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August 03, 1961 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1961-08-03

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See Page 2


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47Ia ity

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Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom


House U


r Defense



" ''-

TROOPS DRILL - Armed Forces National Guardsmen sharpen up on their
the Defense Department ordered further preparations for a possible Berlin
Guardsmen, now on active reserve duty, have been alerted to be ready for

-AP Wirephoto
military techniques as
conflict. Many of the.
a likely call up.,

May Send Guards, Reserves to Europe

WASHINGTON (A') - A sub-
stantial portion of the 71 Air
National Guard and reserve units
alerted for possible active duty
may be sent to Europe in the de-
veloping Berlin crisis.
This and other plans and pros-
pects had shaped up by last night
out of testimony to Congressional
groups by top defense officials
which was beginning to be trans-
lated into Pentagon preparations.
The alert to the 71 air units,
announced Tuesday by the De-
fense Department, was the first
definite result of the military
buildup program approved by Con-
gress. The possible air augmenta-
tion is aimed at bolstering con-
ventional air power and air trans-
port capabilities in the North At-
lantic Treaty Organization region
or elsewhere in the world.
If the United States does decide



to send a number of guard and re-
serve outfits to the Western
European defense system, it will
expect other NATO nations to
take similar -action. This country
is portrayed as unwilling to under-
take by itself to make up over-all
deficiencies in NATO tactical air-
On the basis of known informa-
'Lea dingRole'
In West Asked
By Macmillan
LONDON OP) - In support for
Britain's decision to seek member-
ship in the European Common
Market, Prime Minister Harold
Macmillan urged the British.
people to cast off traditional iso-
lation and take a leading role
in the free world's battle against
"Our right place is in the van-
guard of the movement toward
the greater unity of the free
world," he told the House of Com-
mons. "We can lead better from
within than from outside. I am
persuaded we ought to try.".
He said it would be tragedy if
Britain failed to merge its eco-
nomic destiny with her European
"In the long run," he said, ."an
island people as ourselves cannot
maintain the high standards of
life we want in an isolated, pro-
tected society."
Macmillan's speech came as the
house opened a two-day debate
on the government's announce-
ment to seek Britain's admission
into the present six-nation Euro-
pean Economic Community

tion, this possibility loomed large:
the tempo of the military buildup,
even that for the regular army,
probably wil befarrlessthan a
crash program.
A few weeks ago there were ex-
pressions of urgency about get-
ting ready for trouble which might
come during the next several
Fitting and Timing
Now the idea seems to be one
of fitting and timing the buildup
to unfolding events and of fol-
lowing a deliberate schedule.
Among other things, expansion
of the regular Army could turn
out to be notably less than a swift
increase by 133 thousand men to
bring total army strength over
the million-man mark.
Any extensive call-up of reserv-
ists or guardsmen is now no more
than a possibility, even though
Congress has voted authority for
a 250, thousand-man mobilization.
Additional Manpower
The emphasis will be on utiliz-
ing additional manpower to con-
vert three army training divisions
into combat divisions. This would
raise the total of army combat
divisions to 17, with the possibility
of eventual formation of a fourth
marine division to add to three
now in existence.
Other ideas and opinions emerg-
ing in the wake of the military
program presentation included the
military program which President
John F. Kennedy submitted to
The Army originally proposed to
use a 63,000 manpower increase for
sending a variety of small units
to a variety of places overseas.
This proposal was turned down by
the Defense Department on the
ground that it would not add
significantly to over-all combat

Keep Hold
Over Berlin
BERLIN (R) - East German
Communists tightened police con-
trols around this tense city yes-
terday and boasted that "some
day we will lead all Germany."
Another 1,110 refugees from
East Germany streamed into Mar-
ienfeld reception camp despite
new Communist police measures
and threats. Several hundred oth-
er refugees arrived but did not
register, officials reported.
The Communists announced
formation of committees in fac-
tories to stop the refugee flow.
West Berlin officials said Commu-
nist police at rail points around
this city 110 miles behind the Iron
Curtain have tightened controls
and arrested many East Germans
trying to escape.
Take Cards
In their attempts to halt the
commuters, the Communist police
also were reported to be taking
up identity cards, a loss which
makes life much more difficult in
the East.
The boast that the Communists
some day would rule Germany
came from GerhardtEisler, top
German propagandist, writing in
East Berlin's "Berliner Zeitung."
"Our fist to those who believe
their reactionary backwardness
gives them the right to treat our
security and the interests of our
citizens disgracefully," he wrote.
Sentence Prisoners
Five East Germans charged with
espionage and enticing people to
flee the Red regime were sen-
tenced after a televised trial to
prison terms of two to 15 years.
The Communists try to give
the impression that the only rea-
son people free East Germany is
that they are lured by Western
"traders in human beings."
West Berlin authorities said
that during July, 800 people liv-
ing in Red territory were forced
to give up their jobs in West
About 52,000 East Berliners or
East Germans are registered as
working in West Berlin. Experts
think there actually are about
Cites 'Example'
In Washington, a State Depart-
ment spokesman said the Com-
umunists measures against East
Berliners who work in West Ber-
lin was an example of what
would happen in West Berlin if
the Communists ever took over
that Western-protected part of
the city.
A private Western intelligence
agency, Information Bureau West,
said East German State Secretary
Helmut Koch has announced that
food production and imports
scheduled to next year "will not
be enough to fill the needs of our
The agency also reported that
the party suffered a defeat in
elections to a union committee at
a factory in the East German
town of Schwerin.

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Lunar Landing epi*cted

men to reach the moon will
find it a barren, monotonous
place of extreme temperature
variations and potential dan-
Space scientists provided a
glimpse of man's initial explor-
ation efforts on the moon yes-
terday, saying it may be 10
years or more before a perma-
nent base can be established.
At the same time, space agen-
cy officials in Washington said
a world-wide search already
has begun for a launching site
for the huge rockets needed to
give man a foothold on the
Preliminary Report
The preliminary report on
the first moon station said the
spaceship likely will pick a
landing site on the relatively
flat surface of a lunar crater.
But the spaceship must be
provisioned to handle possible
boulders, Jagged rocks and
crevices-probably with the aid
of mechanical stilt-like legs
that will permit the craft to be

"It's going to be a barren,
monotonous place," John De
Nike said. He is program man-
ager for the Martin Co., which
prepared the report under a
$75 thousand advance study
contract for the National Aero-
nautics and Space Administra-
Reduced Gravity
Although man will find him-
self able to take 18-foot strides
and lift weights six times what
he could on earth-because the
lunar gravity is less than it is
here-work outside the space
base will be limited.
The first shelter likely will
be the spaceship itself. Later,
insulated balloons or tunnels
dug into the moon's surface by
giant automatic bores could be
home for the moon men.
Outside the shelters, a sin-
gle day on the moon's calendar
will spread over a 14-day per-
iod on the earth. During the
long daylight periods, tempera-
tures will burn at 250 degrees
above zero. In the lunar dark-
ness, the mercury will plunge
to 250 degrees below zero.

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Political Moderate To Take Office

Co-operation between the Coun-
cil of State College Presidents and
the study group evaluating college
costs in Michigan could accelerate
the work of both groups, Vice-
President and Dean of Faculties
Marvin L. Niehuss said yesterday.
"The survey will aim generally
at what the presidents have been
working toward," he said. "The
important thing is to avoid dupli-
Special Committee
A special interim committee on
higher education of the state Leg-
islature hired the A. C Lamb As-
sociates Tuesday to survey the
cost of learning in three Michi-
gan universities, Michigan State,
Wayne State and Western Michi-
The Lamb firm will attempt to
determine cost per student credit
hour. The council decided in June
to adopt uniform methods of re-
porting instructional loads and
Niehuss said the University uses
cost per student credit hours as
a guide in viewing changes in the
budget from one year to the next.
"It is valuable as a guide, but
not the fundamental way you go
about constructing a budget."
Breaks Down
The credit hour costs breaks
down because of the wide var-'
ance in costs of instruction at dif-
ferent levels, Niehuss said, point-
ing out that a freshman and a
doctoral degree candidate may
elect the same number of credits,
but require quite different amounts
of equipment, library materials,
and individual instruction.
In determining cost per hour of
credit, Niehuss added, the diffi-
cult job of scaling indirect costs
arises. "How do you figure the
credit hour cost of trimming a
tree?" is just one of the questions
you must consider.
UN Session
Called Certain
extraordinary session of the UN

Adoula, a moderate in politics and
personality, was approved by Par-
liament yesterday as the Congo's
new premier and head of a unity
government pledged to end violent
political strife.
Adoula is second to take the
premiership with parliamentary
endorsement since the Congo
moved from Belgian colonialism
to independence to chaos little
more than a year ago. The first
was Patrice Lumumba, who was
ousted and subsequently assassi-
With all outsiders barred from
the Parliament session to prevent
any pressure on the deputies, the
results of the vote were reported
by reliable sources. They said
Adoula's government won a unani-
mous vote in the Senate. Only
two abstentions were recorded in
the Chamber of Deputies.
One of three posts as deputy
premier went to Antoine Gizenga,
political heir of Lumumba and
head of the Stanleyville regime
Testifies U.S.
Leads Soviets
testimony by Navy missile and
submarine experts yesterday caus-
ed Senators to discount Soviet
claims that they can match the
United States nuclear-powered
Polaris fleet.
"We are ahead of them on this,"
Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash)
said in an interview after the
closed-door testimony.

which has been backed by Com-
munists as the Congo's legal gov-
Failure to form a new Congolese
Agree To Halt
Red' China'B id
For UN Entry
ed States and Nationalist China
yesterday announced agreement
on opposing the admission of
Communist China to the United
Nations this fall.
There also were sharp tactical
differences toward the UN bid of
Outer Mongolia.
Diplomatic sources said the
United States definitely would not
vote for the admission of Outer
Mongolia but would abstain when
the question of admission is rais-
ed before the 12-nation Security
Council next month.
But despite United States warn-
ings that a veto of Outer Mongo-
lia may cost the Chinese Nation-
alists their own seat in the world
body, Nationalist Vice-President
and Prime Minister Chen Chung
was reported to have refused to
abandon the veto if that becomes
necessary to block Outer Mongo-
The question of tactics is com-
plicated by the Soviet Union's
threat to veto the admission of
Africa's Mauritania if the Secur-
ity Council refuses to admit Out-
er Mongolia.

The timetable for moon ex-
peditions, as outlined by NASA
in its Apollo program, calls for
a three-man orbit of the earth
perhaps in 1964, an orbit of the
moon possibly by the next
year, and a lunar landing in
1966 or 1967.
The first Apollo orbital flights
will be launched by a Saturn
rocket 160 feet tall with a to-
tal weight of 100 tons. A 22-
engine Nova rocket with 12 mil-
lion pounds of thrust will be
needed to boost thermoon-land-
ing craft into space.
The enormous weight, size
and power of the rockets ap-
parently will require launching
sites more remote than current-
ly available, a NASA spokes-
man said.
Sites Chosen
Potential sites already in-
spected include the Gulf Coast,
near Brownsville, Texas; the
White Sands Proving Ground,
N.M.; Christmas Island in the
Pacific and an area in Hawaii.
The first Apollo research and
development contracts are to
be awarded by NASA late this

Turns Down
Extra Funds
Doesn't Want Money
For Heavy Bombers
mous House approval yesterday
gave President John F. Kennedy
authority to spend all the $958.57
million he asked for planes, ships
and missiles to equip the new de-
fense buildup.
It was another step in the rapid-
fire action by Congress to hand
the President as quickly as pos-
sible the authority and money he
requested to deal with the Com-
munist threat to West Berlin and
other areas.
Active Duty
Congress already has authorized
Kennedy to call to active duty up
to 250 thousand reservists and to
extend active duty tours and en-
listments by one year.
House passage of the military
hardware bill by a 403-0 vote came
after some Republican calls for
Kennedy to match his words with
action and to cut non-defense
Meanwhile, Secretary of Defense
Robert S. McNamara let it be
known that despite the need for
more military sinew, he doesn't
want an extra $525 million Con-
gress may give him for heavy
manned jet bombers.
Declines Money
Before Kennedy's call for more
armed might, McNamara had in-
dicated he would not spend the
money even if Congress provided
it. Apparently he still feels this
Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis),
to whom McNamara wrote his
views, announced he would try to
knock out the $525 million when
the $46.8 billion defense money
bill comes to the Senate floor later
this week. The extra fund was
voted into the measure by un-
animous action of the Senate Ap-
propriations Committee Tuesday.
Money for the $958.57 million
hardware authorization sent to
the White House yesterday is in-
cluded in the bill now before the
Senate. It is part of the $3.5 bil-
lion extra Kennedy requested last

Republicans Tell Kennedy
To Eliminate Peace Corps
As a result of the increased appropriations for defense measures,
Republicans have demanded that President John F. Kennedy abolish
the Peace Corps.
The Republicans, who have admonished Kennedy to cut out all
"unnecessary civilian spending" include the corps in that category,
charging that it is well on the way to becoming a "bureaucratic
boondogle" which will only dup-t

government could have meant
continued political strife of the
sort that had brought the United
States, the Soviet Union and other
powers into the Congo as backers
of one faction or another. And
forming a new government with-
out Gizenga's participation would
have been impossible. He controls
the largest single bloc of depu-
ties in Parliament
Thus Adoula's government ii
the result of a delicate political
balance according places to all
forces in the Congo except the
separatist regime of Katanga.
There, President Moise Tshombe
persisted in regarding his rich
province as independent from the
Congo and refused to allow Ka-
tanga deputies to attend Parlia-
ment unless he won concessions.
Congolese President Joseph Kasa-
vubu refused to accept Tshombe's
As a result, no Tshombe repre-
sentative was given a place in the
cabinet and the second of the dep-
uty premier's posts went to Jason
Sendwe, an old opponent of
Tshombe. Sendwe, head of the
Balubakat party, has tried with-
out success to set up his own
state in north Katanga.
Court .Rules
Lincoln School
NEW YORK (IP) - A federal
appeals court yesterday ruled that
New Rochelle's controversial Lin-
coln School is deliberately segre-
gated, and approved a plan to thin
out its predominantly Negro en-
One of the three appellate
judges dissented sharply, however.
He offered arguments against the
decision not unlike those raised
in segregation battles in the deep
South - violation of state' rights,
unwarranted interference by the
federal government in local af-
fairs, and discrimination in re-
verse against white pupils.
By its 2-1 decision, the United
States court of appeals upheld a
months-old plan by Dist. Judge
Irving R. Kaufman to allow Ne-
groes in the suburban Westchester
County elementary school to
transfer to other New Rochelle
schools, less predominantly Negro.
Lincoln School is 94 per cent Ne-
"The plan which the court even-
tually adopted is one noteworthy
for its moderation," read the ap-
peflate court's majority decision.

licate the work of other govern-
ment agencies.
Present Technicians
The GOP members argued that
the United States has 9,000 tech-
nicians scattered around the globe
in our present foreign aid pro-
"Privatehindustries provide
countless thousands more. There
are 34,000 church missionaries in
the field, many of them doing just
what the Peace Corps is proposing
to do, but not at the tax-payers'
expense," the argument runs.
They also charged that few
countries have asked for corps
volunteers and many of them have
have withdrawn their requests
since the corps resembles other
organizations already doing similar
Corps Replies
Peace Corps officials replied that
United States technicians already
in foreign countries, mostly under
the International Co-operation Ad-

Scientist Sees Possible Space Hazard

...no bombers

BLACKSBURG, Va. 0P)-A British scientist yesterday reported
indirect evidence of a third and farther out "Van Allen" radiation belt
-suggesting a possible additional hazard for manned space flight.
Sydney Chapman declared that while the belt has not been detect-
ed, the clues and calculations suggesting its existence are so strong
that the Civilian Space Agency is planning special satellite experi-
ments, with new and super-sensitive equipment, to go hunting for it
at altitudes of about 24,000 miles above the earth.
Visits United States
Chapman, formerly a chief assistant at Britain's Royal Observa-
tory, has been doing visiting research in the United States for sev-
eral years, and presently is located at the high altitude observatory
of the University of Colorado.
He told about his new theory at a conference of American and
Canadian space scientists jointly sponsored by Virginia Polytechnic
Institute, the National Science Foundation and the Langley (Va.)
Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
Ts- - ac vrpP cir _a vea - n-a f - a hlt .

U.S. Answers
Cuban Offer
States told other nations yester-
day that there are normal legal
processes by which Cuba could
head off seizure of hijacked Cu-
ban aircraft under United States
court orders.
Through a press statement, the
State Department responded to a
proposal from Cuban Prime Minis-
ter Fidel Castro for a deal in-
volving the Eastern Airlines Elec-
tra plane held in Havana since a
gunman forced the pilot to fly
there July 24.
Castro offered to return the
plane if this country will send
back all Cuban aircraft hijacked
and flown to the United States.

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