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June 29, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-06-29

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Al ditgau DBaily
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
THURSDAY, JUNE 29. 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: PETER STEINBERGER

IN MACLEISH DRAMA:
Mystery Answers Mystery

Threat to Kuwait
Challenges U.S. Commitment

IN A LETTER to the Arab states-including
Iraq-President Kennedy has made a com-
mittment to give aid and assistant to "all
states determined to control their own destiny."
From Indo-China to Korea to Laos the United
States has maintained the policy of defending
the sovereignty of independent states whose
security is being threatened by a foreign ag-
gressor. In each cases, however, our intervention
has been directed against Communist activity.
When Iraq, a non-Communist and essentially
pro-western state, plans to seize the sheikdom
of Kuwait, forcefully if necessary, it places
the United States in an odd political position.
If we truly mean to uphold our committment,
we should, of course, defend the newly inde-
pendent state of Kuwait. But since our relations
with Iraq are extremely tenuous, the protection
of Kuwait would mean disaster for the success-
ful continuation of our diplomatic relations
with Iraq.
IS IS A relatively new dilemma for Ameri-1
can foreign policy makers. To help main-
tain Kuwait's independence against its Iraqi
aggressor would be to seriously damage our re-
lations with Iraq and perhaps lose the balance
of power. The adventure is indeed risky, but it
is the only maneuver which would save the
United States from hypocrisy in view of the
week-old Middle Eastern committment by
President Kennedy.
Such an idealistic step, however, is certainly
not in keeping with foreign policy precedent. In
the past our idealism has only paraded itself
when it paid to do so. When it has not been
profitable to do what we felt to be right, we
haven't; we have kept tight hold on our moral-
istic paroxysms. It pays, for example, to call
Castro a despot, a fascist, a communist; for
Castro suppresses the "dignity" of human in-

dividuals-and suppression must be fought by
"freedom" fighters. Indeed our idealism surges
to the fore where Cuba is concerned because
it doesn't pay to have ICBM's 90 miles from our
shores and United Fruit lobbying again.
T HIS IDEALISM, however, has been only
sporadic. Time and again we have shown
the world our concern is not "freedom" but only
that which is most economically and politically
fruitful. If the "real" reason we blast Cuba is
that Castro suppresses individual freedom, why
is it that the United States has not equally
chastised other dictators in Latin America? On
the contrary, we have supported every dictator
in Latin America-if it was to our benefit.
When Trujillo showed signs of being pro-West-
ern and allowed American businesses in the Do-
min4can Republic, we heard nothing of the rot-
ting lower classes, mock elections and illiter-
acy. If the new government of the Dominican
Republic wished to break economic and diplo-
matic relations with us, we would probably put
on our idealism and send new freedom fighters
to the Dominican Republic to wipe out the
fascists.
THIS IS THE precedent American policy will
. probably follow in the Kuwait affair. Ku-
wait doesn't pay. We need to maintain our al-
liance with Iraq, and therefore, will allow Ku-
wait to be swallowed. We may as well fold up
President Kennedy's committment to defend
all states determined to control their own des-
tiny and pull it out at a more opportune time.
If our position is actually challenged we will
probably use the traditional rationalization that
Kuwait is "strategically indefensible." It is
very unlikely that we shall practice what we
preach. Kuwait is doomed.
-JEROME KROTH

ARCHIBALD MacLEISH's play
"J.B.," which began its four-
day run at the Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre last night, is a rather
strange piece of writing.
MacLeish himself has always
been concerned with dilemma, just
as his poetry has shuttled back
and forth between the opposed po-
sitions of art for art's sake and
public responsibility. It is, then,
no surprise that in his most ambi-
tious and mature play, he turns to
the ultimate dilemma posed by the
Biblical story of Job: "Why should
one be virtuous if the innocent
must suffer?" So far as I know
there is no answer to the question.
Nor does MacLeish offer one, ex-
cept to say that "We are." How-
ever, the richness and depth of
MacLeish's in'vestigation make us
at least temporarily willing to ac-
cept the mystery itself as the an-
swer to the mystery. In this fun-
damental respect, MacLeish's play
does not differ from the Biblical
story. But J.B. has, of course, been
modernized. His God and Satan
are circus employes-a balloon
salesman and a popcorn sales-
man. His Job is a business man.
So far, so good. But the modern
equivalents of Job's trials, for the
reason that they have to be more
"real," seem excessive and even
absurd. What was good clean cos-
mic fun in the Old Testament
comes perilously close to farce in
MacLeish's play.
* * *
YET this is the only real weak-
ness in a play which does per-
form better than it reads - per-
haps because some of the more
hot-dog-I'm-a-poet lines have
been dropped from the acting ver-
sion. And MacLeish does bring
something new to the story - a
very interesting pervasive puritan-
ism which appears to suggest that

optimism is soft-headed and pes-
simism is fascinating but satanic.
Prof. William Halstead, who di-
rected the University players in
last night's presentation, does not
seem to realize that MacLeish has
an almost awe-inspiring flair for
overwriting, with the result that
the production gets off to a cer-
tain tarnished intensity from
which it has a hard time recov-
ering. Indeed, the squirt-gun joy
of J.B.'s family at their Thanks-
giving Day dinner, is just giddy
enough to make one impatient for
the tribulations. Later on, the di-
rection is sensitive, and the play
moves very brilliantly into its cli-
max.
The roles of J.B. and his wife,
Sarah, are demanding, always in
danger of turning lugubrious, and
Marvin Diskin and Barbara Sit-

-Daily-Larry Jacobs
tig turn in credible performances.
But C. David Colson as Mr. Nickles
(Satan) and Albert M. Katz as
Mr. Zuss (God) easily steal the
show. Oddly enough, Mr. Katz
looks startling like the Vatican
statue of the Emperor Hadrian
and Mr. Colson looks very much
like the Vatican statue of Anti-
noous. Even more oddly, Mr. Katz's
God, despite his lofty obscurant-
ism, seems nevertheless to be con-
solidating the boundaries of the
Empire, while Mr. Colson's Satan
is wonderfully mercurial, some-
times sullen, sometimes cute, and
always as graceful as ballet.
Ralph Duckwall's setting is ex-
cellent, and the five nice kids who
play J.B.'s family are entirely
charming.
-Prof. Radcliffe Squires
Department of English

AT THE CAMPUS:
Symbols Burn, Drip
In 'Virgin Spring'
INGMAR BERGMAN (softly on the g's, please) can do no wrong. His
retelling of a 14th Century Swedish legend features vivid and ab-
sorbing vignettes of pagan ritual, rape, violent murder and infanticide,
and an unmarried mother-to-be whose own sire is unknown.
Unlike American-made films with similar contents, "The Virgin
Spring" does not suffer abuse as a second rate, trashy entertainment
appealing to the frustrated livers and loins of our movie viewers.
For "The Virgin Spring" carries the magic name of Bergman. His
work is art, allegory or mystical experience--whatever you may think
of it personally.
Bergman has brought to the screen a new intelectual dimension

S

PROPOSED BILL:
Student Exchange

Peace Corps Policy Awkward

. SARGENT SHRIVER, director of the Peace
Corps, has announced that corps members
will not be sent to countries that practice racial
or religious discrinmination.
Such a stand is commendable, of course, in
the sense that it is an objection to discrimina-
tion. In fact such a stand would be most wel-
come in domestic affairs.I
However, international affairs and domestic
affairs cannot always be conducted upon the
same principles. Although the federal govern-
ment has a moral right to denounce and eli-
minate discrimination within its own boundar-
eis, one questions the advisability of its assum-
ing a positon of moral dictatorship over Arab
CORE Rides
THE ANN ARBOR Direct Action Committee,
local branch of the Congress of Racial
Equality, is making a big mistake in sending
freedom riders to stage sit-ins in Dearborn.
First, the purpose of the freedom rides is to
draw national attention to racial segregation in
areas where little else has any effect. Both
freedom rides and sit-ins will soon be over-
worked as publicity devices-if they are not al-
ready. Since this is the case, CORE ought to
concentrate its efforts in those areas such as
the South where both local and state govern-
ments support segregation. These are the most
difficult barriers-barriers which actually re-
quire national publicity.
In Michigan, AADAC has access to many
state and union officials who are strongly
committed to integration. There are anti-dis-
crimination laws which could be enforced. It
would be easier and more effective to work
through legal, local channels with individual
test cases rather than to descend on Dearborn
merchants en masse causing a great deal of
unnecessary ill-will.
Such direct, extra-legal action is simply in-
appropriate.
--D. MARCUS

nations, for example. The United States, in de-
nying these countries aid, is passing moral
judgment of tangible consequences upon their
beliefs. Thus, the issue is more complex than
simple tolerance or intolerance of discrimina-
tion.
SHRIVER DEFENDS his policy as being in
line with a Congressional policy against dis-
crimination, It must be noted, however, that the
nebulous policy to which he refers has con-
cerned itself with domestic rather than foreign
discrimination.
Is the position of moral judgment so assumed
in accord with Peace Corps objectives? The
corps is dedicated to assisting a country's de-
velopment. It is a good-will effort-no strings
attached. Those countries requesting aid are
to be equipped with trained personnel upon
request.
The corps complexion changes with the new
restriction. The original generous, unqualified
offer becomes one extended only to those coun-
tries of whose beliefs and customs the United
States approves-and a rather unpalatable
string becomes attached.
THE PRACTICAL EFFECT will be the denial
of aid to countries which are in particular
need of assistance. This is hardly compatible
with the corps' purposes.
It may even appear to some of these coun-
tries that the United States is being hypocriti-
cal. Those underdeveloped countries with a
largely Negro population are not unware of the
Negro's status throughout the United States,
and particularly in the South. Yet the United
States has decided not to give aid to her col-
leagues in discrimination.
The new policy puts the United States in
the awkward position of passing moral judg-
ment on nations following practices of which
she herself is guilty. And in so doing, the suc-
cess of the original objectives of the corps is
endangered.
-RUTH EVENHUIS

By FLORENCE SISKIND
Daily Staff Writer
PROBLEMS hindering foreign
student exchange are being
considered by Congress as part of
a bill which would codify and co-
ordinate existing laws dealing with
student exchange.
The bill, stepping up govern-
ment activities in the exchange
of persons has recently been in-
troduced in both the House and
the Senate.
Prof. James M. Davis, director
of the International Center and
chairman of President Kennedy's
pre-inaugural task force on ex-
change of persons, testified on be-
half of the proposed Mutual Edu-
cational and Cultural Exchange
Bill before the House Committee
on Foreign Affairs early this
month.
The bill, a modernization and
extension of the present Smith-
Mundt and Fulbright Acts, was
written in part by M. Robert
Klinger, counselor at the Inter-
national Center and an expert in
immigration problems at the re-
quest of the Government Liaison
Committee of Foreign Student Ad-
visors.
** *
THE BILL deals with three main
areas of existing difficulties. The
first of these is the role the fed-
eral government plays in offering
scholarships to foreign students to
study in the United States. The
bill calls for an expansion of this
role and an increase in the num-
ber of scholarship grants the gov-
ernment offers.
The second problem is the heavy
expense of educating foreign stu-
dents which now largely falls on
universities and colleges in the
United States. It is proposed that
funds be authorized to aid uni-
versities in the cost of educating
foreign students beyond what the
student pays in tuition.
The third and perhaps greatest
area of difficulty concerns those
great numbers of foreign students
who, like American students, come
to our universities with no support
other than what they receive from
their parents or earn themselves.

There are now in existence strict
regulations which greatly hinder
foreign students or their wives
from working while in school or
from dropping out of school to
strengthen their finances.
* * *
KLINGER feels that a modifica-
tion of these regulations is needed
so that students who find they
are no longer able to finance their
incompleted education will not be
forced to return home.
He has incorporated into the
bill plans for new regulations
which would permit foreign stu-
dents to work provided they can
prove financial need and are not
taking jobs from American stu-
dents.
There are also in existence
"minor irritants" in the areas of
social security and income tax
which Klinger feels hamper the
ability of foreign students to sup-
port themselves while studying in
the United States.
Foreign students now pay so-
cial security out of their weekly
pay check, but unlike other work-
ers can receive none of the bene-
fits.
Foreign students also pay in-
come tax on their earnings but
cannot make deductions for de-
pendents. The proposed bill would
allow foreign students to make
these deductions and to stop pay-
ing the non beneficial social se-
curity.
PROF. DAVIS, in his testimony
before the House, recommended
certain minor revisions in the
wording of the proposed bill in
order to insure elimination of dif-
ficulties raised by the acts now
in effect.
He asked the authorization of
funds to universities to provide
"orientation courses, language
training and other appropriate
services to foreign students wheth-
er or not they are receiving other
financial support from the goy-
erilment . ..'
He also recommended that non-
quota visas be made to include
foreign professors as they did un-
der the 1924 Immigration Act
which was changed in 1952.

LETTERS
to the
EDITOR
Eichmann .. .
To the Editor:
MUST ASSUME that Peter
Steinberger's editorial on the
Eichmann trial was written iron-
ically, because on the face of it
almost every statement is a mis-
statement.
In the first place, many persons
in many countries have been le-
gally punished for "following or-
ders, regardless of, what those or-
ders were". A policeman in this
state who beats up a prisoner on
the order of mayor, sheriff or
chief of police is still liable to both
civil suit and criminal punishment.
Mr. Steinberger's logic would
mean that only Hitler was guilty
of anything, on the ground that
all the other Nazis were bound to
obey him. This is a reductio ad
absurdum.
In the second place, to say that
"the only reason we can think of
to explain why we aren't facists is
inertia and lack of opportunity" is
to ignore history, tradition and
probability. We Americans have
plenty of faults, but unquestion-
ing obedience to bad laws or op-
pressive rulers is not one of them;
on the contrary we tend more to
anarchy than to slavishness, and it
is hard enough to get Americans
to obey even good law or respect
the most benevolent governments.
Finally, whatever effect the
Eichmann trial may or may not
have had on the Arabs, it has
already had a most salutary effect
on America and Europe (including
Germany). The evils of Nazi ra-
cism, which the world had begun
to forget in sixteen years, have
again become a warning to the
future. The attitude of the Ger-
man government and press has
been admirable. Many accounts
say that Hitlerism is for the first
time receiving adequate attention
in the German schools. "Those who
do not know history are doomed to
repeat it" is a wise proverb. One,
might add. "those who do know
history can profit by the example
of the past".
-Prof. Preston Slosson
History Department

through reinforced symbolism and
In previous films, especially "The
Seventh Seal," the Swedish direc-
tor was able to weave a subtle
symbolism and unsubtle stark-
ness into an enriching experience.
IN THIS FILM, winner of an
Academy Award for the best for-
eign film of last year, Bergman
does not quite make it.
The themes are there all right
-Man and his relation to God, the
Face of Evil, Innocence and Jeal-
ousy-but there seems to be no
attempt at integrating them: only
repeating them again and again.
The concept of the "Virgin
Spring," the ever flowing pure
stream of redemption, is in every
scene. Except, of course, when fire
is being used as a symbol for the
same thing.
The struggle between the purity
and gentleness of Christianity
(portrayed by a bratty, but beau-
tiful Karin, Birgitta Pettersson;
her mother who's wont to mortify
the flesh; and her father, Max
von Sydow, "a man of profound
religious feeling stunned into acts
of violence") and the revenge and
hatred of the pagan god Odin is
only resolved through the contriv-
ance of a miracle.
Von Sydow confesses his inabil-
ity to understand God, begs his
forgiveness and humbly says he
knows no other way to live.
* * *
FOR THOSE who like to spot an
allegory about Calvary, little re-
flection is needed to discover the
necessary elements: two thieves, an
innocent child revulsed by what
he has seen, a Jew's harp, the robe
(a golden shift embroidered by
15 maidens), and the last supper.
As in any allegory, the charac-
ters exhibit one or a few charac-
teristics to the exclusion of all
others. Thus, they become figures
in a Gothic drama wearing Greek
masks.
An exception is Gunnel Lind-
blom, who portrays a bastard
"spitfire," jealous of Karin who
rejects Odin and accepts God aft-
er the miracle. Her acting is fierce
and fine and her emotive face
could carry her scenes without the
English subtitles.
Perhaps the viewer is expecting
too much from Bergman. The pre-
views of "The Virgin Spring" are
an extraordinary Job of mixing
critical acclaim for Bergman and
dramatic spots from the film. If
you can find where they're play-
ing, don't miss them.
-Michael Olinick
Suicide
'THE BERLIN CRISIS brings
forcibly to attention that the
capitalist and communist systems
have one charming characteristic
in common. Neither asks its people
whether they want to risk the
suicide of the human race in a
quarrel over access to one city; or
indeed whether they want to go
to war at all .. .
Congress is locked in fierce con-
tention over such momentous is-
sues as whether aid to education
shall include parochial schools,
but it hardly looks up to notice
that war clouds are gathering
which could mean the end of our
species. The Russians and the
Americans resemble two huge
herds moving toward possible con-
flict; too closely packed to struggle
successfully against their fate. The
helplessness of human kind is the
dominant feature of the planetary
landscape as the crisis ap-
proaches..
-L F. Stone

an attempt at aesthetic violence.
CINEMA GUILD:
'Sawdust'
Perceptive
INGMAR BERGMAN'S "Saw-
dust and Tinsel" (or "Naked
Night" as it was billed here sev-
eral months ago) is a study of
men so caught in self-delusion that
to face reality is to be destroyed.
The story revolves around the
aged owner of a decrepit travel-
ing circus-vendor of facade and
illusion-as the circus approaches
the town where his ex-wife and
children live,
The events which follow trigger
his realization of his own spiritual
destruction. He is unable to rec-
oncile himself with his wife who
exposes his false shirt front and
mock elegance. His mistress is se-
duced by a theatrical actor who
wins her love with the promise of
a worthless jewel.pn
At that night's performance, the
owner is publicly taunted by the
actor. They fight-and when the
owner looses the last illusion falls
away from him.
BATTERED and sore, he sits be-
fore the mirror in his wagon, gun
in hand. The choice is clear: he
can either have reality - which
means death since life holds noth-
ing for him-or illusion-which
means continuing life in the cir-
cus with his mistress. He shoots
the gun into the mirror.
For him life is self-deception.
He goes out into the world with
false respectability. He is spiritual-
ly destroyed and realizes it, but.
simply retreats into lies for the
lies,have long destroyed any pos-
sibility of anything else.
The others fall victim to the
same fate. His ex-wife believes
she has found peace when she is
merely hiding, the actor believes
himself a great lover when he only
lecherously buys it, and his mis-
tress thinks herself in love when
she is merely looking for ephemer-
al satisfactions.
BUT for all of them, life itself
hinges on these mendacious as-
sumptions.
Bergman's photography is as
usual magnificent. For example,
he makes use of the opening and
closing scenes to symbolize his
theme by portraying the silhouete
of the circus caravan against the,
sky, representing the shadows that
are the objectives of the char-
acter's lives.
Also on the program was a short
from a Russian. opera, "Silver
Slippers" with music by Tchai-
kovsky,
It concerns a Ukranan lad who
wins his girl by getting a pair
of good Queen Catherine's slip-
pers with the help of a devil. It
is all very reminiscent of some
story about Daniel Webster . .
But the singing done by mem-
bers of the Bolshol company two
of whom we learn in the credits
are "honorable artists" or "Stalin
laureates," is excellent,.
-David Marcus
"C
Reviewers
The Daily urgently needs re-
viewers for the summer. Sum-
mer session students, especially
those having a background in
music or literature, desiring to
review concerts, movies or books
should talk to Susan Farrell at
the Student Publications Bldg.

Aid Limitation Artificial

MEDICAL AID to the aged has become one
of the favorite themes of both parties -
and not without justification. But it has been
handled as a political football with both sides
failing to consider one important question:
why should medical aid be limited to this
particular group?
It is true that older people have both re-
duced income and a higher incidence of serious
illness. It is also true that without some form
of medical insurance many will and do become
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS........................Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL .......................... Co-Editor
" T nr _ . .. rnnts Editor

burdens upon society. But the need for medi-
cal care extends far beyond this one limited
group. A serious illness can ruin even an upper
middle class family, especially if it is the wage
earner who becomes ill. Health insurance
plans often fail to provide fully for the varied
expenses which occur at such times.
EXTREMISTS counter this argument with
one of two viewpoints. They say that gov-
ernment health insurance plans are notable
failures in other countries or that doctors are
self-seeking leeches who use their skills to
bleed money from patients by holding the
powers of life and death over them.'
Both sides have certain points. Private prac-
titioners in England do have flourishing prac-
tices in spite of the British Health Service,
and the majority of doctors undoubtedly give
--_ --u- fn +o high apnpal income

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