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June 30, 1961 - Image 1

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1961-06-30

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DRUG COMPANIES
FAIL PUBLIC
See Page 2

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WARM, HUMID
High-92
Low--70
Chance of showers,
clearing for weekend.

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No. 4S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, JUNE 30, 1961 FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

sDefend AliedRight
OfAc'cess to Berlin
State Department Refutes Power
Of East Germans To Block Airway
By The Associated Press
The State Department yesterday bluntly denied that East Ger-
many has any right to impose restrictions on Allied use of the air
corridors between West Germany and Berlin.
Yesterday's renewed denial of East German right to limit access
to West Berlin focused fresh attention on the Pentagon's plans for
military action if diplomacy fails.
The department statement rejected specifically an East German
decree on Wednesday which provided that after Aug. 1 foreign air-
craft entering or leaving East German territory must register with an
air service center.
Underscores U.S. Determination
The position taken is not a new one but it served to underscore the
determination of the United States not to yield any part of what
a it regards as its rights to unre-

U.S.

ORBITS

FIRST

TO

IC

00

PRESIDENT KENNEDY
... wants new agency

S eek Curb
On Weapons
WASHINGTON OP) - President
John F. Kennedy yesterday asked
Congress to create a permanent
United States disarmament agen-
cy to find methods for checking
the world arms-race and means
for enforcing any agreements
reached.
He sent Congress a bill to cre-
ate an autonomous "United States
Disarmament Agency for World
Peace and Security." This would
be a sub-cabinet-level unit re-
placing the present United States
Disarmament Administration
which is a part of the State De-
partment.
The new agency would be the
first of its kind in the world.
The present administration is
directed by John J. McCloy, the
President's special adviser on dis-
armament, and yesterday's rec-
ommendations stem from Mc-
Cloy's five-month study of the
complex problem. The administra-
tion was created last October by
then President Dwight D. Eisen-
hower.
Inea letter transmitting the
proposed legislation to the Sen-
ate and House, Kennedy wrote:
"Today, ability of man to mas-
ter his environment threatens to
outpace his ability to control him-
self . . . The people . . . have not
yet been able to banish the prim-
itive threat of war.
"The ingenuity that has made
the weapons of war vastly more
destructive should be applied to
the development of a system of
control of these weapons."

stricted access to West Berlin.
Secretary of State Dean Rusk
said last night the West will take
a number of steps over the com-
ing months to make clear to the
Kremlin that it stands firm on
West Berlin.
He said the aim is to avoid
"dangerous miscalculation" by
the Soviets.
Explore Possibilities
At the same time, Rusk said the
Western powers should "explore
every possibility of workingout a
tolerable peace" that does not
conflict with the- West's vital in-
terests.
The decree and the general
background of mounting concern
over the West Berlin situation
presumably were high on the agen-
da of yesterday's National Secur-
ity Council session at the White
House. These NSC meetings are
tightly closed and detailed reports
of its discussions never are re-
leased.
The Defense Department plans
for a military showdown.-if one
comes-also are secret. But 'it is
known there are several contin-
gent plans which are constantly
being updated. And the broad out-
lines of some of them are known.
The plans for Berlin are just
one section of strategic plans
maintained by the Joint Chiefs of
Staff. Those plans fall into three
categories: a "joint long range
strategic estimate," which covers
a period of up to 12 years; a mid-
range, "strategic objectives plan"
covering a three-year period and
a short range, "strategic capabili-
ties plan," with a time period of
one year.
The last is the joint war plan
which would be put into operation
in case of hostilities. It may be
assumed the Berlin recommenda-
tions now have been moved into
this category.
The plans are not only contin-
uously revised but have to be based
on a number of different assump-
tions ab'out the nature of a con-
flict and how it would start.
Strike Board
Gets Extension
WASHINGTON UP) - President
John F. Kennedy yesterday ex-
tended for three days the deadline
for a fact-finding board to file its
report in the maritime strike.
The emergency board had been
directed to file its report by today.
David L. Cole, chairman of the
board, advised Secretary of Labor
Arthur J. Goldberg that the board
wanted additional time to prepare
its report and to attempt to bring
the seagoing unions and ship op-
erators together in an agreement.

IN SOUTH:
Says Reds
Controlled
.Bus Rides
By The Associated Press
JACKSON, Miss.-The "Free-
dom Rides" were "directed, in-
spired and planned by known
Communists," the chief of the
Mississippi highway patrol charg-
ed yesterday.
Brig. Gen. T. B. Birdsong told
a press conference at least two
riders arrested during efforts to
desegregate Jackson transporta-
tion facilities attended a Soviet-
directed seminar in Cuba last Feb-
ruary.
The charges brought an almost
immediate denial from a New
York official of the Congress of
Racial Equality.
Birdsong said 202 American stu-
dents made the trip to Havana
and heard addresses by nine of-
ficials of the Soviet Union "to
teach students how to make sit-
ins, walk-ins, kneel-ins and free-
dom rides."
He claimed that CORE was re-
sponsible for the "Freedom Rides"
and is a Communist front group.
Earlier this week, Gordon Carey,
field director of CORE, said he
planned the rides in February. He
labelled Birdsong's charges of
Communist domination "so ridicu-
lous as to merit no reply."
Because the reputation of scores
of imprisoned "Freedom Riders"
is at stake, Carey said he felt
compelled to answer the accusa-
tions briefly.
"The 'Freedom Rides' have no
connection whatsoever with the
Communist party in this nation or
any other," he said.
Birdsong said other riders had
records of auto theft, burglary,
grand larceny and dishonorable
discharges from military service.

Of ficials

-AP wirephoto
STEAMING FORWARD-The British Admiralty sent this carrier, the Bulwark, toward the Persian
Gulf yesterday with 600 Royal Marine Commandos aboard. The Marines-here practicing a com-
bat operation with helicopters-are readying themselves for possible trouble in Kuwait, an oil-rich
nation on the gulf.
Kuwait Def ies Iraqi De-mands

Nuclear Instrument
Works Successfully
Surpass Russian Achievements
In Race To Use Atonic Power
By The Associated Press
CAPE CANAVERAL M--The United States hurled the first
atomic battery into space early yesterday morning as part of
a spectacular sky triple play in which one rocket blasted three
satellites into orbit.
The successful orbiting of the nuclear device in one of
the satellites gives American scientists a significant lead over
Russia in the race to harness atomic power for space explora-
tion.
Predicts Generator Use
A governmental official predicted operational atomic gen-
erators will be used in satellites by next year. The first nuclear
device rocketed into orbit fedf

S ee

KUWAIT (P)-The Sheik of Ku-
wait defied Iraq's claims on his
oil-rich nation yesterday and said
his people stand behind him in
maintaining the sheikdom's new
independence.
Three days of popular demon-
strations and a deluge of tele-
grams from desert Bedouins and
oil workers of the Arab middle
class confirmed his determination,
he said in his first official state-
ment on the crisis. Military sup-
port from Britain gave it muscle.
The British are keeping their
advisers with the Sheik's brigade-
sized army. British troops at Bah-
rain, another oil center 270 miles
down the Persian Gulf, are re-
ported being strengthened.
Warships Converge
The British Admiralty in Lon-
don announced that the aircraft
carrier Bulwark is steaming from
Karachi to the Persian Gulf with
600 royal marine commandos.
Three other British warships also
are on the move in the Far East,
reportedly bound for the gulf.
Iraqi gunboats opened fire from
Kuwait's territorial waters on
Iranian motor launches transport-
ing food to Kuwait Thursday, the
Iranian newspaper Keyhan re-

ported in Tehran. No mention was
made of casualties.
The Cairo newspaper Al Ahram
said two fully equipped Iraqi ar-
my brigades moved up to Kuwait's
border. The Kuwaiti education
minister, in Cairo, said the bor-
der was quiet, however.
Quoting Iranian customs offi-
cials at the Persian Gulf oil port
of Abadan, the newspaper Key-
han said Iraqi gunboats were caus-
ing difficulties for the 100 Iran-
ian launches carrying food to Ku-
wait since Iraq barred export of
food to the sheikdom.
Passengers aboard the launches
were quoted as saying several
Iraqis in Kuwait were accused of
attempting to blow up the Kuwait
oil refinery Wednesday and were
arrested.
The British, with big oil inter-
ests in the Kuwait fields, are
pledged to answer any call for
military aid by Kuwait's ruler,
Sheik Abdullah As-Salim As-Sa-
bah.
Relys on Subjects
But the 66-year old ruler also
is counting on his 320,000 sub-,
jects, who have the highest per
capita income in the Middle East

Need for Aid
To Viet Nam
SAIGON, Viet Nam ()-Ameri-
can officials believe the United
States will almost certainly have
to put out more military aid than
now planned to save South Viet
Nam from the Communists. Just
how much is a matter of debate.
Faced with the loss of Laos and
the growing Red guerrilla threat
here, the United States recently
agreed to foot the bill for 20,000
more troops in -the South Viet-
namese army.
This was part of a program out-
lined by Vice-President Lyndon B.
Johnson on his visit here in May.
The program also included help
for the faltering civil guard;
United States specialists in health,
welfare and public works, joint
long-range economic development
and appeals for allied help in the
guerrilla war.
Military experts said the troop
support must be regarded as just
the first step if an already serious
situation is to be kept from grow-
ing worse.

and the region's best school and
hospital system, thanks to oil rev-
enues of $3 million a day. They
hardly could want these benefits
to be submerged by annexation to
Iraq.
"At this crucial time in the his-
tory of Kuwait," said a statement
issued by the Sheik, "they (the
people) have shown a spirit which
has demonstrated to the world
that we are ready to defend our-
selves." I
The lightly bearded Sheik is-
sued the statement from the Sif
Palace, Kuwait's administrative
headquarters.
French Police
Subdue .Riots
By Farmers
NIMES, France (W) - Angry
French farmers, ignoring govern-
ment pleas for quiet and patience,
clashed with police in a bloody
demonstration in the streets here
yesterday.
Forty-nine riot police were in-
jured, seven seriously.
Fighting broke out after a group
of several hundred farmers
mounted on tractors rolled into
Nimes at the same time a meeting
was taking place in Paris between
Prime Minister Michel Debre and
French farm leaders.
Pelt Police
The farmers pelted police with
rocks. Riot police retaliated with
swinging clubs and finally broke
up the demonstration with tear
gas.
Seven of the injured police were
hospitalized, including the squad's
commander, who had a fractured
skull. His condition was described
as grave.
Several farmers were reported
injured, none seriously.
Clash Violently
The clash was one of the most
violent in the three weeks of dem-
onstrations throughout France by
farmers unhappy over farm prices.
Meanwhile, in Paris the three-
hour meeting between the prime
minister and farm leaders ended
on a more happy note. They
termed the conference constructive
and said other meetings will be
held next week.
The meeting got under way after
Debre urged farmers to end the
demonstrations and help chart a
new agricultural program.

a small amount of power to
the Transit 4-A satellite yes-
terday.
Transit 4-A was one of three
satellites hoisted' into orbit from
here by a Thor-Able-Star rocket.
The four and a half pound nu-
clear instrument was attached to
the top of the 175-pound satellite
and hooked up to provide 2.5
watts of electricity to two trans-
mitters and other instruments.
The radioactive element was a
small charge of plutonium 238.
Nuclear generators are now be-
ing developed for the Surveyor
project, which will land large
packages on the moon starting in
1963.
AEC Reveals Job
The Atomic Energy Commission
announced earlier yesterday that
the first working assignment for
the power units will be in opera-j
tional Transit satellites scheduled
for launching next year.
Once perfected, these genera-
tors will provide satellites with a
lightweight, unlimited power sup-
ply and permit communication
with space vehicles soaring mil-
lions of miles away.
The Navy hailed the triple fir-
ing and one officer said it "looks
like the most successful launch
we have had."
Vice Admiral John T. Hayward,
deputy chief of naval operations
for development, said that suc-
cess of the mission makes him
hopeful the Transit navigation
system will be the first operational
satellite network in the world.
The other satellites were Greb,
a 55-pound sphere which carried
two detectors to measure X-ray
radiation from the sun, and In-
Jun, a 40-pound drum-shaped
parcel which measures intense
radiation in the Van Allen radia-
tion belts and reports on auroral
phenomena such as the Northern
Lights.
R. B. Kershner, supervisor of
Johns Hopkins laboratory's space
development division, said the nu-
clear power plant "looks like an
excellent possibility" for meeting
the Transit system's needs for
five-year battery life.

Miller Cites
Differences
In Satellites
"Something for everybody" is
the way a University astronomer
and former Navy-man described
the successful United States sat-
ellite firings.
Prof. Freeman T. Miller, chair-
man of the astronomy depart-
ment, emphasized last night the
differing purposes and functions
of the three satellites all launch-
ed from a single Thor-Able-Star
rocket.
The publicized part of the or-
bit group, the one containing the
experimental atomic power pack,
will be used as part of the Navy's
Transit navigational system.
Sight the Stars
Under normal conditions, sail-
ors locate their position courses
using visual sightings of a few
known stars. The stars are often
obscured by partial cloud cover
which makes the job difficult,
Prof. Miller explained.
The Transit system lets the
sailor "get his bearings" by sight-
ing the precision orbits of the
artificial satellites.
The last of the three satellites
is the one "which interests Prof.
Miller the most. It is a 40-pound
packet which measures the in-
tense radiation of the Van Allen
belts and its effect on auroral
phenomena.
Describes Difference
Prof. Miller described the dif-
ference between this and the first
section as the contrast between
an engineering feat and a project
which adds to our basic store of
knowledge.
"All three of the satellites are
good achievements. Their relative
importance depends on the per-
son's interest. When I was in the
Navy, I would probably have
thought the navigational aspect
the most important," Prof. Miller
said.

DMOND VIEWS CIVIL WAR:
South Clung Tencoul'to

U-D Reveals 'Master Plan'
For0$25 Million Growth
The University of Detroit revealed a "master plan" of development
yesterday that calls for raising $25 million for capital expansion and
operations.
The outline-detailed in a 26 page brochure-is set up by priori-
ties. The first and second priorities cover a 10 year period and require
6$ million each.
The money would cover the costs of six new buildings, a faculty
fund for salary increases and research, a scholarship fund and a
student loan fund. The new build-
ings will be for biology research,
engineering laboratories, creative
arts, architecture, student services
and administrative center.
A third priority, also for $6 mil-
S lav ery lion, would finance new classrooms
and graduate school buildings,
strengthened the South's power. scholarship and salary endowment
Abolitionists were charged with and land acquisition.
attempting to undermine a yen- The fourth priority calls for $4
erable American institution, million to be used for scholarships
and salary endowment. Under a
Give 'Corrupt Bargain' "special projects" classification,
The "corrupt bargain" by the another $3 million would be spent
framers of the Constitution which for a student chapel and a wom-
gave the South three-fifths more en's dormitory.
than their just representation and Britt Announces Plan
which tacitly accepted slavery by The Reverend Father Laurence
guaranteeing it for 20 years con- V. Britt, S.J., U-D president, an-
t r i b u t e d. to disproportionate nounced the tentative plan at a
Southern power, he said. luncheon for 35 Detroit business,
Prof. Dumond termed slavery industry and civic leaders.
"the mark of social insanity" in The recommendations stemmed
which a white skin replaces 'due from a request several months ago
process of law' and habeas cor- by the school's trustee to study the
pus and in which mob violence re- present and future position of the
places free inquiry and discussion. privately supported institution.
When overcome at last by num- The brochure made a strong
bers despite the three-fifths rule, point of the "community-orient-

By RUTH EVENHUIS "
"The Civil War began because
there were three and one half
million slaves and would not have
begun otherwise," Prof. Dwight L.
Dumond of the history department
said yesterday.
"It was a heroic effort by a
Christian people individually and
in association to reconstruct a
democratic society which had
been fragmentized by 200 years
of slavery," he said.
The South's defense of slavery
was based on the assumption that
the slaves were less than human
and as such were not parties to
the Constitution.
Don't Receive Rights
Thus, the guaranteed right of
every nerson to "life. liberty and

had the power to abuse everyone
of another color. "Being white,
they thought themselves above the
law." The same principle keeps
Negro children in separate schools
today, Prof. Dumond said, the
fear that they might excel.
He blamed the Southern clergy-
for "pure sophistry" in their treat-
ment of slavery as a political
rather than moral question and
in refusing all discussion in order
to maintain "separation of church
and state."
Neutralizes Agency
This "neutralized the one agen-
cy in democratic society whose
function is reform."
Prof. Dumond said that the
small Southern aristocracy was
able to keep a nation of 20 million

11

County Democrats
Choose Chairman
Washtenaw County Democrats
last night elected Peter Darrow
of Ann Arbor as new county
chairman.
Darrow, who graduated from the

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-AP Wirephoto

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