FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1965
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1965 U A f~' PU ~~~'E,
iL £.x& D AI'bljm
South Asian Conflict Rooted in Religious ni
By The Associated Press
What set off the war between
Pakistan and India?
A cease-fire line drawn by the
United Nations across fabled
Kashmir has been a frontier of
hate for 16 years.
Pakistan has part of the Hi-
malayan state, India the rest.
The two countries' fear and
distrust of each other must be,
seen to be believed. A candid
Pakistani official once told, a re-
porter: "Ever since Pakistan came
into being as a nation, its foreign
policy has been built on fear of
India. There is no other basis."
Similar sentiments could be heard
on the Indian side.
The immediate causes of conflict
date back to events earlier this
year; the real causes are rooted
deep in history and religious con-
About three months ago, India
took over three outposts across
the cease-fire line. Pakistan pro-'
tested. India said it took the posts
only to protect a highway to the
sector where Indian troops were
on the alert against a Chinese
menace. India withdrew when the
United Nations assured it that the
safety of the road would be se-
Tension rose again early in
August when India reoccupied the
posts. According to UN observers,
Pakistan sent armed men in civil-
ian garb across the line for armed
India claimed the invaders
totaled 5000, bent on sabotage,
assassination and even the cap-
ture of Kashmir's summer capital
at Srinagar. Pakistan denied it all,
said no armed units had crossed.
It said the Kashmir trouble was
a Moslem uprising against Indian
rule, and some civilian volunteers
had crossed over to assist the
That was how the second Kash-
mir war started. In effect, it was
just a continuation of the first.
The story goes back to the geo-
graphy produced by partition of
India when it got its indepen-
dence. This created a Moslem'
Pakistan with two components,
East and West, separated by 1000
miles of Indian territory. It left
in question the status of rich
Kashmir, with its population of
four million-three-quarters Mos-
lem. The Hindu maharajah who
ruled Kashmir at the time de-
cided to accede to India.
Moslem-Hindu hatred already'
was boiling. It had exploded in
1947 in bloody religious-communal
rioting which cost a half million
lives. Now the two were at war
over Kashmir. The conflict con-
tinued until New Year's Day, 1949,;
when both agreed to observe a UN
cease-fire line leaving two-thirds
of the state in Indian hands.
For 16 years the two sides in
Kashmir, tucked against the bor-
ders of Afghanistan and Tibet,
glared at each other across the
line, engaging in occasional
brushes, charges and counter-
Then Red China complicated the
picture. Its pressure on India's
northern frontiers led to fighting
in late 1962 in which the Indians
took . a mauling. That fighting
ended with a Chinese decision to
cease fire and withdraw partially
-but only partially. Chinese forces
remained in the area.
This constant menace, India
contended, moved her to take the
precautionary measures in Kash-
The Chinese threat produced
yet other complications. Both the
United States and the Soviet
Union, concerned with China's in-
tentions toward India and South
Asia in general, came to the
Indians' assistance with military
help to resist the Chinese Com-
Only Red China stands to gain
from the undeclared war between
India and Pakistan. Dismay at
this prospect is as apparent in
Moscow as it is in Washington.
Peking swiftly espoused the
Pakistani side of - the argument,
as if alert to the promise of good
fishing in the turbulent waters of
the Asian subcontinent.
Red China seems unlikely to
plunge hastily into active involve-
ment in hostilities. But it already
makes its weight felt by applying
fresh pressure on India. It ac-
cuses India of provoking new in-
cidents on the frontiers between
them-scene of 1962 Chinese-
Indian fighting-and demands
Indian withdrawal from the areas.
The new crisis presents some
interesting possibilities. Since the
United States and Britain are cut-
ting off arms to both India and
Pakistan, a prime source of new
support for Pakistan might be
China. As for India, much of its
armament comes from the Soviet
With the Chinese actively de-
nouncing the "Khrushchev re-
visionists" in this new situation,
the chances of further deteriora-
tion in relations between the big
Communist powers seem sharply
Now both the Americans and
Russians face painful dilemmas,.
sharing common worries about
Chinese intentions in the light of
the war over Kashmir. Clearly
the Russians are concerned with
the use China might make of the
situation. The United States and
the Soviet Union, speaking in a
rare show of unison, both want
the war ended quickly.
There could be many important
results from an India-Pakistani
war, depending on how long it
continues unchecked. This one
is different from the two nations'
war of 1947. There was no Red
China to be considered then.
Apart from intensifying the
world Communist feud, the war
now could shred the facade of
Asian-African unity, create con-
fusion among the so-called non-
aligned nations which India pro-
fesses to inspire, and splinter that
Both India and Pakistan are
poorly equipped economically for
a long war without outside help.
Thus, Washington's freeze on mil-
itary aid and an implicit threat
in its review of economic aid
could be an effective weapon to
halt hostilities. Both are heavily
dependent on U.S. aid, and U.S.
weapons are being used by both
For all that, the fighting could
continue for some time. Both In-
dia- and Pakistan laid prestige on
the line, and that is important in
Asia. Both seem trapped into a
position precluding retreat.
Asia already has a full measure
of peril in the Vietnamese war
and the Indonesian threat to
neighboring Malaysia. All this
holds a potential for broadening
and internationalizing armed con-
flict. Thus China's attitude in the
new outbreak is important.
Diplomatic sources at the Unit-
ed Nations picture Moscow as
deeply worried over what China
might do. The worry was reflect-
ed in Moscow's quick adherence to
a UN Security Council call for
peace. Moscow long suspected
Chinese ambitions in Asia. The
Soviet buildup of India was un-
Marxist. Even more so was Soviet
assistance in strengthening Indian
defenses against the Chinese mili-
Moscow's posture now, diamet-
rically opposed to China's atti-
tude, may destroy the last slim
chance of healing the deep split
in the world Communist camp.
De Gaulle TI
Rebel Leaders Force
Removal of Wessin
Despite His Power
SANTO DOMINGO W) - Gen.
Elias Wessin y Wessin was ar-
rested last night and deported
from the Dominican Republic.
He was placed aboard a U.S.
transport plane and flown to
The government had wrestled
all day with the problem of what
* to do with Wessin y Wessin, whose
ouster ashcommander of -the Arm-
ed Forces Training Center had
been demanded by the rebels as
part of the peace settlement.
The government had already of-
fered the general any job he want-
ed outside the country. But the
man who led the 1963 coup which
overthrew President Juan Bosch
and who also led the resistance
to the pro-Bosch revolt in April
refused to go.
Last night the top officers of
the inter-American peace force
here, Brazilian Gen. Hugo Pan-
asco Alvim and U.S. Lt. Gen. Bruce
PalmerJr., called on Wessin y
Wessin at his home.
The military leaders escorted
Wessin y Wessin to the San Isi-
dro air base, occupied by the U.S.
82nd Airborne Division, and put
him aboard the plane.
The provisional government of
President Hector Garcia-Godoy
wanted Wessin out of the way as
the first step toward demilitariza-
tion of the civilian population.
Rebel leaders said they cannot
undertake disarmament on their
side until Wessin is removed. They
have accused the general of geno-
cide for allegedly ordering the city
bombed during the height of the
April fighting. Wessin denies it.
Military sources, meanwhile, dis-
counted speculation Wessin might
attempt an armed standoff.
Wessin said Wednesday two
members of the U.S. Embassy
staff offered hin $50,000 for his
home and a position abroad if he
would agree to leave the Domini-
can Republic. He said his home
was worth about half that.
FRENCH PRESIDENT CHARLES DE GAULLE addressed newsmen and French officials at
Palace yesterday at his semi-annual press conference.
World News Roundup
Abolition of United
PARIS (M)-President Charles
de Gaulle posed a threat yesterday
to pull France out of the Atlantic
alliance unless its integrated mili-
tary command structure is abol-
ished by 1969 atthe latest.
He repeatedly emphasized the
theme of national independence,
and lashed out at the "subordi-
nation" which he professed to
find in the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization and in the European
The NATO integrated command,
ted Press first established by Gen. Dwight
Elysee D. Eisenhower, is an international
defense headquarters in which of-
ficers from various nations serve
in mixed fashion without refer-
ence to nationality. Since its in-
ception, it has always been head-
ed by an American-now Gen.
Lyman L. Lemnitzer. i
De Gaulle dislikes having French
officers taking orders from for-
35 years. eigners, and is reported to feel
tment is the integrated system makes an
rganizing officer lose his sense of nation-
tional re- ality.
challenge Abolishing the integrated sys-
tem would mean the end of any
at the Allied-type headquarters and leave
most fre- Western defense to a classic sys-
1 the new tem of national alliances such as
Weaver. existed at the time of World War
the first I. De Gaulle did not advance any
ie is cur- alternative.
using and If the other NATO members
y which insist on retaining the integrated
the new command system, de Gaulle clear-
ly implied France would leave the
organization. The others then
of Negro would have, to move their main
eir neigh- headquarters, now about 12 miles
ercrowded west of Paris, to someplace like
ed," took Brussels, Belgium.
to schools His key statement on NATO
and chil- "At the expiration of the com-
vate cars, mitments which we undertook in
way from the past, that is, by 1969 at the
king ad- latest, the subordination, described
partment as integration, provided under
enroll in NATO which puts our destiny into
eir home the hands of foreigners, will end,
lable. as far as we are concerned."
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By The Associated Press
SAIGON - United States Ma-
rines wiped out a band of 38 Viet
Cong in a fierce battle yesterday
on the Batangan peninsula, a
Marine spokesman reported. The
Leathernecks reported 17 of the
Viet Cong killed and 21 captured.
Marine casualties were termed
In the air war, American planes
made their closest bombing pene-
tration to Red China of the Viet
Nam war, a U.S. military spokes-
man said. Four F-105 Thunder-
chiefs bombed and damaged a
railroad bridge 17 miles south of
the Red Chinese border.
Hurricane Betsy made a dramatic
midafternoon turn to the north-
west yesterday, posing a threat to
populous New Orleans and the
Alabama and Mississippi Gulf
The fierce storm, with winds as
high as 140 miles per hour, had
picked 'up speed in the Gulf of
Mexico's warm waters after bat-
tering the Bahamas and Florida's
southern resort area earlier in the
week. Betsy left four dead and at
least $100 million in damage in
tee for Economic Development, an
influential private spokesman for
U.S. business and industry,
launched its own war against pov-
In a report two years in prepar-
ation, the committee called for a
vigorous, broad program of edu-
cation and training designed to
reduce the number of Americans
whose income is far below the
national average. It outlined a
nine-point program touching on
problems ranging from preschool
education to the elimination of
Johnson signed a bill yesterday
creating a new Cabinet post on
urban affairs, but he left un-
answered who will get the job. At
a ceremony in the White House
rose garden, the President said
"we literally must build a second
America" in .the next;
Creation of that depar
"the first step toward o
our system for a more ra
sponse to the pressing
of urban life," he said.
Among those present
signing was the man r
quently mentioned to fil
Cabinet post, Robert C.
If chosen, he would be
Negro Cabinet member. :
rently director of the Hoi
Home Finance Agenc
forms the nucleus of
parents, who charged the
borhood schools were ove
and "de facto segregate
their children yesterday 1
in predominantly white
Six busloads of. parents
dren, plus others in priv
went to four schools av
their home districts, ta
vantage of a school de
rule that children may
schools away from the
districts if space is avai
,, : '
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