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'itorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
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ESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1959 NIGHT EDITOR: PHILIP MUNCK
Partners Not DOmination,
Ust Mark U.S. Foreign Policy
Core li Concer ti:
Baroque in Bloom
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first of three articles which will appear
in The Daily discussing the works of the three composers featured in this
weekend's Societa Corelli concerts. The articles appearing today and tomorrow
will deal specifically with Corelli and Vivaldi and their respective roles in
the development of the concerto. The third one in the series will move on
By MICHAEL COHEN
THE ENTHUSIASM that has beenaccorded the works of Bach, Han-
del, and Vivaldi in our time has been encouraging. Nevertheless,
the late Baroque masters are not representative of the full tradition.
It is important to note that their works came at a time when tonality
had already been established. But for the tonality experimentation of
the earlier Baroque masters, the late masters would never have
achieved their "greatness."
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) occupies a rather unique position in
Baroque music. He has been called the father of modern violin tech-
nique which is interesting since none of Corelli's concerti require a
violinist to go beyond third position.
TVEN THOUGH Charles E. Wilson has long
departed from the Eisenhower Administra-
on, a paraphrase of one of his foot-in-the-
outh comments seems to' sum up the policy
' the United States in regard to the rest of
4e free world, "What's good for the United
tates is good for the world."
The latest illustration of the long line of
isguded patriotic acts concerns a contract
lat was opened for bids by the Office of Civil
efense Mobilization. After all the bids were
ieived the governm'ent decided to award the
brtract to an American company even though
British company offered a bid that was 19
r cent lower. If the British bid had been
ken, the Federal Government would have
wed $300,000 in a year of presidential econ-
fy and budget cuts.
Decisions. such as these are inexcusable dur-
ig a period when the United States is con-
onted by deteriorating relations with other
ations. For too many years the United States
as expected all to follow without hesitation
VIT H THE STATE'S, financial crisis being
discussed at service club luncheons, by
isiness men's groups, and at the state capital,
e bearers of solutions have aligned themselves
.two camps-the proponents of economy and
e advocates of new taxes.
While both cases have some merit, it is be-
nnng to appear that additional levies can be
e only-successful answer.
However, not until the taxpayers have seen
at the services which they have grown to
:pect from their government cannot be pro-
ded by current funds, will they admit the need
a new tax structure.
The people of this state, already antipathetic
ward the present taxes, will justifiably de-
and economy. But "economy" as an end in
self is not desirable if the needs of the state
e allowed to suffer because of it. In recent
ars, the cost of administering state agencies
as grown apace with other costs. Tax revenues,
eanwhile have failed to keep up. The problem
.me to a head this winter and was felt here
hen the state was no longer able to meet its
yments to the University.
DMIT'rEDLY, tight budgeting could (and-
should) save the state thousands of dollars,
1HE J-HOP has squeaked through one more
year. Apparently it will not lose much, if
y, money this time and there may even be
other one next year.
Unfortunately it looks as if these are only
e death throes of a once-proud University
adition. Following the pattern of many other
aditions this one has lost in attendance or
herence, apparently failed, bjounced back, at
st slightly, and then flopped completely.
But J-Hop may not disappear entirely. It may
Bolding the dance in the League was an econ-
y measure and it apparently paid off. It's
ubtful, though, whether this -will work again.
OR EVIDENTLY people just don't like mon-
strous dances that are either grossly over-
>wded or so sparsely attended that it feels
iculous dancing on the I-M fioor with enough'
ra room for battalion maneuvers.
Why pay seven dollars for tickets, plus more
O formal wear, floral adornment, transpor-
or doubt in Uncle Sam's footsteps. In the years
following World War II, other countries were
willing to do this, but recently they have been
formulating policy on their own that in many
cases opposes the United State's position.
THIS HAS to be expected if the other coun-
tries of the world rightfully maintain pride
in their independence. Eventually any nation
will reat against a country that does not re-
spect its sovereignty. The world has advanced
to a point in which no nation can exist without
the help and partnership of the other countries.
In the future, the United States policy makers
must be more sensitive of the thoughts and
feelings of the rest of the world. Unless this
happens it is very probable that the other free
'nations will stop altogether listening to Amri-
can advice. To insure the existence of the free
world, partnership and cooperation should be
stressed instead of the interests of one single
but the current deficit is measured in millions.
The keepers of the state coffers gained a tem-
porary reprieve last week when some of the
state's biggest taxpayers agreed to pay their
taxes in advance. The sums received will make
possible the meeting of expenses for a while,
but the real problem remains unsolveti. For this
was in effect, an emergency loan against the
future, and soon the state will again face the
problem of being unable to keep commitments.
It remains for the state legislators to make a
decision for their constituents. Either the state
outs back the spending to live within present
income or rebuilds the tax system to provide
the necessary income for expenditures.
Basically; this is a question of values, since
the first alternative entails a curtailment of
services. Do the people of Michigan want to
continue to have high calibre universities, good
roads, and improvements in mental health fa-
cilities, and are they willing to pay for these?
A responsible Legislature will best serve the
interests of this state if it acknowledges the
people's need and desire for such services, and
chooses to institute tax reforms in the current
tation, perhaps dinner, and other necessary
items, to go dancing with five or six hundred
strangers? Of course double-dating is fine, if
you can keep track of each other .. and your
Affiliates apparently prefer their more inti-
mate dances where people are at least ac-
quainted. Independents usually get more fun
out of the smaller but less "en masse" dances
that are scheduled periodically.
1 HE ONLY THING that speaks for the J-Hop
is tradition. J-Hops are traditionally "big
deals." Not to attend used to be somewhat less
than "socially smooth." Attendance now is not
a matter of prestige.
Of course with increasing freshman classes,
perhaps the six hundred tickets can be sold
more easily and thus J-Hop will continue, partly
on the basis of innocent attendance. Unfortu-
nately this in itself batters of the proud heri-
tage of J-Hop. Maybe it's time to try a fresh-
Corelli is usually associated with
the development of the concerto
grosso form. He bridges the gap
between early experimentation
-and the full flowering of the late
Baroque. Corelli initiated the late
Baroque by comirlfg to a definitive
realization of tonality in instru-
mental music and by beginning to
formalize the new idiom.
The seventeenth century had
ushered in a gradual change from
a religious outlook, as expressed in
sixteenth century polyphony, to a
miore humanistic, theatrical out-
look which seems to be reflected
in Baroque opera and instrumen-
tal music. Instrumental composers
of the day developed more bril-
liantly ornamented passages, made
use of more aggressive disso-
nances, and pitted groups of in-
struments against one another,
echoing the thematic material.
The Baroque spirit is wonderfully
exemplified in the concerto grosso
form which became definitive
around 1680. The concerto grosso
made use of a concertino, or a
group of solo players, contrasted
with a chamber orchestra known
as the tutti.
THE TWELVE concerti com-
prising Corelli's Opus 6 (of which
Nos. 1, 5, and 8 will be performed)
represent the first known exam-
ples of the true concerto grosso.
Corelli was by no means, however,.
the first composer to utilize the
tutti-solo contrast. This principle
is found in some of the works' of
Vitali and Stradella, and is even
found as far back as Gabrieli.
Corelli's concertino throughout
the Opus 6 is composed of two vi-
olins and a cello, an already exist-
ent form known as a trio sonata.
This group is pitted 'against the
orchestra. Corelli cast his concerti
in the two most prevailing types
of instrumental music of his time,
the church sonata usually made
up of four contrasting movements
and the chamber sonata, coin-
posed of a prelude and a group of
dances. The first eight concerti
became the newly established
church concerti; the last four,
The thematic material in Cor-
elli's Opus 6 is much the same in
both concertino and tutti. This
lack of differentiation and the ex-
treme brevity of the contrasted
phrases indicate that Corelli was
primarily interested in the con-
trast between loud and soft and
the cultivation of a singing tone.
Nowhere is this more apparent
than in the first allegro of concer-
to No. 8, the Christmas Concerto.
In other sections of this Opus
6, the first violin of the concer-
tino is given greater prominence
than usual, placing Corelli on the
threshold of the sole concerto.
THE BYRD MACHINE:
Apple Grower Reaps Political Fruits
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the sec-
ond of three articles on Virginia
By NORMA SUE WOLFE
Daily Staff Writer
NINE pre-electoral appointed
governors, a "closed shop" for
other high positions in the state,
and passage only of legislation ap-
proved by what has been called the
nation's tightest and oldest politi-
cal organization-this is the Byrd
machine of Virginia.
Paradoxically, the strength of
such corruption rests on a scrupu-
lously honest foundation. For this
reason, the machine has ascended
to the height of an oligarchy that
has ruled Virginia, with only
minor interruptions, for the past
66 years and which recently held
Virginia in a static policy of "mas-
sive resistance" to desegregation.
Virginius Dabney, noted South-
ern editor, wrote in the Jan. 7,
1950, Saturday Evening Post, "The
Virginia Democratic machine ..-.
goes back to the time of United
States Sen. Thomas S. Martin, its
dominant personality throughout
the early years of this century
down to his death in 1919."
Henry De La Warr Flood, U.S.
Congressman from Virginia, took
control. With his death in 1921, a
political void was created in the
* * *
AND SHORTLY thereafter,
Flood's logical successor rushed in
to fill that void. He was Harry
Flood Byrd, Flood's nephew who
was then serving in the State
The real fruits of the harvest
began for Byrd, the U.S.'s largest
apple grower and a newspaper
publisher, when he entered Vir-
ginia politics in 1915 as the pro-
teg6 of Flood and U.S. Represen-
tative (later Senator) Carter
Glass. For a decade he served as
a member of the Commonwealth's
In 1923, Byrd led the first of
many successful fights, one identi-
fying him with the "pay-as-you-
go" financial principle. He later
employed this as chairman of the
Senate Finance Committee.
In 1925, the self-made million-
aire was elected Governor of Vir-
ginia by the machine for a four-
year term. Appointed to a vacancy
in the U.S. Senate in 1933, he has
been reelected by his own well-
oiled machine five consecutive
"His cherubic features belie both
his shrewdness and his dynamic
energy," (The Reporter, Oct. 3,
FOR THE beginner in Virginia
politics, there is only one trail to
advancement. This is the road to
cultivating the "right men" in the
machine and adopting their poli-
cies and candidates as his own.
Eventualrmachine leaders must
climb a ladder of county jobs and
election-day work in order to be
supported for high positions. If
any of the boys of this second
echelon become impatient, the
machine leaders have a fast and
effective method of discipline.
"A State Compensation Board,
whose chairman is appointed by
the governor, can fix salaries and
grant expense accounts for sher-
iffs, state's attorneys, treasurers,
and commissioners of revenue.
Byrd's uninhibited personal
choice," (The Reporter).
THE MAGAZINE went on to
additionally claim that the Byrd
machine also makes the laws of
Virginia through its control of the
legislative body, names the judici-
ary, elects most of the county
officers and to a large extent
shapes the social attitudes and the
thinking of the state.
Fundamentally, the strength of
the machine rests on Virginia's
poll tax, a $1.5o0 levy per year
whichamust be paid six months
prior to elections (U.S. News and
World Report, Jan. 14, 1955). Dur-
ing such a period when neither
personalities nor issues have be-
come apparent, most of thQ state
voters are shrouded in political
But the machine voters are
prodded into registering by ma-
chine workers, whose job it is to
do just that.
The result is a primary election
turnout that averages . Just 11
per cent of the adult population.
Thus a candidate usually is chosen
by only six or seven per cent of
the state residents. With such a
small turnout, the state can easily
be dominated by a machine of
just 10,000 people.
Each successive light turnout
has helped the Byrd machine grow
progressively stronger until it has
reached a position of such strength
that it is seldom challenged, al-
most never beaten.
AT HILL AUDITORIUM:
Tebaldi Best in Arias
SEN. HARRY F. BYRD
cherubic features belie
shrewdness and energy"
rule, which may be the hardest
of all:hHe must stand aside and
await his turn for political ad-
vancement," (The Reporter).
Gubernatorial candidates who
get the nod from Sen. 'Byrd are
as good as in office, subject only
to confirmation by the voters. And
no Byrd appointment has failed to
. '.each of the last eight (now
nine, including present Gov. J.
Lindsay Almond, Jr.,) gentlemen
who have presided over this an-
cient commonwealth has been
THE FIRST Ann Arbor appear-
ance of Renata TIebaldi last
night in Hill Auditorium was, pre-
dictably, the occasion for some of
the most sumptuously beautiful
singing to be heard anywhere to-
Tebaldi fans who had come in
expectation of hearing the so-
prano in any of the various oper-
atic characterizations which are
her natural habitat may well have
been disappointed in the evening's,
offering, since Miss Tebaldi had
chosen to set forth a program of
"recital" numbers, culminating in
a single operatic selection. Unfor-
tunately, Tebaldi is strictly lim-
ited as a recitalist and her per-
formance was variable in effect.
The Tebaldi voice has, to be
sure, opulence, luster and power.
It has also a recurrent hard,
bright edge with a tendency to
thicken with overtones. Miss Te-
baldi's expressionistic devices are
somewhat limited and consist
mainly of dynamic and intona-
tional shadings, resulting in a
generally monotonous vocal color.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
'Something Better' Replaces Tradition
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:F
Rds Trip on Airms
BY J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
HE NEW ATTITUDE of the United States
toward the neutralists, as displayed by the
of arms to Indonesia, comes just at the
chological moment when Soviet Russia's
ition on the subject is under question in
e of the'Asian and African countries.
'he U.S.S.R. has always played two major
es for the underdeveloped countries.
>ne has been a pretension of genuine ideol-
,al support for nationalism, especially when
ompanied by anti-European sentiment.
he other has been disavowal that, by offer-
aid, she is grinding political axes.
i UNITED STATES has been more frank
in connecting " bootstrap", aid for under-
eloped countries with her efforts to build up
orldwide front against international com-
RICHARW TAUJB, Editor
In the background of this effort has been the
feeling that nations were shortsighted in fear-
ing American economic tieups while not recog-
nizing the truly colonial aims of Soviet Russia.
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles once
referred to neutralism on this basis as "im-
Now the sale of arms to Indonesia comes as
tacit acceptance that neutralism is the best that
can be obtained in some cases, and should be
On the same day that the sale was an-
nlounced, delegates of a truly neutral nationalist
tinge were leaving the Soviet-sponsored Asian-
African Youth Conference in Cairo with a bad
taste in their mouths.
The South Viet Nam delegation had already
left in a walkout._
The complaint was that the Reds had re-
vealed themselves as merely paying lip service
to neutralism, while actually demanding anti-
westernism and allegiance to Soviet Russia.
EGYPT ALREADY had been put on formal
notice of this by Khrushchev in connection
with the repression of Syrian Communists and
through the struggle between Communism and
To the Editor:
LAST Saturday J-Hop, amid a
spectacular space-age setting,
took a final choking breath,
sighed a little, and died. And one
more Michigan tradition - de-
spite efforts by Chairman Murray
Feiwell and his committee of res-
pirators -- became extinct.
Why? Student apathy, the
greatest scapegoat of them all, is
what many student leaders and
just plain students are screaming.
I reject this answer; student
apathy has lost its value as a rea-
son and has dwindled to nothing
more than an excuse - a True
University of Michigan Intellec-
tual excuse, I might add.
Apathy can't be used to explain
the demise of the Union Opera.
Crowds packed the Michigan
theatre in December 1955 to see
the all-male cast perform "Film-
Flam." The acting wasn't the best
and the humor could have been
improved - but the show was
Michigan, all Michigan, and the
audience loved it. We whistled the
original songs for weeks there-
Somehow the idea of an all-
male cast lost its appeal. Students
wanted women to play women.
And so MUSKET was introduced
and the Union Opera died. It
didn't die because of apathy. It
died because students wanted
something better. "Brigadoon,"
MUSKET's first production, was
perhaps. a bit too "New Yprkish"
before automobiles were in wide
use on the campus - when a kiss
under the Engine Arch at mid-
night would make the blushing
freshman woman a co-ed. Self-
consciousness - not apathy -,
wrecked this campus tradition.
The bright lights of the Engine
Arch make it a ridiculous place
to make love -- at any time. There
are better places now ...
Because students have found
better things to do - things like
ski weekends and private parties
-J-Hop died. Because of the big-
ness of it all, the impersonality of.
1,600 feet triping over each other
--J-Hop died. Apathy has little
to do with it. Spring Weekend stu-
dent leaders are already blaming
apathy for the soon-to-come de-
mise of that event. And Greek
Week died because of apathy, IFC
officials have said.
I believe leaders of these events,
after careful examination, will
discover Greek Week and Spring
Weekend offer little to the indi-
vidual. And those individuals, my-
self included, are going to find
something better. Most of us en-
joy a good time, we aren't apa-
thetic. If the all campus events
lose their individual appeal, we'll
find something else.
John S. DeMott, '59
HER PROGRAM, restricted en-
tirely to the Italian repertoire,
opened with the usual group of
arie antiche, a vocal realm not en-
tirely suited to Miss Tebaldi's
large and ripe voice. Thus, her
aria from Handel's Amadigi was
nobly declaimed, but with some
unsteadiness and spreading of
tone. Songs by Galuppi and Scar-
latti fared better, with the singer
achieving a delightful delicacy of
Two works by Mozart were
marred by certain stylistic man-
n e r is m s, particularly sudden
swells and pianissimos.
Not until the Rossini-Bellini
songs were Miss Tebaldi's finest
resources brought to the fore.
Here, Bellini's . "Vaga luna che
inargenti" was one of the most
beautiful moments of the evening.
* * *
M A S C A G N I'S "M'ma, non
m'ama" was a decidedly unprom-
ising start for what was otherwise
the evening's most distinguished
group - the song verges on the
ludicrous and the vocal sound was
over-ripe to the point of unpleas-
antness. In songs by Respighi, Piz.
zetti, Davico and Tosti, however,
Miss Tebaldi moved into a realm
of Latin warmth and sentiment
eminently suited to her tempera-
ment and technique. The floated
high notes, the gentle caress of a
phrase, the passionate outburst of
tone, all part of Tebaldi's' vocal
nature, made songs such as Res-
pighi's "Notte" and Davico's "0
lune che fa'lume" first-rate musi-
Desdemona's arias from Otello
were a feast of tonal beauty. The
ease and perfection with which
Tebaldi floated the haunting
phrases of the Willow Song and
the Ave Maria were very nearly
awesome and the encored aria
from Butterfly was hardly less
impressive. It is in the lyric world
of Verdi and Puccini that Miss
Tebaldi demonstrably achieves
the level of a great singer.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publicatlon of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which Tae
Michigan Daily assumes no ed.l-
tornal responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1959
VOL. LXIX, No. 90