THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Nursing Shortage: A New Study
State ReportShows Surplus
Can he nationwide shortage of
hospital nurses be solved by get-
ting inactive professional nurses
to work part-time?
There are strong theories, pro'
and con, on this question. To seek
an answer, Kenneth M. Bayer of
the University Medical Center sur-
veyed the attitudes of nurses liv-
ing in the vicinity of the 1000-
bed University Hospital.
His findings, although limited,
indicatethe problem hasimore
complications than appear on the
Nationwide, there are about 450,-
000 inactive nurses, according to
estimates by the United States De-
partment of Health, Education and
Welfare. Baker said, "The poten-
tial for meeting hospital needs
from this group is apparent" even
though "demands imposed by full-
time family responsibilities are
inconsistent with the demands of
Baker, an administrative resi-
dent at University Hospital, sought
to find if there was some pattern
which force inactive nurses to be
inactive, and to learn what nurses
thought of part-time employment.
He canvassed 199 nurses who
had renewed their registrationsI
during the past year; 97 were in-
active and 102 were employed
part-time. They account for one-
quarter of all currently register-
ed nurses in the area who were
not working full-time.
Baker's findings showed the
University of Michigan Hospital
would not be able to fill its staff
nurse positions through part-time
employment. The reason,he said,
was that "the times during which
inactive nurses were willing or,
able to work did not coincide with
the times nursing coverage was
In addition, family duties of in-
active nurses require them to re-
main inactive in spite of the eco-
nomic advantage they might gain.
Many nurses, however, were not
Concerned about finances. Baker
said husbands of 36 per cent of
the initacve nurses earned more
than $10,000 annually; 11 per
centof the husbands of part-time
working nurses earned over $10,-
About one-third of all inactive
aurses had left nursing because
of pregnancy. Twenty-nine per
ent of them said they would re-
turn if part-time work would fit
Others said they would return
to nursing if they could first
take a refresher course (15 per
cent), or if a serious shortage of
nurses prevented patients from
getting hospital care (15 per cent).
Only 7 per cent said they would
definitely not return to work. Some
of these were beyond retirement
From this evidence, Baker spec-
ulated that "currently inactive
nurses may feel a degree of in-
security about returning to work
because of . . . the changing tech-
nology of nursing and medical
Based on the number of nurses
who would return to work if pa-
tients could not otherwise be tak-
en care of, Baker concluded:
"Nurses generally have a high
personal commitment to their pro-
fession. It would appear that hos-
pitals may have some success in
appealing to currently inactive
nurses during those times of great
need for their services."
The three major reasons for
leaving nursing-cited by 68 per
cent of inactive nurses-all relate
to responsibilities at home, Baker
found. They include: pregnancy,
family responsibilities and hus-
band's objection to the wife work-
He suggested hospitals may
have to reappraise the manner in
which they use part-time nurses
because "It appears reasonable to
expect that presently inactive
nurses will not be very ready,
willing or able to compromise fam-
ily responsibilities to any great
degree in order to return to work.
A requirement (that part-time
nurses work 8-hour. shifts) may
effectively exclude a nurse with
family responsibilities from em-
U' Researchers Examine
Breezes of the Great Lakes
LANSING (R) - Gov. George
W. Romney released recently a
year-end financial report showing
Michigan has a net surplus of
$48.8 million and termed the out-
look for the coming year "very
Barring an auto strike or other
"major interuption" in the econ-
omy, the governor said, the state
should again have a surplus of
about $50 million at the end of
the 1964-65 fiscal year.
Romney added that the state's
financial position is sufficiently
strong to rule out any apparent
need for tax increases in the im-
Obviously pleased with the fi-
nancial report submitted to him
by Controller Glenn Allen Jr.,
Romney told newsmen his ad-
ministration was the first in 14
years that hasn't asked for a tax
The report by Allen bore out un-
official reports earlier that the
state would have $48.8 million in
its general fund as of June 30,
1964, after paying its debts in-
cluding $20 million for liquor bills.
The liquor payments had lag-
ged up to $80 million behind at
In Air Study
University engineers have suc-
cessfully launched the fifth in a
series of "thermosphere probes"
from the launching facilities at Ft.
Churchill, Manitoba, according to
word received here yesterday.
The probe measured several
constituents of the atmosphere,
at altitudes to 185 miles, includ-
ing molecular nitrogen, molecular
and atomic oxygen and electron
densities and temperatures.
The experiment was desigiled to
make these measurements at mid-
day at a high latitude for correla-
tion with other rocket and satel-
lite data about the sun's affect
on the upper atmosphere. Launch-
ed at 4:28 p.m. Tuesday, the probe
was coordinated with others be-
ing made throughout the world
on Wednesday as part of the pro-
gram of the International Year
of the Quiet Sun.
Devised by the Space Physics
Laboratory in cooperation with
the Goddard Space Flight Center
of NASA, the probe is ejected from
a "clamshell" nose cone carried
by a spaerobee rocket. At 75 miles
altitude, the nose cone opens and
ejects the 40-pound, instrument-
laden probe, which measures and
sends data as it continues on its
times since the "cash crisis" of r"
Allen's report showed Michigan
collected $610.6 million in revenues
during the last fiscal year, with
expenditures of $525 million.
Money over and above what was
appropriated, total $13 million, or
$6 million more than expected,
Most of the increase results
from reduced spending for welfare
--a reflection of higher employ-
ment, Allen said, but "in part
reflect administrative efficiency"
and recommendations of the gov-
ernor's "task force" on govern-
Allen said all the figures in the
report are "provisional" and will
not be confirmed until a final
audit in September. GOV. GEORGE ROMNEY
But he said the year-end es-
timates, projected last March, Art Exhibit Opens
turned out to be "extraordinarily
accurate" and he does not anti- At 'U' Ga11eries
cipate and significant changes.
Romney said he was in favor of The 12th annual Michigan Re-
keeping the surplus on hand
against a time when the state gional Art Exhibition went on dis-
might find itself in need of a play at the University yesterday.
cashreseve.The exhibition In the Rack-
"Without marked changes, our
estimates for the current fiscal ham galleries includes 86 paintings
year should stand up," he said. from Michigan painters, many of
"Any major interruptions could them award winners in local and
hit us-but on the other hand we regional shows. Forty-six cities
will have a surplus that puts us will be represented in the exhibi-
beyond the point where we'd face tion, to remain on display through
any needed adjustments." Aug. 14.
Atop Eagle's Nest, a high sand
dune near Holland, Mich., Uni-
versity radar men are tracking
small balloons this week to help
meteorologists study lake and land
They release the balloons inland
and out on Lake Michigan and
trace the balloons' paths with the
The research will help the team
determine how strong the breezes
are, how far inland they go, how
they develop and what happens to
Highest Cost s
The greatest single cost item in
the use of programmed learning
materials in industry is the train-
ee's wages during the instruction,
a University survey of costs in
the use of programmed learning
and teaching machines has dis-
Results of the survey have just
been published by the Center for
Programmed Learning for Busi-
ness of the business administra-
tion graduate school.
According to Geary A. Rum-
mler, director of the center, the
survey was conducted to obtain ac-
curate data on the cost of in-
plant programming as well as to
invalidate the various pat formulas
for determining programming
The survey also ound that sal-
ary costs reflecting the program-,
mer's time constitute the largest
portion of program development
costs, Runimler explains. The pro-
grammer time requirements are
based on several factors, includ-
-Skill in analyzing subject and
-Magnitude of the program-
- Accessibility of information
pertaining to the program, and
-Authority to make decisions
regarding the program.
them, according to prof. E. Wen-
dell Hewson and Gerald C. Gill,
who are directing the National
"The whole operation is just to
build up our basic knowledge of
these breezes," Prof. Gill explain-
ed. The breezes, of course, are in-
timately associated with broader
questions of weather formation
The meteorologists particularly
want to learn how thick a typical
(Great Lakes) lake breeze is. Al-
though scientific opinion holds it's
probably aroun. 500 to 800 feet,
the weather researchers think it's
more. "We have evidence these
breezes may be 2500 to 3000 feet
thick coming off the lake with a
return flow (back over the lake)
aloft," they explained.t
Art Fair Brings Crowds
GROUPS OF POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS examine the merchan-
dise and haggle over the prices as Ann Arbor's Street Art Fair
opened with over 400 exhibitors. Booths like this one, selling toys
and souvenirs, were a sidelight of the fair.
Critic. Views 'Rebellion'
Of Avant-Garde Artists
Avant-garde art has removed
itself rebelliously from society,
from the tastes and desires of the
masses, Franz Schulze, professor
of art at Lake Forest College of
Illinois said yesterday.
"The masses have found their
satisfaction in the rear-guard: the
trashy, commercial art of the sort
which replaced the folk arts after
the industrial revolution," ac-
cording to Schulze, who also is
art critic of the Chicago Daily
He spoke at the 12th annual
Regional Art Conference.
"Hhe nature of the avant-garde
is forever to revolt and to move
forward," he said. "There is ap-
parently no other way to make
lively art in a society like our
modern one, in which new forms
quickly become formalized."
Schulze declared, "It is not
enough for an enlightened art lov-
er today to have finally got Pi-
casso's message, or even Jackson
Pollock's and that of the abstract
expressionists. For by now these
forms are forms of the past,
though they were lavant-garde but
a few years ago.'
"Now the viewer is confronted
by a still more avant (advanced)
garde-the muscular vulgarities of
pop art, and by the uncompromis-
ing severities of geometric and
optical painting," Schulze said.
"The avant-garde, clearly, is
moving at full tilt today. The poor
layman thus remains as bewild-
ered as ever, and it affords him
little solace to have caught up
with Pollock, for the avant-garde
moves ever ahead of him like the
carrot before the donkey."
The Audio-Visual Center will
present two films, "Julius Caesar:
the Rise of the Roman Empire"
and "Chartres Cathedral" at 1:30
p.m. today in the Multipurpose
Rm. of the UGLI.
Analysis .. .
Prof. Sherman M. Kuhn of the
linguistics department will speak
"On Syntactic Analysis of an Old
English Translation from Latin"
at 7:30 p.m. today in Rackham
The University Players will pre-
sent James Thurber's "A Thurber
Carnival" with music directed by
Morton Achter, at 8 p.m. today in
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre.
Recital . ..
Stacy Carpenter will present an
organ recital at 8:30 p.m. today
in Hill Aud.
. And Lone Banjo Player
AWAY FROM THE CROWD at the Art Fair yesterday, a lone
banjo player strums unnoticed. He is located behind the paint-
ings, shielded from the people looking at them.
India Art Shop
330 Maynard (near Nickels Arcade)
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_....DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
. . ~$.'tWfl.~' .~W. *"V~..%' V'.%VI..%V -Y
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be sent
in TYPEWRITTEN form to Room
3564 Administration Building before
2 p.m. of the day preceding publica-
Lion, and by 2 p.m. Fuiday for Satur-
day and Sunday.
THURSDAY, JULY 30
Audio-Visual Education Cnter Film
Preview-'Julius Caesar: The Rise of
the Roman Empire" and "Chartres Ca-
thedral": Mulitpurpose Room, Under-
graduate Library, 1:30 p.m.
Dept. of Linguistics Forum Lecture-
Sherman M. Kuhn, University of Mich-
igan, "On Syntactic Analysis of an
Old English Translation from Latin":
Rackham Amphitheatre, 7:30 p.m.
University Players, Dept. of Speech
Production-James Thurber's "A Thur-
ber Carnival": Lydia Mendelssohn The-
atre, 8 p.m.
School of Music Degree Recital-Stacy
Carpenter, organist: Hill Aud., 8:30 p.m.
Doctoral Examination for Sister Mary
Florence Heyna, English & Education;
thesis "High School English Programs
in the Dioceses of Toledo and of Cleve-
land, Ohio," Thurs., July 30, 2601 Ha-
ven Hall, at 4:15 p.m. Chairman, C.
Doctoral Examination for Victor- No-
6uo Kobayashi, Education; thesis:
"JohnDewey in Japanese Educational
Thought," Thurs., July 30, 4024 Uni-
versity High School, at 2 p.m. Chair-
man, C. A. Eggertsen.
Candidates for the "Master's Degree
who have not yet picked up their
tickets for the Masters Breakfast may
do so before 4 p.m., Fri., July 31, in
Room 3510 Administration Bldg. The
breakfast will be held on Sun., Aug.
2, at 9 a.m. In the Michigan Union.
Doctoral Examination for Eric Davis,
Sanitary Engineering; thesis: 'tThe Si-
multaneous Sand Filtration of Floccu-
lant and Non-Flocculant Particulate
Matter," Thurs., July 30, 275 W. Engrg.
Bldg., at 2 p.m. Chairman, J. A. Bor-
Doctoral Examination for John Willi-
son Crichon, Philosophy; thesis: "The
Principles of Living Beings: An Ex-
ploratory Essay," Thurs., July 30, 2216
Angell Hall, at 2 p.m. Chairman, A. W.
Regents' Meeting: September 18. Con-
nai.~ications for consideration at this
meeting must be in the President's
hands not later than September 4.
Law School Admission Test: Candi-
dates who are registered to take the
Law School Admission Test on August
1 are asked to report to 130 Business
Administration Bldg. on Saturday morn-
ing at 8:30 a.m.
Aleo Products, Inc., Schenectady, N.Y.
--Cost Supervisor; degree with acct. ma-
jor and applicable cost exp. required.
St. Regis Paper Co., N.Y.--Researcher
and Report Writer; B.S. In Pulp and
Paper Tech., or Forestry, M.A. in Mktg.,
or Econ., or Market Research.
Banking and Loan Corp. -- Has an
opening or two in Financial Pos.-
Management. Requires Bus. Ad., de-
gree or train.; age range 32-40 and
older. Some banking plus indust. cor-
porate exper. CPA helpful, but not nec-
Probate and Juvenile Court, Port Hur-
on, Mich.-Pos. avail, for Juvenile Pro-
bation Counselor. Should have degree
in Soc. work, Psych., Soc., or Police
* * *"
For further information, please call
General Div., Bureau of Appts., 3200
SAB, Ext. 3544.
AT 9:15 P.m.
SNEAK TIP --
You Laughed at "Mister Rob-
erts"-Wait until you see
". We can't Advertise the
Sneak Preview Title. But we
have given you a good hint.
Come at 7 or 9:15 p.m.
V Regular feature shown both
before and after preview.
Sr 717 N.
(Department of Speech)
Opera Dept., School of Music in
FZJ 'IN, ee'3m-lff'-ZA--
6:15 & 9:00
I r frc'ctro-z 4nModern eGona
_ _ ._