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April 10, 1959 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1959-04-10

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"Prospects for a Summit Meeting Appear Brighter"

Sixty-Ninth Year
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

. rw=.I

'Volpone' Production
Effectively Relevant


ff, ,

More Time To Think

Would Improve Exam System

THE CURRENT FLOOD of mid-term exami-
nations in the literary college is distressing
as usual, not only because of the obvious ner-
vous energy expended, but more so because
of the examinations.
The search for a proper method of testing
is, of course, one of the more tangled of educa-
tion's problems. While the question may never
be settled adequately, the quality of testing. at
,the University miglt still be considerably im-
Essay examinations, although never one hun-
dred per cent accurate, are potentially useful
as a guide to the depth of a student's ability.
It is in the literary college that this type ex-
amination is predominantly used. Unfortu-
nately, it 'often seems to fall short of its
For example, a prevalent practice is that of
offering from one to five essay questions for
the student to discuss in a period of some fifty
minutes. The questions, although occasionally
vague, are generally decent and fair.
THE REAL PROBLEM centers about the time
Considering the usual weight of the subject
matter, fifty minutes ordinarily represents an
incredibly short time in which a student is
forced to write blandly, thinking at amazing
speed, wrenching his arm, and often'sacrificing
any chance of reflecting on the quality of his
"essay" in order to scrawl a few more words.,
Doubtless, every student subjected to this type
examination shares the opinion that he or
he could have done a far better job with more
IT IS DIFFICULT to find a rationale for these
examinations. One might argue that the rapid
thinking demanded of the student is beneficial.
Certainly, a bit of rapid thinking ought to be
necessary in a test. Often however, rapid think-
ing becomes a major criteria for success in a
course, and the student who arrives at answers
more slowly, perhaps because he has contem-
But No Institute'
DISGRUNTLED University scientists, unoccu-
pied Michigan industrialists, state unem-
ployment commissions and Governor G. Men-
nen Williams please note:
The National Science Foundation reports the
nation's missile and aircraft industry employs
more scientists and engineers in research and
development than any other industry .,., ;for
the most part situated on the West Coast.
Meanwhile, a University space expert says
research and development must come to the
state before government missile contracts, Uni-
versity scientists begin looking around for more
secure paychecks, several Michigan legislators
say they have never heard of the proposed Uni-
versity Institute for Science and Technology,
13,000 unemployed United Auto Workers march
on Washington, the West Coast continues to
ride the missile crest .. .

plated or analyzed the problem more deeply}
is penalized.
Another argument for extensive-material,
intensive-time exams might suggest that a
student learns to think and work under pres-
sure. Again however, the criteria for the course
is shifted significantly to something other than
the subject matter itself. If working under
pressure is so valuable an asset, new courses
such as "Introduction to the Combatting of
Apoplexy" might well be initiated.
PERHAPS THE MOST common defense of
this type of examination is the view that
the student should only need fifty minutes,
since is expected to have studied conscientiously
and has all the relevant knowledge at his im-
mediate command. This may be true on occa-
sion, but it leaves the test-giver open to some
questions on other grounds: he is apparently
offering as test material something the student
could memorize easily and effectively spew out
on the examination with almost no reflection.
The question then arises as to whether any test
can be termed intellectually stimulating if it
allows only sixty seconds to consider the prob-
lem before launching into a five-hundred word
Undoubtedly many professors are dissatisfied
with the testing system, and those who are
(constantly seeking improvement should be
THERE ARE numerous possible solutions of
course, the extreme being total abolition of
testing which seemingly would be more difficult
than abolition of nuclear testing. One useful
suggestion, though, is far more emphasis on
papers, thus allowing the student time to probe
and to reason out, to the best of his ability, a
coherent, comprehensive argument.
Still, it would seem that tests themselves
might be improved. It might be feasible to
schedule tests in the evening, and extend the
time allottment to perhaps a maximum of three
hours, allowing students to leave whenever they
finish. No departure would have to be made in
the test material; the only change would be
the equitable one of granting sufficient time
to the student. The instructor, who would have
to give up only an occasignal evening, could be
relieved of the burden of correcting a great
number of extraordinarily long essays by a
simple mechanism: the installation of a word
limit, replacing the time limit which is now
used to cut short the potentially prolific stu-
dent. Granted, a word limit is also a limiting'
factor, but unless an unreasonably few words
are required, it would not have the same detri-
mental effect as the time limit.
The student would be allowed approximately
the same number of words with which he al-
ready floods his paper. However, he would have,
in addition, the necessary time to think and
carefully consider not only his choice of langu-
age but, most important, the argument he
wishes to express, thus making examinations
a much more valid indication of a student's
intellectual capacity.

A SENSITIVE and thoroughly exciting performance of Ben Jonson's
"Volpone" opened last night at Lydia Mendelssohn, and any doubts
members of the audience may have had about the .relevance and imme-
diacy of Joacobean comedy must have quickly been dispelled. The
author's biting exposure of human corruption was increased in power
by perceptive interpretations on the part of the cast; throughout the
production, both the humor and the horror of it all were sustained on
a consistent and effective level.
The humor of any given comic situation is very often dependent
upon the seriousness of its subject matter. And "Volpone" is on a
very serious subject. It is also very funny. The hero is a rich man who
gains his wealth and his pleasure by exploiting the greed of the people
around him. The utter depravity of his would-be heirs fills the whole
dramatic universe of the play with an atmosphere of perversion, trick-
ery and lust.
BEN JOHNSON IS, first of all, an .elegant dramatic craftsman. A
great deal of the play was wisely cut, but what remained was under
the dramatist's complete 'control. With the important, but mainly
reflective sub-plots largely removed, the main plot progressed"di-
rectly and powerfully towards its completion. Volpone, the fox, pre-
tends to be sick,, destroying all that's human in his hopeful friends,
the Vulture, the Raven, and the Crow. He forces the first to legal dis-
honesty, the second to paternal betrayal, and the third to willing
cuckoldry. But in the relish of their corruption, Volpone forgets to
watch his servant Mosca (the Fly) who, in the process of aiding his
master, gains power and betrays him. The parasite, however, has only
the temporary illusion of victory; ultimately he is himself destroyed,
and everyone is rewarded by their just desserts.
The comedy is neither burlesque nor sheer wit. A sick joke in
action, it falls into the category of serious farce. The power of greed
to transform men into beasts and birds of prey is most frighten-
ingly defined when it affects the innocent wife of Corvino and the
ludicrously simple, but equally innocent son of Corbaccio. But all
the way through we laugh as much at them as we laugh at the old
Raven or at the mugging sarcasm of Volpone himself. In this mockery
of knavery, the whole universe is turned upside down.
* * * *
THE MOTIVATING character is, of course, Volpone himself ."flon-
ald Ewing somehow retains self-control here' through all his lechery
and disguise, standing at th end,,reconciled for punishment, but still
sardonic and essentially unchanged. Phil Smith as Bonario, Corbaccio's
son, and Marvin Diskin (Voltore) turn in really humorous perform-
ances, the latter throwing an unmatchable'fit in the final act. Patrick
Chester as the dwarf Nano adequately reflects the perversion of this
avaricious world and Estelle Ginn in the role of Celia gives a charm-
ing - if slightly overactive -- interpretation of innocence outraged.
But the role of Mosca is really the dominant and dynamic one
in the play. Fortunately Al Phillips makes the most of his dramatic
opportunity. Growing throughout the acts, increasingly entranced by
his own powers as the perfect rascal and "true parasite," Mosca takes
on a real life of his own in the play. His voice drips wit i sarcasm
and even his facial gestures imply both a careful and complete read-
ing of his role and a real understanding of the tempo and direction
of the play.
The entire production was marked by consistency and unity. Each
characteri seemed to know just what his function In the plot was sup-
posed to be and just why he was on stage.
Deadly Cliches on Film


QE9 sry~w T "$ sritn6TrOJ o i.'k

German Nationalism Key Problem

-Looking Towards the Summit

PRIME~MINISTER Harold Macmillan is back
in London, having finished his program of
"reconnaissance and consultation" opened a
few weeks ago. President Eisenhower is pre-
sumably back at work in Washington after his
tlIks with Macmillan at Camp David. And the
diplomatic corps of the Western nations are
now hard at work preparing for the summit
conference that in all probability will be held
this sumXier.
President Eisenhower's willingness to go to
the summit is perhaps the major result of the
Camp David discussions. The talks at the sum-
mit undoubtedly will deal with the Berlin
problem and perhaps may go so far as to
cover a tintative German reunification and
European settlement plan that the State De-
partment rumoredly has developed.
BUT CONFERENCES, whether at the summit
or not, all seem to be part of the same old
story: a consistent failure to achieve anything
significant through negotiations with the Rus-
The West has repeatedly approached talks
with the Soviets optimistically, feeling -"at least
something can be done to resolve our differ-
ences." And time and again, this attitude has
given way to disillusionment at the conference's

The free world'has been uiuable to remember
for periods longer than a year or so that any-
thing the Russian agree to in a conference will
be to their own advantage. Their consistent
failure to agree to anything of real importance
in the lengthy discussions on atomic test bans
and detection comes immediately to mind.
Based on this and other past performances
of the Rtussians, it would clearly be a great
mistake for the West to approach the coming
summit conference with too high hopes for
solutions or to forget the disillusionment that
shattered the "Spirit of Geneva" after the last
summit meeting.4
Additionally, Dulles probably will not be able
to attend the talks. Though disliked by many,
he is an effective, tough-minded negotiator,
and the prospect of Eisenhower, unprotected by
Dulles, facing Khrushchev is a pretty fearsome
A FURTHER POINT is stimulated by the
largely synthetic nature of this latest crisis
in Berlin, as well as the other similar situa-
tions recurrently facing the West. One might
wonder if the Russians are not manufacturing
artificial crises, conferences and diplomatic
notes solely for the purpose of occupying the
valuable time of the Western leaders to no
useful end.
Diplomatic notes take time to prepare, and
for Eisenhower to reply to a Russian note
which was written with no intention of any
concrete result is a waste of his time in sterile
Time not spent on the positive direction of
governmental and diplomatic affairs is lost
time, and the Western leaders are sufficiently
rushed so that they can afford no time to
waste. If the Russians are so able to occupy
our-statesmen with meaningless trivia, they are
just that much better off.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Walter Lipp-
mann has just returned from Europe,
where he has taken a first-hand look
at the Berlin crisis. This is the last of
a four-part report on the situation.)
THE QUESTION for us is how
we should deal with a situa-
tion which neither we nor the
Russians can change. We cannot
change the fact that there exist
two German states and that West
Berlin is a special problem.
The Soviet Union will not allow
East Germany to be absorbed into
the Western military and political
community; if it did so, it would
sacrifice the strategic control of
Eastern Europe. The Western al-
lies will not allow West Germany
to unite with East Germany in
some sort of neutralized confed-
eration. For that would destroy the
fundamental basis of NATO which
now rests on the strategic position
of Western Germany and the re-
inforcements which are coming
from the West German army.
An international agreement to
reunite Germany is at present im-
possible unless either the Soviet
or the Western allies abandon
what they regard as their vital
interests. Since neither side will
abandon its vital interests, and
since neither can compel the other
to abanldon its vital interests, all
of us must live with the fact that
there are two Germanys and Ber-
SPEAKING for myself, I do not
like this situation. I belong to the
minority who have long argued
that German national feeling will
not accept the partition of Ger-
many, that some day and somehow
the West Germans will come to
terms with Eastern Germany and
the Soviet Union in order to re-
unite their country. The case for a
politically neutral Germany and
for the disengagement of non-
German troops has been inspired
by an attempt to find an orderly
settlement of the problem of Ger-
man reunification-to avert a dis-
orderly deal brought about by an
explosion of frustrated national
German patriotism.
But the attempt to negotiate a
general settlement to reunify Ger-
many has failed. That is the
meaning of the present German
crisis. Both sides are against an
agreed reunification and they must
now live with the consequences.
These consequences include the
grave risk that the German people
will not accept the partition.
The best we can expect from the
coming negotiations is not a set-
tlement but a modus vivendi. The
big question, as I see it, is whether
to recognize and regulate the situ-
ation that we cannot now change,
or to accept the facts as they are
but to refuse to recognize them
on the theory that some day and
somehow the facts will change for
the better.
* * *
INSOFAR as there are conflicts
of opinion among the Western
allies, they arise primarily over
this question. There is Dr. Ade-
nauer's view, which has the formal
support of Gen. de Gaulle, that
while there are in fact two Ger-
manys, nothing must be said or
done by the Allies which recognizes
the existence of the other Ger-
many Thus Dr Adenuor's sh-

in pretending that the East Ger-
man state does not exist.
Before we meet the Russians in
the coming conferences, this coun-
try will have to make up its mind
sbout where it stands in the argu-
ment between the Germans, and
the British. It is a hard choice to
make. For though the issue is
posed in a theoretical forum, there
are grave substantial risks which
may follow either choice.
THE ESSENTIAL argument for
Dr. Adenauer's doctrine of non-
recognition does notcome from
any passionate interest of his in
the reunification of Germany. Dr.
Adenauer knows that reunification
is not practical politics and it is
no secret that as an old Rhine-
lander his heart does not bleed
for a close political union with
the Prussians and the Saxons of
the East.
His doctrine of not recognizing
the East German state is a defense
against German nationalism
which, if it goes on a rampage for
German unity, may upset the
whole applecart-NATO, the Com-
mon Market, the entente with
France, and the alignment of
Western Germany with the West-
ern society against the barbarians
of the East.
In the last analysis, we are
asked to follow Dr. Adenauer's
doctrine of the non-recognition of
the fact of the two Germanys in.
order to avoid the defeat of his
party in the German elections of
* * "
ALTHOUGH I do not agree with
it, it is, I admit, an impressive
case. But the risks of the Ade-
nauer policy are greater than'
those of the Macmillan policy. For
the British are, I believe, essen-
tially right in wishing to recognize

the facts of life as they are, and
to regulate them by a negotiated
The case for recognizing that
there are two Germanys and that
there is, therefore, a special situ-
ation in Berlin is this: It is our
best chance to arranger for an
orderly evolution, in Germany. If
we could get an international
charter for Berlin, we could great-
ly reduce the risks of dangerous"
incidents caused by misunder-
standing, by the recklessness or
carelessness of subordinate officers-
and officials, or by mischievous
provocation. If we could bring the
two German states into a legal
relationship with each other, there
would be a chance that the move-
ment towards German unity,
which is certain to grow, would
be open and visible rather than
clandestine and conspiratorial.
In weighing the two views --
which we have called roughly the
German and the British - we
must bear in mind that we are
not choosing between a divided
Germany and a reunited Ger-
many. Macmillan and Adenauer
and de Gaulle and Khrushchev
are agreed in realizing that the
two Germanys are not going to be
reunited. The question is whether
to 'recognize this situation or to
drift along without recognizing it.
If we drift along, accepting the
fact of the partition but refusing
to recognize it, hoping to stand
pat against the evolution of
things, we can probably manage
for a while. When, the Soviet
Union' or the East German gav-
ernment grunts, we can growl, and
since neither of us wants war or
dares to have a war, we may be
able to keep things as they are for'
a little time to come - perhaps,
until all of us have had our elec-

THAT GIRL who inspired the
movie title "Deadlier Than the
Male's was indeed a lethal and in-
human'sort; rarely, are we given
any reason to like her. But
throughout this vacillating film
her adversaries exhibit such a
striking and effusive stupidity that,
we, in near-exasperation, can't
quite blame the ambitious wench
for wanting to murder the senti-
mental males who stare blankly
at her.
For a French thriller the plot
is startlingly straightforward. The.
heroine hoodwinks stolid, solid
Jean Gabin but through a motive-
less love of intricacyl she is led to
murder. The audience is in the
position of realizing her deception
from. the first while her bumbling
males go insensible through their
days. The twist is that for half the
movie the audience sees no more
than the easily-deceived heroes.
There is little subtlety in this girl
and so the disparity between the
'audience observations and those
of the characters is too great for
any suspension of disbelief. -
* * *
vivier is sometimes brilliant at the
beginning, but as the story grows


tedious he too seems to yawn and
by the finish he is using his cam-
era less with courage and imagi-
nation than with mere intelli-
gence. The human eye is a natu-
rally restless organ and its busy
twitchings are only forgotten
through insights of fascination
and terror. For story-line which
holds even our interest by only a
fev taut threads the photography
was often too static. Wasted was a
fine Montmartre tune, reminis-
cent of Jean Renoir which could
have been used as a recurring
motif. to become a force in, the.
drama; instead it was flipped'in
whenever thete seemed an open-
ing. Gabin, who has exploited the
French cinema for a long time
with his remarkable stage presence
was excellent. Indeed most of the
performances were fine and a few
even surpassed a confused script-
TO LOOK at the movie consis-
tently the title must be taken seri-
ously. Gabin, who is pAinted a.
typical, successful French bour-'
geois, is and always has been un-
der the dainty thumb of some
woman. Not only does our eighteen
year old heroine manipulate him
but he has been at the similar
mercy of the girl's mother twenty
years before. An anomalous pair
of mothers have also been domi-
nating him, less seductively but
even more successfully. The near-
cretinous sensibilities and the total
self-deception of the man Is wholly
implausible. We are given no rea-
son to believe the underlying as
sumptions. To build a picture on
such a notion is to build on a
cliche and when the cliche is a
recognized one we can hardly be-
lieve, but we can still shrug.
=-EU Zaretsky

GOP ShwOraiainlSrgt


Daily Staff Writer
AS THE HEAT from Ann Arbor's
city election dies down, Repub-
lican chairman Norman J. Ran-
dall and Democratic chairman
Peter Darrow agree on at least
one thing.
They both said yesterday that
improved Republican organization
was definitely a reason for the
GOP success this week. The Re-
publicans had three times as many
workers active this time as in
1957, Randall said.
The GOP took the mayoralty
from the Democrats, who had held
it for two years, and raised their
majority on the City Council from
6-5 to 8-3. Cecil O. Creal defeated
Lloyd M. Ives in the race for
mayor, 6,728 to 5,107. He succeeds
Prof. Samuel J. Eldersveld of the
political science department.
BUT THERE are other reasons
for the Republican success. Ann
Arbor is predominantly Republi-
can. Prof. Eldersveld was the first,
Democratic mayor in 26 years,
and the Democrats last had a City
Council majority in 1930.

been a member of the City Coun-
cil, but only for a year, and de-
spite his active campaign, Creal
still had a large head start.
RANDALL thinks Ives' cam-
paign was so aggressive that it
alienated some voters, For in-
stance, Ives challenged Creal's
support of the present city-
administrator charter, and ques-
tioned Creal's interest in the wel-
fare of the University.
On the other hand, he probably
gained somewhat by being aggres-
sive, for Creal's prominence in city
affairs was a strong asset, Ives
probably aroused some inactive
Republicans against him. Whether
he lost more undecided votes than
he gained is hard to tell.
The results may well have been
part of the Republican resurgence
in the state election. In particular,
Randall :uggests that Frederick C.
Matthaei, candidate for Regent,
drew votes to the Republican
ticket, running well ahead of his
competitors in almost all pre-
cincts of the city.

day's unofficial count by two votes,
642-640,° in the ward as a whole.
Randall says the precinct vote
means the residents on the whole
oppose the present Urban Renew-
al plan. Darrow disagrees, attrib-
uting the outcome to the cam-
paigning activity of a number of
opponents of the plan and to
"misrepresentations" of many
facts about it.
CREAL has repeatedly said that
he will insist on a city-wide refer-
endum to approve the necessary
extra taxation before the plan is
put into effect. But city taxation
referenda are well-known for their
frequent failures. It would take
work to get this one through if it
got on the ballot.
There has been little indication
that the n Mayor and Council
will want to devote enough effort
to improving the plan, discussing
it with residents of the area{and
other citizens, and convincing the
voters of its worth.
The Republican success in the
election raises the question of
what the Democrats will do next.
Superior organization will not be
enough for them to win elections.

The Daily Official Bulletin Is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsjbility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at.2 :00 p~m. Friday,
FRIDAY, APRIL 10, 1959
General Notices
London College Student Leadership
Exchange Fellowship applications now
available at Scholarship Office, 2011

Editorial Staff
itorial Director

City Editor

Associate Editor
I CANTOR..................Personnel Director
I WILLOUGHBY .... Associate Editorial Director
N JONES............................Sports Editor


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