i THURSDAY, JULY 2, 1964
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THURSDAY, JULY 2,1964 THE MICHIGAN DAILY PAIW W VIr
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THE MAP shows possible routes for a Communist Chinese penetration of India, either directly or through Tibet. With stepped up
efforts the Chinese now seem to be in a position to move troops and supplies up to the border very rapidly, and along a number of
different paths. Thus Indians fear that there may potentially be as many as a dozen jumpoff spots for a guerrilla war against their
territory. While a few Indians maintain that the Chinese efforts are little more than an attempt to consolidate a hold on Tibet, many
aides of the late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru have insisted that the bloody frontier war of 1962 is due to be repeated.
Reds Push Roads To India Border
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By CONRAD FINK
Associated Press Staff Writer
NEW DELHI - This capital is
haunted by the sound of Com-
munist Chinese picks and shovels
clanking on the rocky Himalayan
terrain of the Tibetan-Indian
Chinese roadbuilders, working
night and day, have made as-
tonishing progress in pushing
through desolate southern Tibet
and up to the Indian border.
Indian intelligence experts say
rapid movement of troops and
supplies by truck convoys now
is possible much of the year east
and west through Tibet and south
The Indians fear the Chinese
intend to expand their road net-
work until attacks could be
launched on the Indian border
from a dozen junpoff spots. Exist-
ing or proposed roads pose threats
on India's right and left flanks.
The minority view in the In-
dian government seems to be that
all this, Chinese activity is aimed
only at consolidating Peking's hold
on Tibet by importing Chinese
settlers and troops to combat reb-
However, some of the late Prime
Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's clos-
est aides have said publicly that
the Chinese are warming up for
more trouble on the scale of 1962,
when a bloody frontier war broke
out in three sectors.
Finance Minister T. T. Krish-
namachari told a press confer-
ence 1966 will be a dangerous year
for India because the Chinese by
that time will have their logistic
problems straightened out.
In 1962, the Chinese offensives
broke through India's defenses
and Red troops literally ran down
the Himalayas into India's terri-
tory. Then the Chinese stopped
and pulled back.
One of India's top soldiers told
D, newsman he thinks the Chinese
stopped because their roads and
supply dumps in Tibet could not
support further advances.
Roads now being built and a
2roposed Lhasa-to-China railroad
would go a long way toward solv-
ing the supply problem.
The primary Chinese supply
.oad runs south of out Sinkiang
province through Aksai Chin in
India's Ladakh region, then turns
southeast and skirts the Hima-
layas until it reaches Lhasa.
The 1962 Chinese attack in La-
dakh was believed aimed primar-
ily at protecting, this road by
gaining and holding ground well
south of it.
Indian officials say the road is
graveled and heavily travelled by
trucks. It is impossible to tell,
'1owever, whether the Chinese
have licked the problem of keep-
ing the road open in mountain
passes during the bitter Tibetan
The most disquieting recent de-
velopment, officials say, is Chi-
nese construction of "feeder
roads" south from this main east-
west road to outposts on the In-
There are 26 established Chinese
outposts on the border-16 on the
Northeast Frontier Agency border,
7 in Ladakh and 3 in the central
In Indian eyes, each1 outpost and
mation is available in New Delhi
on this route.
,Indian officials say one of
China's most dangerous roads is
me that was blasted through the
mountains from the Tibetan bor-
der to Katmandu, capital of Ne-
The Indian Army long has con-
sidered routes of approach leading
south from Nepal, and its neigh-
bors of Sikkim and Bhutan, to
be a primary source of concern.
The Chinese also have agreed
to build a portion of a proposed
east-west road within Nepal. The
Soviet Union has expressed inter-
est in constructing a sector of
the same road farther west.
This road's proximity to the In-
dian border gives it obvious-and
to India, dangerous - military
Thinking years ahead, some In-
dian officials see the threat of
flanking movements by Chinese
roadbuilders-and possibly troops
-through neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan is building a road from
Gilgit in the north to its capital,
Rawalpindi. It will link with other
roads and railways running south
to the Arabian Sea.
In view of Pakistan's increasing
friendliness with Communist Chi-
na, some Indian officials say the
Chinese are bound to attempt a
linkup between their Sinkiang
roads and Pakistan's Gilgit's-to-
Such a road, if one could be
built through the Karagoran
other source of concern in New
Some officials hold the view that
Gen. Ne Win's regime has all but:
pulled out of many sections of
northern Burma under pressure
from "White flag" Communists
and rebellious Karen and Kachin
The question in New Delhi is,
"who controls the Ledo road?"
This road, built through North-
ern Burma by U.S. and National-
ist Chinese forces in World War
II, links China's Yunnan province'
with northeastern India. Whether
Communist Chinese forces could
move along it today is anybody's
Guess work plays a large role
in Indian estimates of Chinese in-
But one thing is known: The
roads are there.
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mountain range, would open
dia's left flank.
The right flank-Burma-is
Diplomaucy Promises Crisis
In Southeast Asia, the diplo-
matic jungle is often as dense as
the real one.
Through it dimly can be seen
recurrent crises, and the only
thing that seems certain is that
one crisis will follow another, for
a long time to come.
There is, of course, real war
and real dying. The scale, for
those who lived through two world
wars, is minute. But what fright-
ens the world is the sight of great
powers-the Soviet Union, Red
China and the United States-
hovering around the edges of the
conflict, all able, indeed pledged,
to commit powerful forces if one
side goes too far.
China: Dangerous Protagonist
Of the three protagonists, the
most to be feared is Red China.
The Soviet Union, for once, is
playing an equivocal role. Khrush-
chev, having renounced nuclear
war, for the obvious reason that
the United States can also play
that game, is in the peculiar po-
sition of wishing to stir up trouble
wherever possible, but yet having
to appear less belligerent than
This is causing him loss of face
in Hanoi, headquarters for the
Communist drive against South
Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia. Ho
Chi Minh, the bearded old revo-
lutionary leader in North Viet
Nam, was schooled in Moscow.
When needing help, he used to
knock first on that door. Now he
looks to Peping, because the Red
Chinese have seized from the Rus-
sians the banner of violent revolu-
Mao Tze-tung, who may have
gotten a bellyful in Korea, is fight-
ing this war by proxy, and his
proxy is Ho Chi Minh. No Chinese
forces have been found in South
Viet Nam or Laos, but Ho is well-
supplied with Chinese, Russian
and Czech arms. He has about
250,000 men in his People's Army,
but his strongest arm is the guer-
rillas. In South Viet Nam they are
called Viet Cong, and in Laos the
Pathet Lao. The hard-core men in
both these forces were trained in
North Viet Nam. Together with
volunteers, the Viet Cong in South
Viet Nam is estimated at more
than 100,000. They control per-
haps two-thirds of the country,
including the virtual suburbs of
Laos on the Brink
take sanctuary behind his border
with South Viet Nam, and by
charging South Viet Nam and the
United States with border incur-
sions when they chase the Viet
Cong. Such charges come easy
along a frontier so badly marked
that nobody knows where the line
is. And when the prince makes
charges, Khrushchev and Mao ap-
plaud him, with Mao making the
Mao is busy elsewhere, too. He
is making threatening noises and
gestures along his long border with
India, and is not adverse to growl-
ing at Khrushchev where their
claims conflict in the wilds of
Pledges by Sukarno
Along the great arc of the South
China Sea, where Indonesia and
Malaysia come together on the
island of Borneo, President Su-
karno vows that the Indonesians
will crush the British, who stand
behind the new state. Khrushchev
is in the stands, cheering him on.
Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rah-
man summons 12,000 more men to
the Malaysian colors and then
goes to consult his astrologer. The
seer tells him the present crisis
will continue for 18 months. That
certainly seems a safe bet.
Into this boiling pot, stir a little
French dressing. The French,
openly wooing Cambodia, suggest
that Laos, Cambodia and South
Viet Nam should be "neutralized."
To some, this brings to mind the
posters in the streets of Saigon :
"Red Plan-First Neutralize, then
Communize." Some even suggest
the French were rather hoping
the United States would fail in
Southeast Asia, as the French had
The United States had other
ideas. From President Lyndon B.
Johnson down the policy was firm:
Stand fast in Southeast Asia, with
whatever it takes.
(Continued from Page 1)
eral reasons for their dissatisfac-
tion with paid parking on North
-That there is no necessity to
build expensive parking structures
on North Campus as there is on
the less roomy Central Campus.
-There are far fewer free
parking spaces now left on North
Campus than there are on the
-Students who use North Cam-
pus research facilities cannot ob-
tain the necessary parking per-
mits but must still commute over
distances too far for walking.
-Researchers and faculty mem-
bers on North Campus travel back
and forth between the various
campuses frequently in their work
and permit parking hinders their
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