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February 22, 1959 - Image 10

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1959-02-22
Note:
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..---"

MAGAZINE
Vol. V No. 5 Sunday, February 22, 1959

Racial Powder Keg Ready To Explode:
APARTHEIDI
$y CHARLES SOZOLT=ti

.

_ ' '; ,

Education:Many Problems

(Continued from Page 5)
The inspection system, along
ith standardized student exami-
stions in a colony, control of
acher training institutions have
rought some measure of educa-
on uniformity within a single

Contents

- + T' Y .{ x ' '

Apartheid-Racial Powder Keg
By Charles Kozoll

Page Two

I

Lan1 of Tradition, Land of Change
By Barbara Ward

Page Three

1

Education in Africa
By Lane Vanderslice.

Page Five

Africa's Plea: Independence, Equality

By Ahmed Belkhodja.

Page Six

New Look at Colonialism
By Gilbert Bursley -

Page Seven

i

New Public Health Problem for Africa
By Henry van der Schalie
An American in Tunisia

Page Nine
.Page Ten

By Nanny Murrell,

MAGAZINE EDITOR-David Tarr
PHOTOS: Page Five: Nigerian Information Service; Page Nine: Henry
van der Schalie; Page Ten: Nanny Murrell; Other photos: Belgian
Congo Information Agency.

A TALL, distinguished-looking
gentleman, whose affable ap-
pearance disguises his determined
motives, sits on an African powder
keg which may explode at any mo-
ment.
Hendrik F. Verwoerd, Prime
Minister of the Union of South
Africa, holds the lighted match
which could ignite the African
continent into a struggle of whites
against blacks. His desire and
ability to maintain the policy of
"apartheid" or legal segregation
constitutes a very real threat to
peace and stability in that area.
Combined with the new force of
African Nationalism, which angri-
ly views three million white
"Europeans" (the Afrikaners of
Dutch descent and the South Af-
ricans of British descent) as hold-
ing some 11 mIllion "non-
European natives (Bantu tribes-
men) in check, apartheid could
be the incentive to topple white
supremacy.
Besides these groups there are
about one-and-a-third million
"Coloreds" (or Mulattos) and
440,000 Asians (Indians and "Cape
Malays").
THE POLICY of apartheid, a
formalized legal doctrine of
the state, decrees the separation
of "European" and "non-Euro-
pean" elements of the population
and calls for theoretically inde-
pendent development of both
groups.
Economically, politically ' and
socially as well as legally, the
Verwoerd government is pledged
to continue this policy. The new
leader, who assumed control in
September, has further broadened
his aim with an additional concept

of "basskap" or absolute supre-
macy.
How far this new racialist will
be able to push his policies and
still prevent violence from the al-
ready nervous natives in Africa
remains the most important ques-
tion for Verwoerd to answer. In
recent years the inter-racial fric-
tion has been heightened by the
fervent desire of backward peoples
of Africa to leap across genera-
tions of development too fast.
NEGROES throughout the world
today are aiming for increased
independence in nearly every as-
pect of their often limited life.
Attempting to loosen the-fetters
of white control, the "uniformly
seconil-class citizen" has chal-
lenged all the economic, social
and political barriers long as-
sumed to be mainstays of society.
South Africa presents one vola-
tile example of whites acting in
fear to preserve themselves. In a
country where they are outnugm-
bered three to one, the Afrikaners
and to a lesser extefit, the South
Africans feel they must control
the Bantu or be crushed by him.
BUT HOW long will the segre-
gationists be able to control
the natives and maintain some
stature in the world? Proponents
of the new nationalism maintain
that within ten years a major
change will have occurred in the
white-black relationship. More
radical members of this cult aver
that in less time than that the
"Black man will make his move,"
Still other members of this
group call the absence of any vio-
lent outburst by the Banut "noth-
ing short of a miracle."
Verwoerd and his followers,
however, disregard the imminent
violence as they continue attempts
to push the native entirely out of
the economic and social system
of the country. The ultimate goal

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Is to completely isolate the Ban-
tu on their limited reserves.
FIRST ostensible evidence of
this attempt to regress the na-
tive came last May when the gov-
ernment of the late Prime Minis-
ter Johannes C. Stridom moved
selected tribal chiefs into posi-
tions of authority within their
own.group.
The idea is to allow the "pup-
pet" headman a limited amount of
power and move his followers into
more : consolidated tribal group-
ings.
On their reservations, the Bantu
are forced into non-profitable,
non-sustaining agriculture and
grazing while the whites control
the very profitable gold industry.
Crowded into this ring of auto-
nomous tribal states ranging
along the country's southern and
eastern border, the Bantu could
be rapidly forced into submission
-or, perhaps, easily incited to
revolt.
WITH THIS plan, the original
purpose of the apartheid poli-
cy will be violated.
"Separate but parallel develop-
ment" was always alleged but in
recent years the lines of segrega-
tion have blotted out any sem-
blance of native development.
- Verwoerd made this clear re-
cently when he said "there is no
place for the native in European
society above the level of certain
forms of labor . . . the idea is
total territorial segregation."
Carrying this one step further,
the new leader vowed to conduct
foreign affairs according to "dif-
ferences of race and way of life."
SIZABLE gains made in estab-
lishing cooperation with Negro
dominated Ghana or Nigeria could
be erased with such a policy. If
the Bantu is pushed too far back,
all of Black Africa could be mo-
tivated to unite against the Union
of South Africa.
This may become apparent in
the United Nations when the
Union returns. to active member-
ship in the world organization.
Three years ago, the United Na-
tions poked its investigative nose
too far into South African domes-
tic affairs and Strijdom withdrew
his country. Their tenure this trip
could be even shorter if African
Nationalists begin to echo their
resentment when segregation is
mentioned.
ANOTHER aspect of- the prob-
lem is the effect of certain of
the Union's policies, in particular,
the South African -Group Areas
law which' limits various race
groups in urban areas to their
own specific locale.
Moslem Mosques and Hindu
Temples are now required to have
permits if they are in a white dis-
trict.
Moslems have already refused
to do this. Hindu groups have
been silent but reactions could oe-
cur if this law is pressed.
A rising tide of humanitarian-
ism also shows signs of jamming
the apartheid machinery as more
and more individuals disgusted
with the status quo and even re-
gressive attitudes of some of the
supporters of the policy.
ENE COMMENTATOR, Roger V.
tRicklefs, noted that "only the
reluctance of the whites to. pro-
mote literacy and advance educa-
tion in the Bantu tribes has hin-
dered native civilization."
While many of these moderate
individuals recognize that "fear
has been the motivation for dis-
crimination," they also are be-
ginning to realize that change is
imperative. Colonialism hasbeen
on the #eelne for over 25 years.
With that thought goes the
suggestion that subjugation of the
native is no. longer a recognized
(Concluded on Page 8) -

territory.
But in spite of these controls,
there. remain. differences between
the mission and state schools,
especially on the lowest level.
There is also a very noticeable
divergence between the quality of
education in the towns and coastal
areas of Africa and the thinly
populated "back" country.
No uniform practice is main-
tained in the organization of the
kinds of schools among either the
different regions or the British
territories.
"Primary school" in the Belgian
Congo means a four year course
divided after the first two years
into an ordinary and a selective
course. In French West Africa
there is one type of primary school
lasting five years for both Africans
and Europeans. In Liberia, "pri-
mary school" means the first eight
years.
A MAJOR DIFFICULTY in Afri-
can education is the problem
of "wastage"-the loss of children
African Health
(Continued from Page 9)
from the canals and dains and
with a potable water, became an
aspect of prime importance. Eco-
nomics and sociology had signifi-
cant roles to play. Agriculture
and irrigation could develop meth-
ods and apply schedules which
would aid considerably in reduc-
ing the number of snails because
if properly applied their practices
may well serve to interfere with
the normal habitat conditions of
the snails.
In brief, the development of
many regions where growth and
progress is measured in terms of
better usage of soils, for example,
demands that all of the people
lend the kind of team work that
can be based only on an intelli-
gent appreciation of the goals
set by an understanding group of
leaders in political, economic,
health, and other spheres.
THAT THE countries of Africa
are fully aware of the prob-
lems of health and that they are
especially cognizant of the diffi-
culties produced by the adverse
conditions involved in human
blood fluke, is attested by the
World Health Organization Con-
ference on Bilharziasis held in
Brazzaville, French Equatorial
Africa, in 1956.
Some 40 delegates representing
all of the countries south of the
Sahara attended this two-week
conference. Many of the delegates
gave special reports based on sur-
veys and research conducted in
their own countries. It was pos-
sible to share information as well
as to have a better appreciation
of the complexity of control in
the different regions.
IT IS IMPORTANT to appreci-
ate that mosquito and snail
control may be carried out simul-
taneously. Also, the eradication
of snails has an important bear-
ing on diseases of domestic ani-
mals (cattle and sheep, f or ex-
ample).
In the Sudan, liver fluke of do-
mestic animals is a serious dis-
ease. When Dr. J. Newsome of the
English Group for Research in Bil-
harzia recently visited with me he
told how he had just made a very
extensive trip through many of
the countries in Africa to locate a
site for a laboratory for intensive
studies of Bilharziasis.
He said that in Afriea many of
his friends in various countries
called attention to the healthy ap-
pearance of their cattle. He found
it difficult to remind them that if
because of drought or any other
reasons those animals suffered
from malnutrition, the worm par-
asites they were supporting would

quickly take over and the stock-
Would become a total loss.

from a school before their course;
of study is completed. A few years
ago, one report on Kenyan educa-
tion assumed as normal occurrence
that 50 per cent of the pupils en-
rolled in the first year dropped out
in the first four years of school.
Why the "wastage"? A 1953
British report gives some of the
answers:
"In the first place, many chil-
dren have considerable difficulty
in getting to school and many
quite young children have to travel
distances of up to ten miles
through country. '. . . In some
areas wild animals are by no means
a negligible factor and we heard
of little stragglers from the main
body of children who have. been
picked off by lions or leopards on
their way home from school.
"When children get to a pri-
mary school, they often find a
dark, damp and dilapidated build-
ing; for some of the primary
schools of Africa are housed in
premises so bad that no one de-
fends them.
"Where the teaching is dull and
boring, this is obviously discour-
aging to the brighter pupils and
ineffective with the duller ones."
Also listed as a reason has been
the need for children to herd cat-
tle.
Indications showed however, the
report said, that the teacher could
be a big factor in operating to re-
duce wastage.
UNFORTUNATELY, one of the
long list of problems facing
African schools is the shortage of
teachers, both native and, foreign
born.
An increasing number of Afri-
cans before World War II went to
the metropolitan countries to take
University degrees and professional
training in law and medicine,
either through their own expense
or by means of scholarships given
by the British and French.
Immediately after the' War, the
policies of both, continued the
same, but the British set up Uni-
versity colleges.~The British built
two in West Africa, one in East
Africa and one in Central Africa.
The British purpose in setting
up these colleges was twofold:
1) to provide increased facilities
where Africans could get degrees
and higher professional training.
2) to equip a number of students
to fill administrative and profes-
sional posts in their own countries.
Then 1951 saw the opening of
the Institute of Advanced Studies
at Dakar which grants diplomas in
liberal arts, science, medicine and
law.
In 1951, a new university college
was opened in Liberia. In 1954,
under the auspices of the Uni-
versity of Louvain, university
courses were started at Kisantu,
in the Belgian Congo.

GHANA'S higher educational
.system might serve as a model
example for the nations of Africa.
University College of - the Gold
Coast was founded under the Brit-
ish plan in 1948 as an affiliated
Colonialim
(Continued from Page 8)
at this time that in ten years, for
example, he will have his inde-
pendence. He will be resentful and
unhappy at the inevitable changes
in such a time-table. Furthermore
there is serious question as to
what is meant by independence
and as to who wants it.
The best interest of the Congo-
lese might call for some sort of
partnership with the European
rather than a status where he
has an -independence of question-
able duration and strength.
TH E POLITICAL future of the
Congo is anyone's guess.
The Belgian formula is for a
Belgo-Congolese . Community or
partnership. Certainly this con-
cept, although still somewhat
nebulous, has logic and merit for
both African and European.
Butkwhat form it will eventual-
ly take and the rapidity with
which it will come is the big ques-
tion. On the one hand there is
alarm among many Belgian resi-
dents of the Congo that their gov-
ernment is going too fast.
Conversely there are discon-
tented Africans, sometimes en-
couraged from beyond the bor-
ders of the Congo, who agitate for
still more concessions and at a
faster rate. Nationalism is not a
rational force as much as it is an
emotional one.
And the impatience for change
is greater among peoples not en-
joying all the fruits of life than
among those relatively well off.
IGraduation Rings

college of the University of Lon-
don. It. moved into temporary
quarters at Achimota, until the
permanent site near Accra could
be established.
A law school is noi in opera-
tion; and plans are made for en-
gineering and medical schools.
By African standards, the Gold
Coast is a rich country, but it is
poor by European and American
standards. The decisions then to
maintain standards at an English
honor school level rather than at
a "pass" school, to offer a wide
range of university disciplines, to
become a more expensive in-resi-
dence school and to maintain ex-
pensive research facilities was a
hard - and strenuously-debated-
one.
A pass school criterion would
have meant students would have
been educated in a year's less
time and would have enabled it
to produce more rapidly the large
supply of graduates badly needed
for Ghanian administrative jobs.
Howeverthe Ghanians have ac-
cepted the disadvantages of a
small number of expensively train-
ed students.
.One Ghanian professor offered
the 1829 dicta of the Yale faculty
in support of the more stringent
approach foir the university col-
lege.
"There are many things im-
portant to be known, which are
not taught in colleges because they.
may be learned anywhere."
It is this spirit of determination
to gain a top-quality education
which, in spite of the' obstacles,
may yet provide high quality edu-
cation to the people of Africa. "

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