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July 25, 1962 - Image 3

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1962-07-25

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Says Court Decision
Voids Con-Con Plan

Library Exhibits Rare Books

Mark Time
For Appeal
(Continued from Page 1)

'U' Researcher Analyzes
Man in Machine System

(Continued from Page 1)

In the opinion of Prof. James B.
Pollock of the political science de-
partment, the apportionment pro-
visions in the proposed Constitu-
tion would not stand up in the
state Supreme Court.
With the impact of the court's
recent decision, the Constitutional
Convention's formula for an 80
per cent population, 20 per cent
area basis for districting would be
invalidated by the court's criterion
that no senatorial district have
more than twice the population of
He has decided to make a sug-
gestion to the convention when it
reconvenes Aug. 1:
Stick with Plan
"Leave in the present sections
relating to the Senate, stipulating
that if this is declared unconstitu-
tional by the United States Su-
preme Court, then the language,
similar to that of the 1908 Con-
stitution could be inserted. This
would put the Senate on a base
whose main consideration is popu-
"A great effort was made to
liberalize the 1952 amendment"
freezing the state's districts, Prof.
Pollock continued in his lecture,
the fifth in his series of talks on
the Convention.
These new apportionment pro-
visions place Michigan among the
top six states in the country that
have both houses requiring 40 per
cent or more of the voters to elect
a majority, he said.
One of the problems that Michi-

... Con-Con lecture
gan, faced in the past was the un-
willingness of the state Legislature
to reapportion itself. The new
Constitution has alleviated this
with the employment of bipartisan
legislative commission. "This is, I
think, a distinct advance," Prof.
Pollock said.
The new Senate plan, taking in-
to consideration both area and
population, has raised the per-
centage of voters able to control
the body from 29 per cent to 43
per cent. This will lead to about a
three and one half to one differen-
tial between some of the districts,
he continued.
"There was not a question in
the world but what some changes
were necessary and the constitu-
tional changes that were made
were considerable," Prof. Pollock
Con-Con Plan Void
But, in view of the attitude of
the court, "I'm sure the provision
would be declared unconstitution-
al," he said.
Prof. Pollock was disappointed
that the "whole discussion of ap-
portionment overshadowed the
whole legislative process. If any-
thing needs to be rehabilitated, as
far as the organs of government
are concerned, it is the legislative

of other volumes exhibited be-
come somewhat older.
"The Theory of the Leisure
Class" by Thorstein Veblen-a
scathing criticism of American so-
cial life which influenced and
altered the traditional patterns of
American life at the turn of the
century-and John Dewey's plan
for modernizing elementary and
secondary school education, "The
School and Society," both first
editions, reveal something of the
tremendous forces at work which
helped bring about the current
academic philosophy at many in-
stitutions of higher learning, in-
cluding the University.
It's likely that a great many of
the individuals who wrote the
books which are on display didn't
realize just how important their
work would be.
Reports Wee Beasties
Anton Leeuwenhoek's letters to
a group of British doctors and
scientists telling of the minute
living things he saw beneath his
ground lenses or a book by Ed-
ward Jennerson the possibility of
ending smallpox epidemics through
cowpox vaccinations scarcely re-
veals the importance of the work
initiated by these men.
Other books, a whole series of
philosophical works, read like the
index to a Carl Cohen text:
A Dozen Philosophers
In addition to a first-edition
Hegel, printed in 1821, the collec-
tion shows "Essays" by the Uto-
pian socialist Robert Owen; "Com-
mon Senese" by Thomas Paine
(over 100,000 copies were sold
within three months of its first
printing in January, 1776); "Jen-
seits von Gut und Bose" by Fred-
erick Nietzsche;
A first-edition (in French) of
de Tocqueville's "Democracy in
America"; "Essays" by Ralph
Seldes To Lecture
In Series on Youth
Gilbert Seldes of the University
of Pennsylvania will speak on
"American Youth and the Popular
Arts" at 4:10 p.m. today in Aud. A.
The lecture is part of the Summer
Session's continuing series on
"American Youth 1962."

Emerson; a first-edition "Federal-
ist" papers dating from 1788; a
fore-runner to the United Na-
tions charter by Emanuel Kant en-
titled "Eternal Peace";
"The Wealth of Nations" by
Adam Smith; Hobbes' "Levia-
than"; Descartes' "Discourse on
Method"; and lastly a very small
pamphlet called "Areopagitica, a
Speech by Mr. John Milton."
The exhibition contains a good
many other interesting books and

provides one easy way to forget
the cares and worries of the Uni-
versity for an hour or so. Unless
such worries happen to center
around philosophy or science or
foreign languages.
The books will be on display
through the end of the summer
session in mid-August. After that
they will be returned either to
the Rare Book Rm. or to one of
the other libraries from whence
they came.

ly after the decision was

Congress Deadlock Stymies
Programs for Unemployed
By SARABETH RICHMAN They will be paid $37 a week
The Manpower Development Act, while in training unless they are
intended to relieve long-term un- receiving a higher amount in un-
employment in many of the state's employment compensation.
depressed areas, especially Detroit, Projected programs for Alma,,
has not yet gone into effect be- Battle Creek, Bay City and De-
cause Congres's has been deadlock- troit-some of the cities involved
ed on the appropriation. --include courses for nurses' aides,
The retraining programs are machine assemblers, milling ma-
designed for workers who lose chine operators and automobile
their jobs because of automation repairmen as well as many skills
and for high-school "drop-outs" useful in the automotive field and
who are presently unemployed. hence useful in the Detroit area.
The purpose will be to provide Signed March 15
marketable skills for the unem- The Manpower Development Act
ployed who qualify for training. was signed into a bill by President
It is hoped that this program John F. Kennedy on March 15.
will increase the reservoir of skill- This law requires that there be a
el manpower and reduce the num- reasonable chance that those re-
ber of unemployed dependent on trained be able to find a job.
state jobless pay or welfare, a Programs under the act result
spokesman for the Michigan Em- from a cooperative effort between
ployment Securities Commission the State Manpower Development
indicated. Commission, the Michigan Board
HEW Approval of Control for Vocational Educa-
tion, The Michigan Employment
In spite of the tie-up in Con- Securities Commission and the
gress, however, many of the pro- Labor Department.
grams have been approved by the
Health, Education and Welfare _>..>:.:..:..::
Gov. John B. Swainson signed A I L I
last month a bill enabling the C
Michigan State Board of Control
to accept and expand funds for _
retraining courses.
The MESC determines the need The Daily Official Bulletin is an
for particular types of skills, and ficial p ication ofr which The
the official said, that a need for Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
the trainees exists. There is a *esponsibility. Notices should be
strong probability, he said, that sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
there will be two openings for befor e24 pm..stworayns receding


Sen. Philip Rahoi (D-Iron
Mountain) said that the Senate
would never be in its "mess" had
it been "fair to the people." He
accepted a challenge by fellow
Upper Peninsula Sen. Kent Lund-
gren (R-Menominee) to debate
the reapportionment issue in that
area of the state.
Swainson, predicting that the
Legislature would come up with
a reapportionment plan acceptable
to the state Supreme Court, said
that he thought the Legislature
could reapportion itself by next
Probably Not
While this is possible, it is highly
improbable, he added.
The governor said that once the
Legislature decided "we were to
have nuisance taxes it acted ex-
peditiously" and that when law-
makers decided to raise their own
salaries 'they did it in five min-
Sen. Farrell Roberts (R-Pon-
tiac) introduced a "vehicle" ap-
portionment scheme eliminating
one district from the Upper Pen-
insula and combining Oakland
and Washtenaw Counties.
Ready for Anything
Roberts said he does not intend
for it to pass, but wanted to have
an amendable bill available should
the United States Supreme Court
appeal fail.
Under legislative procedure, a
bill must be five days in its house
of origin. Roberts declared his
measure would avoid this delay
by introducing it while the appeal
was being decided.


How does man function in a
machine system which he himself
has organized and instituted?
What tasks within this system
can be performed more efficiently
by men rather than machines?
Prof. Paul M. Fitts ,of the psy-
chology department is engaged in
intensive research to try and find
some of the answers.
Five Characteristics
In his current study, he has
developed what he calls a tax-
onomy ,or working classification,
of information-processing meth-
ods. These five types of behavior
include complete-information pro-
cessing, partial-information pro-
cessing, information reduction,
heuristic problem solving and de-
cision making.
The first kind comprises trans-
lation from one code to another.
All the information in the stimu-
lus sequence must reappear in the
response sequence. Thus, a mu-
sician must respond to every stim-
ulus in the printed notes when
he plays his instrument.
Partial-information processing-
the second behavioral function in
filtering in man's response to
Prof. Fitts' taxonomy-involves a
stimuli. One good example of this
sort is the proofreader, who trains
himself to respond only to errors
in printed copy.
The third type is that of in-
formation reduction or summary,
in which the individual condenses
the information available to him.
Anyone who reads a newspaper
article engages in this function if
he retains only the general sense
of the article.
Problem solving, the fourth clas-
sification, uses various sources of

Devise Gadget
To Measure
Driver Action
The University has helped to
develop the first systematic ap-'
proach to improving automobile
driving training programs with anI
electronic machine the size of a
glove compartment.
The device counts the number
of actions a driver makes in oper-,
ating the vehicle, including devia-
tions of the steering wheel, accel-
erator and brake.
It also records the number of
speed changes and the total time
the car has its wheels in motion.'
The instrument, devised by men'
from the University's transporta-
tion center under sponsorship of
an automotive firm in Detroit,
provides an objective measurement?
of driver actions, in contrast to
the subjective reports by driving
Further research is being done
on what number of driving actions
constitutes the norm and wheth-
er such a device can determine
what constitutes a good or bad
Starring Louis Jourdan
Lizz Taylor, Paul Newman


information. The processtof heur-
ism means that data gathered at
one step in a problem is applied
to solve it or decide upon the next
The final type is decision mak-
ing, in which a course of action
is selected on the basis of incom-
plete information or in the face
of risk.
Other Areas
These are the five phases of
Prof. Fitts' general theory of in-
formation-processing behavior. He
is also studying the variables and
integration of the functions, and
testing the relevance of his find-
ings to typical command and con-
trol tasks.
Feedback, or knowledge of re-
sults, is a factor common to all
five information-processing meth-
ods. It takes many forms ranging
from absence of knowledge to a
complete understanding pf the
Another influence is the dynam-
ic or static nature of the task.
The more effect the individual's
response has on the sequence of
events, the more dynamic is the
Team Study
Keeping these two factors in
mind, Prof. Fitts focused his at-
tention on the spontaneous de-
velopment of team relationships
in a complex task combininb sev-
eral information-processing ac-
The main results of this study-
involving several two-man teams
monitoring taxicabs through com-
plex patterns of mobility-reveal-
ed that individuals working with
all five types of data processing
performed much better under
high-load conditions than low-

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every trainee.


Taylor Comes Back to Joint Chiefs

Associated Press News Analyst
WASHINGTON -Gen. Maxwell
D. Taylor got the second-best job
of his career for looking like a
It turned out he wasn't, and he
Now, for not being a yes-man,
he gets the best job.
War or Peace
This puts two strong-willed men
in the Pentagon: .
Taylor, whom President Ken-
nedy called out of retirement last
year and has just named chair-
man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
and Defense Secretary Robert S.
How they get along will be one
of the interesting stories ahead.
In early 1955, when Taylor was

r LsR~~P/1r-!1 T /TRE '
Located Next to Ypsi-Ann Drive-In;
Bring This Coupon and Play Miniature Golf
Offer Good Anytime until Aug. 1, 1962
4,.r~v. ....w~ .,.,.n: r~s ein w~,.a, ..v.. ,:.e..:n ..f .ra.u ..i. +:..+ w ....L N.+.r... vtiw

commander of the Army forces'
in the Far East, he was called
back to Washington without being
told why. He was ushered into the
office of Defense Secretary Charles
Grills Taylor
In a book which he wrote later
-"The Uncertain Trumpet"-
Taylor said Wilson beat around
the bush and finally cross-examin-
ed him on his willingness to ac-
cept civilian orders.
Taylor said he reassured Wilson
since he never had been insubor-
dinate. Then President Dwight D.
Eisenhower sent for him, asked
him the same question, got the
same answer. The result: on Junef
30, 1955, Taylor was named Army
Chief of Staff and, as such, a
member of the Joint Chiefs of
Four years later to the day he
retired. In between times three
things had happened:
Pentagon Strife
He had protested in vain against
cutting the size of the Army; he
developed the idea the Joint Chiefs
of Staff as such should be abolish-
ed, and he was in deep disagree-
ment with the Eisenhower ad-
ministration defense concept.
The book he wrote a year later
was about that disagreement.
Briefly, it was this:
He felt the administration put
too much emphasis on "massive
retaliation." Since the United
States and Russia now had the
power to flatten each other, he
felt neither would voluntarily start
a nuclear war.
Saw Brush-Fire Action
Therefore, he reasoned, what
could be expected from Commun-
ism was a lot of wars smaller than
the all-out kind which would re-
quire the biggest nuclear weapons.
His point was that this country
must be prepared to cope with
general atomic war, limited atomic
war, conventional war and guer-
rilla war.
And in his book he expanded
on the idea that the present Joint
Chiefs of Staff should' be scrapped
and replaced by a single defense
chief of staff and an advisory
board which he called the Supreme
Military Council.
Congress Balks
Congress has been opposed to'
the idea of a single head of the
military services. The heads of
those services-the Joint Chiefs--I
would never sit still for it.
Now as chairman of the Joint
Chiefs a job which puts him in
close contact with McNamara--

General Notices
Seniors: College of L.S. & A., and
Schools of Education, Music, Public
Health, and Business Administration:
Tentative lists of seniors for Atig. grad-
uation have been posted on 'the bulle-
tin board in the first floor lobby, Ad-
min. Bldg. Any changes therefrom
should be requested of the Recorder at
Office of Registration and Records win-
dow Number A, 1513 Admin. Bldg.
August Teacher's Certificate Candi-
dates: All requirements for the teach-
er's certificate must be completedby
Aug. 3rd. These requirements include
the teacher's oath, the health state-
ment, and the Bureau of Appointments
material. The oath should be taken as
soon as possible in room 1203 Univ.
High Sch. The office is open from 8-12
and 1-5.
Foreign Visitors
Following the the foreign visitors who
will be on campus this week on the
dates indicated.
Program arrangements are being made
by the International Center: Mrs. Clif-
ford R. Miller.
Wolf-Heider Rein, Research Assist-
ant, Dept. of Applied Math, Institute
of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany,
July 24-27.
Sault Sipila, Foreign Editor, of Uusi-
Suomi, Helsinki, Finland, July 25-28.
Next Week: Dylan Thomas' great
"Under Milk Wood," Wed. through Sat.,
Trueblood Aud., Frieze Bldg. Tickets
available now, 10-5 daily at Trueblood
box office: $1.50,.1.00 for Wed. & Thurs.,
$1.75, 1.25 for Fri. & Sat.
Lecture: Auspices of the Department
of English and the Summer Session.
"Lawrence Durrell and the Tradition of
the Novel," Prof. Herbert Howarth, Uni-
versity of Manitoba, 4:10 p.m., Thurs.
in Aud. A, Angell Hall (July 26).
Linguistics Forum Lecture: "Boundary
Sinals" will be discussed by Miss Ilse
Lehiste on Tues., July 24 at 7:30 p.m.
In the R tckham Amphitheater.
The Foreign Language Reading Exam-
ination for the Master's Degree in Lin-
guistics will be held on Fri., July 27.
Those wishing to take the exam should
maake appointments with Prof. Puigram.
Retail Furniture Co. in Wyandotte,
Mich.-Recent grad, either male or fe-
male, In field of Interior Decoration.
Company Is going to establish a small
studio in store area which would be
devoted to draperies & interior decorat-
Ing service. Seeking qualified person to
build this kind of trade.
Kellogg Co., Battle Creek, Mich. -
Need grad to work as Assistant to Edi-
tor of the Kellogg News. Responsibili-
ties are primarily Intoral & written
communications, BA with major in Eng-
lish, Journalism or equivalent. Ability
to write clearly & interestingly. Posi-
tion involves considerable work in pho-
tography & applicant should have in-
terest in knowing or learning tech-
niques required.
Air Force Logistics Command, Wright-
Patterson Air Force Base, O. - Position
as Research Historian, Civil Service
grade level GIS-9. Must have PhD in
Social Sciences or in English; or MA
plus 1 yr. additional grad study or 1
yr. research & writing exper. Eligible
for promotion after 1 yr.

The following part-time jobs are
available. Applications for these jobs
can be made in, the Part-time Place-
ment Office, 2200 Student Activities
Bldg., during the following hours: Mon.
thru Fri. 8 a.m. til 12 noon and 1:30 til
5 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring students
for part-time or full-time temporary
work, should contact Bob Hodges, Part-
time Interviewer at NO 3-1511, ext. 3553.
Students desiring miscellaneous odd
jobs should consult the bulletin board
in Room 2200, daily.
1-To sell fresh frozen crickets. Would
need a car. Full-tixne for 2 months.
Must know somethin gabout fish-
1-Student in Psychology or Special
Education, between the age of 20
and 25, to act as companion to a 20-
year-old boy. Full time for 1%,z
months. Must live in.
1-Good commercial artist for news-
paper advertising, Part-time or full-
80-Psychological Subjects. Must be
students. At least one, 2 hour ses-
1-Good commercial artist for news-
paper advertising. Part-time or full-
2-Sales girls-long term. Would need
1-Histologist. Must have a natural
science background with two years
of college education. Experience not
necessary. %-time, permanent posi-
1-Food supervisor. Degree in dietetics
or equivalent experience. Mon. thru
Fri., 4 p.m. to 8 p.m.

For further information, please
General Div., Bureau of Appts.,
SAB, Ext. 3544.


University of Michigan

Haller's Jewelers
717 N. University Ave.
DIAL 2-6264

Law Offices in Gary, Ind--Vacancy
I~n office for recent grad who has
passed his Bar, who is resident of this
area, & who is interested in practicing
in Gary. Firm is engaged in general
practice of law; also have sizeable cas-
ualty insurance clientele.

-AP Wirephoto
NEW BOSS IN WASHINGTON - Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor and
President John F. Kennedy pose for the press shortly after Tay-
lor's appointment as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He
moves up to become along with Defense Secretary Robert S. Mc-
Namara the prime defense policy-makers in Washington,

Taylor will have to preside over
meetings of the Joint Chiefs who,
he said, shouldn't be there.
The prospect of what this may
mean doesn't seem to disturb Ken-
Studied Cuba
One of Taylor's first jobs for the
President last year as his special
military adviser was to study the
failure of the disastrous Cuban in-
vasion for which Kennedy took
responsibility although his Joint
Chiefs had been in on the plans
for it.
Late last year Kennedy sent
Taylor to South Viet Nam to see
what could be done to stop the
Communist advance there through
guerrilla war.
When Taylor returned it was
understood he advised against
sending American troops into Viet
Nam to fight but that he did sug-

gest sending in military help in
the form of planes, military ad-
visers and experts to train the
Vietnamese in guerrilla fighting.
Exerts Influence
Not long afterward the United
States began sending helicopters
into Viet Nam-they've helped in
the fighting since-- and troops
who, among other chores that
avoided direct involvement, teach
guerrilla fighting.
Kennedy last year bought Tay-
lor's "balance of forces" idea and
cast aside "massive retaliation" as
the all-purpose philosophy.

B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation




Dial 8-6416


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