"How Is It You Don't Understand Us?"
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_w EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Natura cience Group
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first of two articles discussing the recent
report of the University's Natural Science Study Comnittee which is con-
templating changes in the science distribution requirements.)
By NAN MARKEL
Daily Staff Writer
IRONICALLY, as man becomes more civilized, his attention focuses
more and more on nature. Our society increasingly consecrates itself
to observation and application of the so-called laws of nature-to the
extent that it's almost a sort of modern paganism.
Recognizing science's emphatic role in the world today, the Uni-
versity is attempting to overhaul its science program. The present
natural science study committee was appointed four years ago "to in-
quire into the natural science distribution program from all angles."
Its first step was to compile a description of the nature and char-
acteristics of the courses, and conducting a study of the laboratory
Y. APRIL 28, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: SUSAN HOLTZER
Tangible Rewards No Stimulus
For Real Intellectual Growth
-THESE AR~E SOVEREIGN NATIONS,
WHIH MUST BE REE(G aNIZ.EP
A14P WHAr HAPPENS 1N T'HESE
COOATRIE S sNoBoPi''s
$L)5INEss Bur oUT~s
IN A COLORFUL ceremony, complete with
trophies and the school band, Asbury Park
High School (Asbury Park, New Jersey) re-
cently presented 81 students with varsity let-
ters for "excellence in scholarship," in a strong
attempt to encourage intellectualism in Asbury
The letters and special trophies, presented to
students maintaing a 90 plus average for their
high school careers, represent, an honest at-
tempt to lure the American teenager away
from the football hero to the academic whiz.
It may work. But should it? Intellectualism
is not a commodity, to be advertised and sold.
Athletic emphasis brings immediate, tangible
results, and thus easily fits in with a hard sell,
complete with letters and trophies. Intellectual
prowess is a long range achievement and much
less adaptable to advertisement.
THOSE WHO want to, think will think, as
long as there is soiething to think about.
Varsity letters do not constitute stimulus for
anything but very superficial scholarship. The
"bookworm" is finally coming into his own in
the American high school set as stiffening
competition to enter college makes a good
mind as valuable as a football letter.
The one thing which will encourage intel-
lectualism is advancing all too slowly in the
American school systems. Stepped-up courses,
increased intellectual stimulation in the high.
schools, special facilities made available to
gifted students - these are the real awards to
the students who have a real desire to learn.
Certain steps have been taken. Programs such
as that sponsored by the College Entrance Ex-
amination Board, the Advanced Placement
Program, begin to fill the need. But still, here
in Michigan, only three high schools have in-
troduced this program to their schools.
OTHER HIGH SCHOOLS are making valiant
attempts to "enrich" their high school pro-
grams. These programs are good in places, but
they lack uniformity, and are often unable to
maintain the standards which colleges desire
in their incoming freshmen. The solid, uni-
form, well-organized courses, which will stim-
ulate the bright high school student to exer-
cise his innate intellectual curiosity, are stiill
lacking,'at least on a national scale.
Varsity letters are a start towards student
encouragement, but they fall short of the mark.
An award for learning tends to become a re-
ward for marks, and the emphasis is put on
the grind, not the thought behind intellectual
achievement. For the really interested student,
it is the intangible reward that counts.
THES$E ARE THE WEAPONS THESE ARE W'EST EUROPEAN~
WtTN wmICHWE CAN WIPE oUT SASE$, lv'WHICHtARE A THREAT
WEST EVUROPE To PEACE
setup and the use of mathematics
Last spring the committee drew
up a report reviewing its activities
and recommended three large
changes. It asked the admissions
office to set a minimum level of
mathematical proficiency as a re-
quirement for entrance into the
literary college. It also requested
a two to four hour addition to the
12 credit hours students are now
required to take in natural science
In addition, a three-group re-
quirement was set. Each student
would be expected to take at least
one course each, from a chemistry
and physics group, an astronomy
and geology group, and a zoology
and botany group. Along with this,
the total number of prescribed
courses would be increased from
three to four, including another
However, since the time these
proposals were made, they have
been watered down considerably.
Apparently the committee felt it
would be "asking too much" to
make students take 14 to 16 hours
in natural science. They dropped
the proposed load back to 12.
THE THREE-GROUP require-
ment has been reduced to two:
1) astronomy, physics and chem-
istry, and 2) geology, botany and
This change was necessary be-
cause of the decrease in hours,
but the committee felt the groups
were still valid since "natural
science distribution requirements
can be truly meaningful only if
they include biological and physi-
cal sciences on a college level."
With the new grouping, a flood
of students will deluge the astron-
omy, physics and chemistry de-
partments. Since astronomy is
popularly known as "easier" than
the other two, this department will
probably be forced to raise its
standards so that it won't get more
than its share of snap-seeking
The Daily Official Bulletin Is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-,
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room r3519 AdministrationrBuild-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
TUESDAY, APRIL 28, 1959
VOL. LXIX, NO. 147
Dearborn Center: Info on plans, in-
structional programs, admission pro-
cedures available Thurs., April 30, Aud.
A, Angell Hll; Tues., May 5, 229 W.
Eng., and Wed., May 6, 131 Bus. Ad.
Meetings at 4 and 7:30 p.m. each day.
Students to receive education and
training allowance under Public Law
550 (Korea G. 1. Bill) or Public Law
634 (Orphans' Bill) must get instruc-
tors' signatures for the month of April
on April 28, 29 or 30. The Dean's
Monthly Certification should be turned
in to the Dean's office by noon, Mon.,
Agenda, Student Government Coun-
cil, April 29, 1959,' 7:30 p.m., Council
Minutes of previous meeting.
President: Letters. Board in Control,
Old Business: Academic Freedom mo-
tions (Haber). Baptist Student Union.
Executive Vice-President: Student.
Administrative Vice-President: Ap-
p a i n t m e n t s, Standing Committee
New Business: Discussion of Rose
Bowl Participation: (Quinn). Atomic
Enegry, Uses of (aber)
Members and Constituents Time.
Followingare the foreign visitors who
will be on the campus this week on the
(Continued on Page 5)
IN JAPANESE COLLEGES:.
Entrance Exams Cause Neurosis
Inconsistency in Africa Hurts U.S.
"VERY BLACK" were the ,words used by
African nationalist leader Tom Mboya to
describe the future of the segregation-ridden
Union of South Africa.
While he was specifically pointing to the
country which has overtly practiced the White
Supremacy doctrine, Mboya left no doubts that
his people are not willing to remain a second-
class servile race.
Speaking an Ann Arbor Friday, he dramati-
cally predicted that Africa "will be free in our
lifetime." The desire and ability of the "Black-
man" of that continent to us all means, includ-
ing violence, to achieve sovereignty adds factual
evidence to his pronouncement.
AND AS THE likelihood of a free Africa in-
creases, the question of where the United
States stands in relation to the 210 million
people inhabiting the continent becomes more
important. It becomes increasingly so when this
country is regarded as "a living example of
democracy" by so many Africans.
The people, though, educationally, economi-
cally and culturally backward, still wonder
about certain American attitudes. They ques-
tion the ability of a nation which practices'
Nego segregation in schools to be an ally of
the "Black" nations of Africa.
It is no surprise that they are doubtful about
the treatment to expect from this country.
BASED on this country's inability to stamp
out the Popplarville, Miss., Little Rock, Ark.
and Norfolk, Va. incidents, nationalists will
demand to know "if United States support
comes to aid democracy or to halt Commun-
ism." If the latter, Africans should weigh the
merits of being regarded as an equal or only
as a tool to be'wielded in the "Cold War" which
is secondary to their own struggle for inde-
If the United States remained passive, except
for occasional verbal denunciations, when
Hungary, Tibet and Algeria were actively seek-
ing their freedom, Africans can only conclude
that this country is one which enthusiastically
preaches the ideals of democracy but rarely is
willing to implement them.'
Today, the United States has "great expecta-
tions" for the entire continent-potentially the
world's most productive area. As a big brother
to the underdeveloped nations this country.
could play a valuable part in Africa's growth.
But advocating one ideal while practicing
another leads the United States closer to a
repeat of its previous failures in the other na-
tionalistically-minded parts of the world..
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Japanese young-
sters face from the outset of their
school life a fiercely competitive
series. of examinations that affects
their entire future. The pressure of
this rigid system is producing a so-
ciological upheaval among many stu-
By KENNETH ISHII
Associated Press Staff Writer
T OKYO - Suicides are commit-
ted, homes are shattered, neur-
osis and violence result - all be-
cause of the long-established Jap-
anese custom of entrance exam-
The student who tried to drag
Crown Prince Akhito's bride from
the royal carriage following the
wedding, was mad at the world,;
among other reasons, because he
had flunked entrance examina-
tions to three Japanese universi-
Why are college entrance exams
-that dreaded late winter and
early spring event - so vitally
important in Japan?
Youngsters prepare for them
from childhood with single-
minded dedication because a de-
gree from the "'right" university
virtually assures a good job and a
lifetime of success. A degree from
the "wrong" one can mean a life-
time of frustration and poverty.
The examinations are so tough
and competitive that at famed
Tokyo University, for example, less
than one out of five applicants
passed the grueling tests last year
-and less than 30 per cent who
did get in were accepted on the
Many who fail prefer to wait
a year - sometimes three, four
and five years - after finishing
high school to bone up at special
schools, rather than try for en-
trance at an easier but little-
A Tokyo police survey shows
that 212 youths (including 37
girls) ran away from home be-
tween March, 1957, and March,
1958, because they failed to pass
school entrance exams. Last year's
figure is expected to run about
And the suicide rate in the 15
to 24 age group is the highest of
all in Japan, with 54.8 deaths for
every 100,000 persons. Many of
these have been officially attrib-
uted to school examination fail-
ures. Last month, for example, At-
suko Yoshia, 28-year-old daugh-
ter of former Lt. Gen. Kokota
Yoshida, was found dead of gas
poisoning in her room. Police
thought she had committee sui-
cide because she had failed a uni-
versity- entrance exam for the
So devastating have become the
sociological repercussions that re-
sponsible voices are being raised
in protest. But it is also recognized
that part of the trouble lies in
Japanese custom and tradition
which are. difficult to change.
This is how the system can
The Suzukis (Japan's Mr. and
Mrs. John Doe) have a son they
want to enroll in kindergarten in
Tokyo where they live. So they
prepare him for various aptitude
tests he must take. Even kinder-
gartens have entrance exams.
TO THE SUZUKIS, it is im-
portpnt which kindergarten their
son enters for a child who has
been through a "good" kinder-
garten stands a better chance of
bein'g admitted to a correspond-
ingly "good" primary school.
And since first-rate primary
schools are often related in one
way or another to first-rate high
schools, graduates of the former
get preferential treatment when
they sit for entrance,'exams to the
The same applies in the transi-
tion from high school to univer-
sity-and even;beyond into a job.
Many firms specify they will
only consider applicants who have
degrees from the top-rate univer-
One frustrated graduate of a
minor university wrote recently in
a well-known magazine that "I
graduated from the university
only to turn into a beggar."
He complained that business
firms refused to consider him
because his university was not
among the well-established. So he
became. a manual laborer. He
"I once tried to pretend to be
only a high school graduate to get
a low paying job in a minor firm
that doesn't hire university gradu-
ates. But to make matters worse,
they suspected I had been ill or
in jail during the four years I ac-
tually spent at the university."
Sociologists point out that one
of the fundamental obstacles to a
solution is based on the Japanese
concept of loyalty.
This concept, which stems from
the Japanese family system, in-
volves reciprocal loyalty on the,
part of student and school, and
employer and employee, to such
an extent that a transfer is rare
indeed, and frequently damaging
The most respected of all Jap-
anese universities is the govern-
ment-run Tokyo University which.
last year accepted only 2,070 out
of 10,904 applicants.
Other big time state universities
include Hitotsubashi which took
400 out of 3,526, Tokyo Technolo-
gical which took 465 from 4,726,
and Kyoto University which ac-
cepted 1,578 out of 6,640.
The big names among the pri-
vate institutions include Keio, °
Waseda and Gakushuin univer-
There are a total of 510 univer-
sities and junior colleges in Japan.
The current who's who put out
by the newspaper Asahi shows
that some 63 per cent of the gov-
ernment officials, businessmen
and scholars listed are graduates
of Imperial university, the name
by which Tokyo university went
New Red President
May Be Tougher
An Expensive Hint
SIGMA NU'S fire exemplifies a need for the
. University to crack down on inspection of
City Fire Chief Ernest Heller said Thursday
that if the fire, which started above the south-
east dormitory, had occurred during the night,
the men sleeping there would Dave been over-
come by the intense heat before they could have
escaped down the small fire escape.
A couple of weeks ago a fire inspector visited
the Sigma Nu House and lectured on what to
do in case of fire. He also recommended instal-
lation of an automatic warning system for
defective wiring-the suspected cause of the
fire. In addition, a few months ago, the fra-
ternity had rewired much of the house. How-
ever, Chief Heller still found some old wiring
above the dorm, which had needed replacing.
The very occurrence of the fire indicates that
STUDENT FUGITIVES of the law have found
their Ivory Tower in a most unlikely place-.
This "hideout" was assured Thursday when
Vice-President James A. Lewis told Ann Arbor
police. to keep "hands off" students while they
are attending classes.
Lewis' reaffirmation of standard University
policy was needed after Police Chief Casper M. '
Enkemann announced earlier last week that
RICHARD TUBB, Editor
MICHAEL KRAFT JOHN WEICHER
Editorial Director City Editor
DALE CANTOR................... Personnel Director
JEAN WILLOUGHBY .... Associate Editorial Director
ALAN JONES.....................Sports Editor
BEATA JORGENSON..........Associate City Editor
ELIZABETH ERSKINE ... Associate Personnel Director
rT nll nt AIX A - .+. . ..+o 11Pi. n..
more safety precautions should have been
QUITE OFTEN tragedy must actually take
place before changes are made. Air collisions
had to occur before enough agitation was raised
for better control of the airways, mines must
cave in before they are closed, and there had
to be deaths in the Chicago school fire before
municipalities started examining their own
And now a fraternity has burned before ade-
quate protections were instituted. Only by
sheer luck did the fire start at a time when no
one was asleep in the dorm and thus intensify
- Deaths should not be necessary to prompt
action in tightening inspection.
police had arrested about a dozen students in
their classes who had not paid traffic fines.
Enkemann said the arresting officer received
information on offenders' class schedules
through the various Deans' offices. But three
different deans said they released no such in-
formation. The source still remains an enigma.
Relations between University and city re-
main smooth. Enkemann admitted a mixup
with the police department and has promised
to work through the Office of Student Affairs
One can appreciate the plight of the police
(except maybe those who have cornered the
parking ticket market) who are often led on
wild goose chases by free-wheeling University
jockeys. But three strikes and you're out ap-
plies in the art of fine-dodging as well as
After the student has received his third no-
tice he becomes fair game for a warrant and
had better head for the lecture hall if short
on cash. Asylum will be shortlived, though as
University classes 'only last 50 minutes.
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Th Miter of
this sketch, of Liu Shao- hi is one
of the few Western newspapermen
ever to interview the new president
of Comm'Unist China.)
By JOHN RODERICK
Associated Press Staff Writer
TOKYO - The election of Liu
Shao-Chi as president of Com-
munist China may spell bad news
for the West.
It could presage a new, tougher
era of Chinese Communism, both
at home and abroad, particularly
The Chinese could have picked
a figure-head, such as aging Mar-
shal Chu Teh, for the presidency,
held for a decade by Mao Tze-
Instead, they chose to give it
new stature by reaching for one
of the sharpest, ablest minds they
could find in the Communist hier-
The object is to make sure that
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Student Critics Arouse Student Criticism
China speaks with two strong
voices - Liu's and Premier Chou
En-Lai's - after Mao has with-
drawn from the public eye to work
on the pressing problems of 'the
party and the nation as chairman
of the Chinese Communist party.
Liu, Mao and Chou for a relent-
lessly tough, shrewd team of
Marxists, h match for any nation
in future international horse-
trading, either on the foreign min-
isters level or at the summit.
LONG A MAN of considerable
personal mystery, Liu will emerge
from the shadows of the Com-
munist party headquarters to take
a more prominent public place in
This is in line with his now-
solidified position as heir-appar-
ent to ,Mao, whose chairmanship
of the party makes him still mas-
ter of the world's most populous
This writer first met Liu in De-
cember 1945, in the Communist'
cave-capital of Yenan in North
China with -three other Western
newsmen after the end of World
During an interview, his eyes
were downcast in an expression
that bordered on furtiveness, he
hardly spoke above 'a whisper. Ex-
pressionless most of the time, a
half-smile occasionally flickered
around the corners of his mouth.
* * *
LIU INSISTED then that Com-
munist China wanted friendly re-
lations with all the world 'and
would give no particular prefer-
ence to Soviet Russia.
The impression he left was of a
not-particularly brilliant individ-
ual, but one endowed with more
than usual courage, doggedness
and singleness of purpose. His
toughness emerged later when in
1951 he directed a blood purge of
the regime's enemies.
Liu's travels so far appear to
have been confined to the Soviet
Union, or at most the Communist
bloc. He went to Moscow for the
first time in the early 1920s as a
student, and headed the Chinese
delegation to the 19th Soviet
Party Congress in 1952.
To the Editor:
WE WERE disappointed in the
cynical attitude taken by Mr.
Gregory in his review of the movie
Pather Panchali. Although heart-
ily concurring with the reviewer's
appraisal of the film, we vigorously
dissent to his appraisal of its au-
dience. While the film may have
been a "masterpiece," the review
certainly was not. The attributes
bestowed generally upon this cam-
pus audience by the reviewer are
unsound, uncalled for, and worth-
less from the standpoint of a
movie review. That a campus au-
dience is incapable of enjoying a
rwork of art which lacks sex-
appeal, is incomprehensible to us,
but apparently not so to Mr. Greg-
ory. If he has set himself up as
the only reasoning, sensitive being
on campus, he has our sympathy,
in his solitude. For one who can
see the "beauty in the vision of
life" depicted in the film, it is
curious that he falls short of see-
ino a ulity in thns eronnd him.
nately portrayed in a violently
monomaniacal fashion. This is not
true to character and of course,
"sentimental pathos" and "hys-
teria" are completely alien to the
feelingst of madness and despair
inherent in the character. (The
critic should have added, Miss
Small's portrayal was reminiscent
of the sentimentality one finds as
being so out of place at weddings
and her exaggerated gestures as
incongruous as the stiff rigidity of
the corpse at the last funeral he
reviewed.) Here, the critic has hit
a sensitive spot-today, unfortu-
nately, too much of our dramatic
interpretation is dramatic.
His criticism of the background
music as being "purposeless" and
"inconsistent" shows great sensi-
tivity to mood and ranks with that
classic critique, the Reneta Te-
baldi review, remarkable for its
-depth and complete understanding
of the art. Mr. Z. implies that no
dramatic altar has been left un-
profaned-except that of plot.
houses after our fire Thursday.
One hour after the fire began
offers for room and board facilities
were more than sufficient to ac-
commodate the 37 actives living in
the house. There were so many
people who came and gave help
in such a short time we could never
openly thank them individually.
We are very grateful for the help
and generosity of everyone.
Special thanks goes to Delta Tau
Delta who has opened their board
facilities to us for the rest.of the
semester and to Alpha Omicron Pi
who fed the 40 fire fighters Thurs-
-Bill Studebaker, President
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