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November 23, 1965 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1965-11-23

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

See Editorial Page


tr tgan


Showers ending in morning;
colder in afternoon.

Seventy-Five Years of Editorial Freedom


' Experts

View Exciting' Programmed Learning

Predictions of computers teach-
ing courses, large-audience lec-
tures via closed-circuit television,
and teaching methods based on
psychological observations in ani-
mal learning laboratories have led
some students and educators to
worry that American education is
quickly turning into a huge ma-
chine producing robots instead of
educated human beings.
But University experts in the
field of psychological applications
to learning think that such new
methods of education could make
learning easier - and even more
Specialists affirm that applica-
tions of modern psychology and
other advances in science and
technology are rapidly and in-
creasingly influencing American
Theseinfluences have become
particularly noticeable only in the
past few years, and it is still far
too early to be able to predict
what their ultimate effect will be.
The recent impact of psychology,
on education has come primarily!

from the use of programmed text-
books, and University experts haveI
been prominent in this field.
So far, such textbooks have had
the biggest effect on business and

of programmed textbooks on a student .who is responsible for
school such as the University is learning, and that the teacher has
minimal, although they are al- only to 'cover' his subject, and
ready being used to a limited ex- 'expose' his students to a certain
tent in the School of Social Work, collection of facts and ideas."
the School of Nursing, and the


industry. But they are also play- literary college, as well as in se- If a student fails to learn, it is
ing an ncrasiglimortntiar
ing an increasingly important part eral of the graduate divisions, because "he wasn't motivated to
in both elementary and higher ed- i pay attention to the lecture, or
ucation. These programmed textbooks read the text." Worse still, the
George L. Geis, research asso- can be used to teach anything student is never sure whether or
ciate at the Center for Research from freshman composition to the not be understands what he is be-
on Learning and Teaching, is a most advanced concepts in grad- ing taught. "When does he learn
specialist in programmed instruc- uate work. that he doesn't know the subject?
tion. Geis commented on the fallacy When he fails the exam!"
Through the Center, Geis con- of the belief that programmed Geis said that the present sys-
ducts workshops twice a year to teaching methods would replace a tem necessarily involves a gradual
familiarize University f a c u 1 t y "warm, human educational sys- "weeding out" of certain students,
members with the techniques of tem"- with one that is rigid and but that most educators are quick
writing and using programmed inflexible. to claim that those who are elimi-
textbooks. In the past years, from He stressed the fact that one of nated from continuing their edu-
10 to 20 members of the faculty the more important effects of the cation are the less intelligent, the
have taken advantage of this op- concept of programmed learning less motivated, or the less capable
portunity at each workshop. could be .that it would draw the students.
The Center for Research on entire theory of education into a Education with the aid of pro-
Learning and Teaching was es- careful examination and possible' gramnmed textbooks, Gels said,
tablished in September of 1962 as renovation - which could make brings about a whole new concept
the result of a faculty committee learning both more interesting and of education. The writers of these
recommendation that the Regents exciting, books are specially trained in the
establish a consulting body on Education as it is usually con- application of psychological prin-.
learning and teaching. ducted at present, said Geis, is ciples as well as in the subject'
At the present time, the effect based upon the idea that "it is the matter of the text. It is there-

. c

sponsibility of these writers to pro- could the student monitor his rate
duce a change in the behavior of of learning, but also that it is
the user of the text. just as important that the author
According to Geis, "It is not of the text be able to follow the
what the book 'covers' that is im- progress of students through his
portant, but what the student can book.
do after he has gone through the Geis referred to this as "an ap-
text that he couldn't do before. plication of scientific methodology
"With this concept of educa- to education." The programmer of
tion," he added, "there would be a text is constantly getting feed-
no weeding out of students. Every- back from the users of his pro-
one who started to learn would gram.
learn. If anyone didn't finish the Both the programmer and the
course, then something would be student are dynamically involved
wrong with the program, not with in a system of instruction which
the student." exposes imperfections and suggests
A Drogrammedi l~nmn i n 1 improvements.

! g timpovgetsaeu earning text in- in contrast to this, the conven-
volves a series of steps, every one tional system, which involves
of which involves the active par-"peonal"syswihunts ans
Iticipation of the student. Further- personal talks with students and
more, every action involves a con- examinations, offers the teacher
sequence that regulates the pace no objective way of discovering
of the student through the text. what affect he is having on his
Because of this, the student sUntil programmed learning text-
knows just where he stands all the books earn acceptance in the pub-
way through the learning process. lie and private schools and uni-
His mistakes show up immediately, versities, their greatest uses will
and he can correct any errors in continue to be in fields where con-
his thinking before he goes on to ventional methods of teaching
more advanced steps. have proven to be either too ex-
Geis emphasized that not only See PROGRAMMED, Page 8

-Daily-Thomas R. Copi
GEORGE L. GEIS, research associate at the Center for Research
on Learning and Teachinv. commenting upon the use of pro-
grammed learning techniques.




New Course
Continuing Students
May Follow Revised
Distribution Standards
Associate Dean James Robertson
of the literary college announced
yesterday that "all continuing
students will have the option to
move toward the new distribution
requirements, approved last Fri-
day by the Regents, when register-
ing for classes for the fall term of
Robertson said the decision was
made on the basis of what has
been done in the past when new
regulations were adopted to open
the liberalized program as soon as
possible to all continuing students
-sophomores, juniors and seniors.
Since the new distribution re-
quirements go into effect at the
end of the present academic year,
all continuing students will be!
allowed to pre-register during the
winter term for next fall's courses
using the new program as a
standard, he said.
Preceded by Consultations
Robertson said the decision!
came after consultations with the
other ex-officio members of the
literary c o 11 e g e Administrative
Board, of which he is chairman.
Besides Robertson, the Board
* consists of ex-officio members
George Anderson, assistant dean
for academic counselors in the
freshman - sophomore counseling
office; Prof. Otto Graff, director
of the honors program; James
Shaw, administrative assistant to
the associate dean in charge of
junior-senior counseling; and six
elected faculty members.
Robertson said the new system
of requirements allows students a
greater sense of choice and respon-
Approved by Regents Friday
The plan was proposed by the,
W faculty curriculum committee ap
proved by the literary college fac-
ulty earlier this fall and given
final approval by the Regents at
their meeting last Friday.
Under the new system:
-Students elect three courses.
apiece from each of the required
areas of social sciences, humani-
ties and natural sciences rather
than being required to 'fulfill a
certain number of course hours
from each area as under the old
-Students may choose any
three courses from each area, not
being restricted to a limited list
of approved courses, not being
forced to elect a two-semester se-I
quence is one department and not
being restricted to taking only a
certain number of hours in any
one department as under the!
previous system;
-Courses from the mathematics
and philosophy departments may
be substituted for one of the re-
quired courses in any of the two
basic areas;
-Students are required to take

What's New at 764-18171

Council. Approves

Mayor s

Hot Line
Twenty-nine University students participated in the William
Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition held last Saturday.
The same test was simultaneously administered to 1500 college
students throughout North America.
Early in December a committee of mathematicians will begin
to grade the papers and the results of the competition will be
announced the first week in January. The first prize for the in-
dividual winner will be a tuition scholarship plus a $2500 stipend
to attend the Graduate School of Mathematics at Harvard
* * *
Sunday night's mass meeting for Winter Weekend '66 drew
a crowd of over 250 people to the Michigan League Ballroom.
General Co-chairmen Pat McCarty, '67, and Tom Sherman,
'66, explained the plans and goals of this year's event: and an-
nounced the theme of the weekend, "Operation M-trigue." The
theme revolves around mystery, spies, espionage and other topics
in the area of intrigue.
Winter Weekend will be held Feb. 25-26, two weeks later
than the dates originally announced in the UAC calendar note-
Rep. Weston E. Vivian (D-Ann Arbor) announced yesterday
that the University is receiving a $36,000 supplemental research
contract for continued studies on nonlinear interaction phe-
nomena in the ionosphere from the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA). The University is one of 19 in-
stitutions receiving new or supplemental NASA contracts this
An estimated 150 students and members of the Ann Arbor
community have signed up at present to participate in the march
on Washington for peace in Viet Nam. On Nov. 26 they will leave
by bus at 8:30 p.m. and plat to arrive in Washington at 9:30 a.m.
Saturday. At 11 a.m. they will assemble in front of the White
House. A mass assembly and a program of speakers will begin
at 2 p.m. at the Washington Monument.
Participants have been told that there will be no civil dis-
obedience and that the march is to have an "affirmative and
creative tone." Students may sign up for the march in the Fish-
bowl until the Wednesday deadline.
Long Distance
The School of Arts and Sciences at Tuskegee Institute has
recently formed a faculty committee which will visit Ann Arbor
for the purpose of extending relations with the University.
The group, headed by Prof. Stanley Smith, chairman of the
Division of Social Sciences at Tuskegee, will explore student in-
terest in a recently announced exchange program. A counter-
part committee is also being formed by William Haber, dean of
the literary college.
The University-Tuskegee committee will hold an open meet-
ing on Dec. 2 at 4:30 p.m. in Rm. 2029 Angell Hall to explain the
exchange program, in which University students spend a semester
at Tuskegee.
"The Schiff Papers," a booklet containing statements of
Paul Schiff in defense of his readmission to Michigan State
University and by MSU Vice-President John Fuzak defending
the university's denial of his readmission bid, were distrbuted
at MSU yesterday by the Student Rghts Committee.
Last week, all the senior editors of the State News except
editor-in-chief Charles Wells resigned over Well's and faculty
advisor Louis Berman's refusal to print the statements while
hearings on his controversial activities were still in process.
Schiff, a former graduate student at MSU, was denied re-
admission to MSU last June because of violations of MSU regu-
lations on politicial activity. The current hearings, to which the
statements were' submitted, were ordered by a federal district
court last month.
** * *
Retired Harvard Prof. Howard Mumford Jones, a Pulitzer
Prize-winning author of books on American literature and culture,
has resigned a visiting professorship at the University of Texas
for the next semester in protest against the university's required
loyalty oath.

Housing Board Appointees

Back State
Master Pla
(croup Advocates
Local Autonomy,
Ordered Growth
Expansion of state educational
facilities and the retention of in-
stitutional autonomyfor higher
education were stressed by the
Michigan Conference of the Amer-
ican Association of University Pro-
fessors at its annual meeting Sa-
turday at Adrian College.
The conference "passed a reso-
lution strongly supporting long-'
range planning for higher edu-
cation in Michigan," according to
Prof. Ralph A. Loomis of the
English department, president of
the Michigan Conference.
The group supported completion
of a master plan for education in
Michigan by the State Board of
Education by January 1, 1967. The
plan had been suggested by the
conference last February.
Prof. Wilfred Kaplan of the
mathematics department and
chairman of the conference'st
Committee on Coordination of
Higher Education said that theI
date was realistic as similar plans
had been developed in other states
in comparable periods.
Kaplan said that the plan
should be "comprehensive andC
specific," detailing broad princi-
ples for expansion of education in
a long-range program of increas-
ing higher educational resources.
He also felt that large-scale
expansion of educational facilities
should be delayed until adoption
of a master plan so that overall
development would be orderly and
directed by a defined state pur-
Kaplan felt that the report of
the Governor's Blue Ribbon Com-
mittee on Higher Education had
made "a big start" at developing
such a comprehensive long-range
In addition to calling for such a
master plan, the conference advo-
cated review of studies and master
planning of other states and crea-
tion of advisory committees with
faculty representation included to
examine drafts of the Michigan
master plan when completed.
In other recommendations, the
conference advocated "establish-
ment of appropriate safeguards of!
1 institutional autonomy."

-Daily-Thomas R. Copi
PICKETS FROM LOCAL CHAPTERS- of CORE and NAACP shown before last night's City Council
meeting protesting Mayor Wendell E. Hulcher's housing'commission appointments.
Adviso Gry Group Seeks
Nvew Grading Sse

6-5 Decision,
Splits Down
Hundred Picketers,
Council Democrats
Oppose Nominations
The Ann Arbor City Council last
night approved Mayor Wendell E.
Hulcher's five appointments to
the city's housing commission de-
spite pickets and strong minority
statements in opposition.
The vote was 6-5, with Hulcher
and the other five Republicans
overriding unanimous Democratic
The five commissioners-Henry
V. Aquinto, chairman, Joseph E.
Edwards, Edward Conlin, Robert
Powell, and Lyndon Welch-will
take up their duties immediately.
Making a final statement, the
Mayor said, "These people should
be judged on their action as com-
missioners, not prejudged. I am
confident they will act to solve
the housing problem."
A line of about 100 picketed the
city hall prior to the meeting un-
der sponsorship of the Congress of
Racial Equality, the National As-
sociation for the Advancement of
Colored People and several other
Negro civic groups.
Speaking for the pickets, Bun-
yon Bryant of CORE said, "We
feel that the mayor's appoint-
ments are not representative of
the entire community. People were
chosen who represent the groups
that opposed the establishment of
the commissiona(the city Chamber
of Commerce, and the Board of
Realtors). In a sense, the minority
has won." '
"We feel that the mayor has put
political unity above a decent com-
munity," said Dr. Albert Wheeler
of NAACP, referring to the fact
that the three Republican mem-
bers of the commission represent
a wide spectrum of ideology' with-
in that party."
"The Negro community views
this as a rationally discriminatory
act," he added.
Republican Councilmen Richard
E. Balzhiser and John Hathaway
spoke in support of the mayor's
choices, after recalling their ex-
perience on the housing committee
that recommended the commis-
"The commissioners will provide
the needed objective viewpoint,"
said Balzhiser. "All the claims of
housing need in this area have not

The student advisory committee
of the Residential College yester-
day unanimously approved a. revo-
lutionary grading system to be
recommended for approval by the,
college's faculty committee.
The new system is designed to
combine the benefits of a semi-
standard structural grading sys-
tem with those of a looser self-;
evaluating process which would be
designed. to include a student's
own feeling for his overall educa-
tional experience, an experience
which would be evaluated in terms
of extra-curricular learning as
well as the experiences of the
Formulated by committee mem-
ber Kenneth Winter, '66, the sys--
tem involved three essential bases
for the formation of a formal and
official evaluation of a student's I
work in the college.
Instructor's Evaluation First
The student's work would first{
be evaluated by his course in-
structors. This would involve the
instructors' submitting a "grade"

option of approving- the student's
transcript or advising him to make
deletions or additions, and perhaps
even aiding in its composition
before giving it final approval.
If the board found that the
student had really experienced
little learning outside the class-
room, however, it could recom-
mend that the clerical instructor-
evaluation transcript be left to
stand as the official one.
The student committee hoped
that this system would allow an

official expression of a general
educational experience on a tran-
script and in a fulfillment of a
degree requirement rather than
tie a collegiate career to an often
inflexible set of requirements
which would tend to detract from
the seeking of an educational "ex-
perience" as such.
According to Winter, it is not
expected that the faculty commit-
tee probably will be able to con-
sider the student group's recom-
mendations until early next year.

U.S. Bombs Two Missile
Sites in North Near Hanoi

SAIGON, South Viet Nam OP)-
U.S. Air Force jets blasted two
Soviet-made missile sites north-
west of Hanoi yesterday hitting
one missile while it was still on
the launching pad, a military
spokesman announced today.
One of the missile sites, 34

field under construction 50 miles
northwest of Hanoi and destroyed
or damaged 45 buildings.
Pilots said they cratered the
runway and destroyed four anti-
aircraft sites. The field, called
Phu Tho, is 50 miles northwest of

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