernment blamed each other for
starting the disorders.
Aguero said that when his fol-
lowers refused to disperse after
the rally, the National Guard
opened fire. The government said
armed civilians among the oppo-
sition had fired the first shots.
Aguero said that before the
figthing his party had called on
the National Guard chief of staff
to propose a civilian military board
to supervise the elections.
He said he had not taken the
request to President Lorenzo Guer-
rero because "the president has no
influence either in the govern-
ment, the military or elsewhere."
Aguero said he had no intention
of pulling out of the election and
that his followers were "not de-
manding that the government
powers be turned over to us. We
simply ask for . . . free, just and
honest elections with the fullest

The President gave this break-
down of the new spending author-
ity he seeks in the special Vietnam
-$6.8 billion to equip military
units and to replace aircraft, ord-
nance, ammunition and other ma-
teriel lost or consumed in battle.
-$3.3 billion "for operating
costs to support additional mili-
tary units and the intensified level
of field operations,"
-$1.4 billion for pay and allow-
ances of added military personnel
and stepped up training of Re-
-$624.5 million to build or im-
prove airfields, roads, troop hous-
ing and other facilities, and
-$135 million for research and
development efforts related to the
In addition to spending for the
nuclear ships and the TFX, key
budget items.,include:
-ICBMs. The budget calls for
more than $1 billion to further
develop and procure America's
newest weapon in the ICBM ar-
senal, the Poseidon, which features
a multiple-missile warhead.
-FDLS. Five more new Fast De-
ployment Logistics FDL ships are
-MOL. A big boost in research
spending for the Air Force's Man-
ned Orbiting Laboratory MOL pro-
gram is being sought.
-AMSA. The budget only in-
cludes $26 million for further de-
velopment of the Air Force's ad-
vanced manned strategic bomber


The budget would provide job
training funds for 280,000 per-
sons under the Manpower Devel-
opment and Training Act- 30,-
000 more than in fiscal 1967.
Two-thirds of the trainees will
be "workers with minimal skills,"
Johnson writes.
Some of the money will go for
training workers in skills that are
in short supply.
The Labor Department's Bu-
reau of Labor Statistics would get
$22,500,000 under Johnson's 19681
budget proposals, an increase of
$2,500,000 to improve statistical!
research for its monthly reports
on unemployment and living costs'
and other vital economic yard-
Johnson, while recommending
separate budgets for the Labor
and Commerce Departments, re-
peats his proposal to ask Congress
to merge them into a new Depart-
ment of Business and Labor.
In his 1968 budget requests,

Johnson asks $32,411,000 for the
National Labor Relations Board.
The increase, Johnson says, is to
handle an expected 5 per cent in-
crease in the number of union rep-
resentation elections supervised by
the board and a 5 per cent rise in
the number of unfair labor prac-
tice cases.
The Federal Mediation and Con-
ciliation Service is listed for $7,-
459,000 in Johnson's budget re-
quests, an increase of $372,000
over 1967.
Johnson asks $2,150,000 for the
National Mediation Board, which
handles disputes in the railroad
and airlines industries.

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