SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1966 THE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE THREI
US. Aid Efforts
By The Associated Press
SAIGON-Huge sums of money,
loose controls, and the ancient
Asian acceptance of corruption in
government have hampered U.S.
efforts to stabilize the Vietnamese
economy and to get 100 cents
worth of good out of each dollar.
"Leakage" in the U.S. aid pro-
gram has run into millions of U.S.
dollars over the years. Probably
no one knows for certain just how
Premier Nguyen Cao Ky repeat-
edly has pledged to clean up cor-
ruption which the government has
acknowledged as widespread. Some
highly publicized moves have been
made, but any concerted program
would involve high government
officials whose support Ky must
retain to stay in office, reliable
U.S. aid officials in the past
have conceded that some U.S. aid
even has reached the Viet Cong
indirectly, and said steps were
taken to reduce this problem.
A huge black market in U.S.
currency and commodities flour-
ishes in Viet Nam. The biggest in
both categories is in Saigon.
American GIs help feed both. Post
exchange items ranging from cig-
arettes and cameras to high fi-
delity sets and television sets find
their way to the black market.
Cigarettes are rationed and GIs
are limited in the number of major
items they can buy.
Until the second half of 1965,
GIs took part of their pay in
U.S. dollars, which were eagerly
snapped up on the black market.
The American mission then be-
gan issuing military payment cer-
tificates, which became the cur-
rency in the PX, commissary,
American billets and U.S. officers'
and enlisted men's clubs.
There now is a black market in
scrip. It brings somewhat less on
the currency market than U.S.
dollars. A black market favorite is
U.S. postal money orders which
GIs can buy under certain re-
strictions. Some American GIs
have been court-martialed for
black market activities.
The biggest problem lies in the
aid program itself. A basic tenet
of the program is that the Viet-
namese must be allowed to run
the show with American advice
so that leadership and respon-
sibility can be developed inside
the Saigon government,
The U.S. aid mission monitors
the spending and disposition of
commodities, but the intracacies
of Vietnamese wheeling and deal-
ing plus an element of chaos caus-
ed by the war make total surveil-
A cut of the U.S. aid pie is as
tantalizing as political power in
South Viet Nam, and bank balance
considerations color what seem
like political jockeying for power.
During past shuffles some Ameri-
can officials privately have made
jokes about the new generals who
would open bank accounts over-
The U.S. aid program, military
and civilian, soon will run at
about a billion dollars a year.
At the grass-roots level, a Viet-
namese district chief can pad the
roll of his militiamen, thus getting
pay for phantom fighters. He gets
a kickback on road and other'
construction work in his district,
the rough equivalent of an Amer-
ican county. Many district chiefs
have homes built with U.S. cement
originally destined for destitute
Province, or state, chiefs can do
the same on a grander scale and
also extract a kickback from their
U.S. aid officials deplore the
situation, and despair over the
chance of making the East con-
form to Western mores. However,
they point out that there are
honest men in government and
that many hold corruption to what
some U.S. sources consider an
"acceptable" level. Some, they say,
have gone completely overboard.
The chief of Binh Tuy Province
was removed after the aid mission
cut off all funds directed there
because of irregularities. The ex-
chief was returned to Saigon.
There have been no charges an-
nounced by the Ky government.
Black marketing in Saigon is
so routine that it is anything but
under the counter. Sidewalk stands
with plentiful supplies of Ameri-
can cigarettes line downtown
On several streets, sidewalk
stalls sell American Army blankets,
mosquito nets, insect spray, can-
ned rations, whisky, toothpaste
and dozens of other items.
In a more remote sector, Army
field tents, ponchos, field packs,
fatigue uniforms, canteens and
jungle boots are available.
The amount of material falling
into Viet Cong hands is possibly a
more serious matter. Cans of
cooking oil bearing the imprint of
the U.S. clasped-hands symbol are
not uncommon sights when troops
move into Viet Cong villages. One
U.S. construction worker said pri-
vately that the Viet Cong was
able to supply cement on a com-
petitive basis with government-
Some of the U.S. aid gets into
Viet Cong hands because it goes
into those gray areas of Viet Nam
where the two forces are compet-
ing for the population and the
Viet Cong simply seize aid items.
Through extortion and under
the counter deals, some of the aid
goods in local markets make their
way into Viet Cong strongholds.
Continue To Fire
Against Last Stand
Of Nkrumah Regime
ACCRA, Ghana (R) - Ghana's
new military rulers took steps
yesterday to overhaul the country's
virtually bankrupt economy while
firing continued against a last
stand by elite guardsmen of the
fallen Nkrumah regime.
A number of special guards were
reported killed in a clash at Ac-
cra's broadcasting house.
At nearby police headquarters
Lt. Gen. J. A. Ankrah, chief of the
new National Liberation Council,
appointed a seven-man group to
get the country moving toward
20 to 25 Killed
Unofficial figures indicated 20
to 25 persons were killed in the
coup, including 10 to 14 of the
Soviet-trained presidential guard.
No Americans were reported in-
The gunfire yesterday was re-
ported to have erupted on a visit
to radio headquarters by Col. E. K.
Kotoka, believed to be active lead-
er of the revolt that overthrew
President Kwame Kkrumah
Thursday while he swas in Peking.
Otherwise the country of 7.3
million persons was calm, but a
Tass, Soviet news agency, dispatch
from Peking quoted Nkrumah as
saying "I am returning to Ghana
soon" and ordering army and po-
lice to return to their barracks.
The army and police continued
a manhunt for officials of Nkru-
mah's Convention People's party,
which was outlawed when Nkru-
mah was deposed and the con-
stitution suspended Thursday.
Despite the manhunt, admin-
istration of Ghana outside Accra
was turned over to the regional
civil service instead of the armed
forces. This was considered sig-
The military rulers said they
would meet monthly government
payrolls due on Monday.
Ankrah, working closely with
Police Commissioner J. W. K. Ear-
iley, turned to some of the top
experts of Nkrumah's government
to get the economy going ahead.
These men had seen their care-
fully drawn plans distorted or ig-
nored by the Nkrumah regime, the
new regime said.
Among them were Albert Ado-
makoh, head of the Bank of
Ghana; R. S. Amegashie, and B.
K. Mensah. The latter two were
educated in the United States, as
The army swooped on the
Kwame Nkrumah Ideological In-
stitute ' 40 miles out of Accra
Thursday and arrested the faculty.
The. students had fled.
Among those being sought in the
countryside was Geoffrey Bing, 56,
a left-wing British lawyer who
has been Nkrumah's close friend
and advisor since before independ-
ence in 1957. Some called him the
power behind the ousted president.
The Ghanaian Times, formerly
a special organ of the Convention
People's ; party, quickly fell into
line with the coup.
SINGAPORE (P)-President Su-
karno of Indonesia ordered a pow-
erful anti-Communist student or-
ganization dissolved, banned all
demonstrations, and imposed a
curfew on Jakarta, a broadcast
from the capital reported yester-
Sukarno acted after the student
organization led a five-mile long
funeral parade of 10,000 through
Jakarta protesting Sukarno's "new
Comnmunist Cabinet." Marines and
police with machine guns watched
the march but reports in Singa-
pore said the army sympathized
with the students.
The students marched in a fun-
eral parade for three comrades--
one a girl-who were shot and
killed by guards in a demonstra-
tion outside Sukarno's palace
Thursday. The students were pro-
testing Sukarno's firing of Gen.
Abdul Haris Nasution, a anti-
Communist, as defense minister in
a Cabinet reshuffle 1onday.
KWAME-KHRUMA, left, shown before his deposition as premier
of Ghana Thursday. At the right is Lt. Gen. J. A. Ankrah, newly
named armed forces commander of Ghana.
Banned was the pro-army In-
donesian Student Action Front.
It led the demonstrations outside.
the palace as well as the funeral
Jakarta radio said Sukarno also
banned all student gatherings of
more than live persons anywhere
in the country and warned action
would be taken against trouble-
making students. The Jakarta cur-
few starts at 10:30 p.m. and lasts
until 6:30 a.m.
Nasution, who led the Com-
munist purge after the Red coup
of Oct. 1 failed, has vanished
from Jakarta. Reached by tele-
phone in Jakarta, his wife said she
did not know wheie he had gone.
The Voice of Free Indonesia, a
radio operating secretly some-
where in Java, said Nasution met
with Maj. Gen. Ibrahim Aui, com-
mander of the Siliwangi Division
and was promised support "to the
The Siliwangi Division, regarded
as the best in the Indonesian
army, has been stationed in cen-
tral Java. Diplomatic travelers
earlier this week said some Sili-
wangi units had been ordered to
Jakarta to protect Nasution.
Reports from Jakarta said stu-
dent feeling was running high over
the killings and Nasution's dis-
-After the funeral, the Voice of
Free Indonesia said the students
issued a statement saying:
"These students died, but not
in vain. They went down as pa-
triots. They gave their lives for
their country. Every drop of their
blood will be avenged. The blood
debt will be paid with blood. We
will not keep quiet.
Moderate Asks for
Negro, White Vote
In May Primary
MONTGOMERY, Ala. (P)-Atty.
Gen. Richmond Flowers plunged
into the governor's race yesterday
with an undisguised plea for Negro
votes and a promise to fly the
U.S. flag on the dome of the state
The appearance of the big, red-
haired Dothan, Ala., attorney in a
field already crowded with nine
other candidates gave him a
chance once more to challenge
Gov. George C. Wallace's strong
segregationist views in the May 3
primary. Flowers formally quali-
fied after making his announce-
Flowers' announcement came 24
hours after Wallace's wife, Lur-
leen, made known her intention to
run as a "stand-in" candidate for
her husband, who is prohibited by
law from seeking re-election. Mrs.
Wallace made it clear that the
present chief executive would con-
tinue to govern the state if she
The attorney general, a self-
styled racial moderate, frequently
has taken issue with Wallace in
the handling of Negro problems.
Flowers told reporters crowded
into his office that "I want the
vote of all the people. I want the
Negro vote and the white vote."
An estimated 200,000 or more
Negroes are registered as voters
in the state, thousands of them as
the result of the presence of fed-
eral examiners sent into Alabama
under the new Voting Rights Act.
Flowers made no mention of
Wallace in his announcement.
World News Roundup
By The Associated Press-
military regime named a chief of
state and a prime minister last
night to replace Gen. Amin Hafez
and Salah Bitar, who were over-
thrown in a coup d'etat Wednes-
Damascus radio announced a
decree making Dr. Noureddin
Atassi, 36, head of state and Dr.
Youssef Zayyen prime minister.
Zayyen is 35, the youngest premier
in Syria's history.,
There were indications the new
government would be formed along
the lines of that of former Premier
Youssef Zayyen. During a govern-
ment crisis last December, Zayyen
resigned and turned over all power
to an international command of
the Arab Socialist Baath party.
MIAMI BEACH-The nation's
top labor leaders said yesterday
President Johnson's efforts to
stabilize prices do not deserve, top
priority and "what we will push
for is substantial wage and salary
The AFL-CIO Executive Coun-
cil argued there is no major threat
of inflation despite the sharpest
rise, in living costs in five years,
and said soaring business profits,
not wages, are mainly to blame for,
Denouncing the "magic num-
ber" of the White House wage
guideline that seeks to limit pay
increases to 3.2 per cent a year,
the AFL-CIO Economic Policy
Committee said "There are no
government guidelines oan profits
army commander, Brig. Sabama
Opoloto, affirmed yesterday his
loyalty to Prime' Minister Apollo
Milton Obote and said he would
take no action to oppose Obote's
suspension of Uganda's constitu-
"There is no chance of any
army coup in Uganda. We do not
want to do the things other coun-
tries have done. As a soldier who
has to maintain discipline, I would
not invite other ideas. I would
likepeople to be loyal and do what
they are told," Opoloto said.
BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - A Ku
Klux Klansman charged with
murdering Mrs. Anthony Liuzzo, a
white civil rights worker, received
a two-year prison term yesterday
for violating a federal firearms
A District Court jury convicted
the Klansman, Eugene Thomas of
Beesemer, earlier this week on a
charge of failing to pay taxes for
possession of a sawed-off shotgun.
His sentence will run consecutively
with a 10-year sentence received
for conspiring to violate the rights
of civil rights workers in the Sel-
ma-Montgomery area last year.
Thomas and two other Klans-
men were convicted of the con-
spiracy charges after Mrs. Liuzzo,
of Detroit, was shot to death in
Lowndes County last March 25.
BLAST APPROPRIATIONS BILL:
Morse Decries War Policy
Seek, Humphrey. Senate Quiz,
By The Associated Press
Sen. Wayne Morse denounced
U.S. tactics and policy in South
Viet Nam yesterday. "The U.S. is
leading mankind into World War
III, out of which will come no
victory," the Oregon Democrat
While Morse renewed in the
Senate his long-standing attack
on President Johnson's Asian
policy, Secretary of Defense Rob-
ert S. McNamara reported U.S.
fighting men are scoring new suc-
cesses on Vietnamese battlefields.
Morse charged that a $4.8-bil-
lion bill to help pay for war ma-
terials is an "open-handed .invi-
tation to the continued expansion
and escalation of the Viet Nam
In a related development, Sen.
J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark) sent Vice
President Hubert H. Humphrey an
invitation yesterday to appear be-
fore the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee. But Humphrey showed
no eagerness to accept.
"I suggest congressmen should
be looking for new issues and new
copy and not having replays,"
Humphrey told reporters.
Grinning, Humphrey said as to
Fulbright's invitation, "I haven't
heard anything about it."
When a reporter offered to show
him a copy of the letter Fulbright
said he sent to the vice president,
Humphrey replied, "I want to see
The Viet Nam appropriations
bill is expected to reach a' Senate
vote early next week. There ,is
little doubt that it will pass by a
"A vote for this bill is not a vote
to support the men already there,"
Morse said. "It is a vote to double
the men already there, to expand
the war into Thailand and to pro-
vide American financing for a mil-
itary force in Asia."
McNamara appeared b e f o r e
members of the Senate Armed
Services and Appropriations com-
mittees to talk about the defense
budget. Later, he told reporters
U.S. troops have staged "very, very
successful military operations in
the last four weeks."
Morse has said he will seek
action Monday on his move to re-
peal the August 1964 resolution in
which Congress approved the use
of American military force in Viet
In Viet Nam action yesterday
U.S. B52 bombers and the 7th
Fleet destroyer Mason struck at
Viet Cong emplacements through
stormy weather in support of gov-
ernment troops campaigning near
North Viet Nam's doorstep.
The eight-engine Jets from
Guam flew in heavy rain that lim-
ited other air activity and aimed
tons of explosives at Red targets
15 miles west of Hue, the old im-
perial capital 400 miles north of
In ground action troopers of the
U.S. 1st Cavalry, Airmobile, Divi-
sion and F4 Phantom jets of the
Air Force knifed deeper into enemy
strength in the Bon Son sector
300 miles northeast of Saigon.
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Moyers Denies Charges
Of Church Interference
State Department Moves
ITo Hold Off Docker Boycott
WASHINGTON ()) -- White
House press secretary Bill D.
Moyers denied 'again yesterday
that he interceded with the Na-
tional Council of Churches to tone
down a resolution critical of U.S.
policy in Viet Nam..
Moyers said he has checked and
found no one else at the White
House who might have called the
Some sources at the council in
St. Louis, Mo., told the Associated
Press, on condition their names
not be used, that Moyers had
placed several telephone calls in
an attempt to head off a resolu-
tion which in effect would have
endorsed a World Council of
The council sources reported
this Thursday night toward the
end of a three-day meeting of the
General Board of the National
In New York, a spokesman for
the Associated Press said the AP,
in good faith, reported what it
had been told by certain members
of the council, even though they
declined to be identified. The AP
said it also promptly reported the
denial by Moyers as soon as he
could be reached.
The board adopted what these
sources said was a revised state-
ment on Viet Nam calling for re-
conciliation and peace with justice
as both the immediate and long-
range goal of American policy.
MONDAY, Feb. 28
National Chairman of SDS
w i ll speak on
& World Revolution"
AUD. A, ANGELL HALL
WASHINGTON. (ie-The State
Department moved yesterday to
stave off a dockers' boycott of the
shipping of any nation whose ves-
sels take cargoes to North Viet
Nam. It called U.S. maritime union
leaders to a Washington meeting
This was the essence of a care-
fully worded statement issued
after New York longshoremen
picketing in protest against Brit-
ish trade with Viet Nam held up
departure preparations for the
famed liner Queen Mary for about
Press officer Robert J. McClos-
key said the United States does
not want free world vessels going
to Communist North Vietnamese
ports, and U.S. diplomatic efforts
have succeeded in cutting down
"We believe. that the national
interest would best be served by
continuing to seek a solution at a
The possibility of a boycott
against ships of any country whose
vessels go to North Viet Nam was
raised in a telegram sent to Presi-
dent Johnson and Secretary of
State DeanRusknon Feb. 14 by
the executive board of the AFL-
CIO Maritime Trades Department.
It said the unionists were going
to "demonstrate their protests"
against shipping going to a coun-
try fighting U.S. forces in South
Viet Nam. Gleasonrand others
said a general boycott of all for-
eign-flag ships of countries trad-
ing with North Viet Nam might
begin at any time.
State Department officials took
the line yesterday that boycotting
and picketing is a blunderbuss way
,of conducting foreign policy which
could do the United States more
harm than good.
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