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October 18, 1967 - Image 13

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-10-18

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Classification Brings



(Continued from Page 1)
there were doing work that was
classified in some manner. Staff
research, likewise, may result in
dual reports for the government
and the public.
For example, last year a stu-
dent working on his doctoral dis-
sertation at Cooley under Air
Force sponsorship wrote a two-
volume thesis on "A Study of Ran-
dom Acess Discrete Address Com-
munivations Systems," which dealt
with computer theory. The first
volume, which dealt with theoreti-
cal considerations, was public and
constituted the actual dissertation.
The second volume, which was
classified, dealt with potential ap-
plications of the theories.
Some dissertation work conduct-
ed under a classified contract re-
sults in fully- declassified reports.
Last spring, a student received a
PhD for work in "The Design of
Signals to Achieve Minimum Am-
plitude Variations," a study of
communications theory. Although
the research itself was classified,
the student wrote only a public

To work on a classified project
or to get access to classified ma-
terial, a person must do three
things. First, he must be cleared
by the Pentagon to the level of the
material with which he will be
working. A person with a "classi-
fied' clearance can use only "clas-
sified" material while a person
with a "secret" clearance has ac-
cess to both "classified" and
"secret" material and so on.
Second, the facility at which
a person works as well as the
person himself must be cleared.
Third, when a person seeks ac-
cess to classified material, he must
have "a need to know." This
means the Defense Department
must be convinced that the person
has a legitimate reason for ob-
taining the material.
Small Portions
Officials point out that often
only a small portion of a project
may be classified. However, under
Defense Department security rules,
if any part of a project is classi-
fied, the entire project must be
classified. Also, a project which in
itself has no military applications

but which, for research purposes,
must have access to classified ma-
terial must be classified.
Generally security measures are
tightly enforced. For example last
week a University official visiting
WRL was stopped three times
when he walked down a short
corridor without an escort.
"For convenience's sake" an' ef-
fort is made to obtain security
clearence for all staff members
at both WRL and Cooley, Evaldson
and Butler said. According to
Evaldson, all of WRL's 270 aca-
demic employes and appjroxi-
mately 170 student employees are
cleared or in the process of being
cleared. He said clearence usually
takes about three months to ob-
Butler said that of Cooley's staff
of 80, including 48 students, all
are cleared except for 10 or 11 for-
eign nationals who are unclear-
John W. Wagner, security offi-
cer in the Office of Research Ad-
ministration, has responsibility
for processing of security clear-
ance applications and for the phy-
sical security of research facili-
ties on Main and North Campus.
Basic Qualifications
Wagner said the basic qualifi-
cations for clearance are that the
person be a U.S. citizen or, under
certain circumstances, a perma-
nent residentmalien, and that he
be at least 18 years old. He said
that, to the best of his knowledge,
no university applicant who met
those qualifications has ever been
The responsibility for physical
security of laboratories and docu-
ments is largely in the hands of
research personnel and Sanford
Security Service. At WRL, San-
ford Security guards are station-
ed in buildings where classified
work is done. At Cooley, the
guards patrol only at night.
Evaldson laid the more obvious
security r1 3asures in force at WRL
are largely a result of the layout
of the buildings-numerous labs
in old buildings with multiple en-
trances and exits--which makes
control of persons entering the
facilities difficult.
Wagner said the most serious
after-hours security difficulty he
has encountered is that research-
ers occasionally leave safe-files
unlocked at the end of the day.
Beyond the simple nuisance,
security restrictions impose some
real problems on researchers. A
major problem is the transfer of

knowledge 'gained
military projects t
civilian applications
Because of mili
tions, much inform
to apply developmer
uses remains classif
ers said.
Project directors
pressed a concernf
the availability of r
ings for civilian usef
ing up the declass
cess. "We like to1
among the leaders i
creased disseminati
mation," one said.
"Remote sensing
curity problem,"
Morgan, director of
frared Physics Lab,

on classified Connolly cites the case of man- cock up all files at the end of the
o declassified facturer who got a government day were "a nuisance."
S, contract for the development of a "We'd be better off without
tary applica- gas laser for the Defense Depart- them," he added.
ation needed ment. Willis E. Groves, director of
nts to civilian The contract was classified, so Project MICHIGAN, an Army
ied, research- the developer was prohibited from sponsored $2.5 million-a-year pro-
selling the laser he developed to ject on battlefield surveillance
at WRL ex- the public. research, said that doing work for
for increasing While the firm was working on the Department of Defense and
research find- the government contract, its com- accepting the attendant security
and for speed- petitor, who had lost the con- restrictions "allows us to research
ification pro- tract, moved and grabbed a large on things that are important
think we are share of the lucrative civilian rather than things we can
n seeking in- market. afford."
on of infor- "To date," Connolly continued, "Across the board," Groves
"the Defense Department has not continued, "we are proud of the
led to a se- yet declassified any equipments fact that we have contributed to
said Joseph developed under Defense Depart- a stronger nation."
the WRL In- ment contract or other systems Total Support
citing a case related to such military systems. "If we could have our total

present support all from non-De-
................: fense Department sources, I don't

"Several of the lectures to be presented in this course w
classified at levels up to and including Secret. Therefore, coure
tendance will be restricted to U.S. citizens holding a final
interim) Secret security clearance. In order to facilitat
answering of questions which may arise during the course, p
security clearance will be required for all attendees as a cond
of admission to any lecture or demonstration. Need-to-
certification is also necessary. The U.S. Air Force Avionics L
atory will provide security sponsorship of the course."
--"Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar,"
course description in the University publicat
"Engineering Summer Conferences."

ill be

think we'd elect it as an alterna-

where Defense Department secur-
ity restrictions stymied develo)-f
ment of a civilian application. I
"The earth science people were
very interested but they needed
to know more than they weret
permitted to know," he added.
"Since 1962," Morgan con tin-
ued, "we've made extremely slow
progress" in speeding the declass-E
ification process.-
"A lot of people in the militaryj
think Michigan has been taking1
the lead in the drive to open in-
formation," Zissis said. "This is+
the direction in which we want
to move."
The problem of declassification
has led some profit-oriented pri-
vate companies to stay away fromI
military research because of re-+
strictions on development for ci-
vilian markets. Writing in the+
Sept. 11, 1967, issue of the trade;
journal "Electronic News," Ray

... The Pentagon has d
ed a complex mathematic
mula by which capabilities
frared systems can be m
as a means of making cla
tion determinations.
"The formula guarantee
ing to those who may wis
away with those old and
eaten segments of the
blanket. But development
formula-and nothing mo
the formula-after six ye
study) is certain to depr
military of more valual
search a n d developme
sources," he concluded.
Mixed Feelings
Researchers at WRL ex
mixed feelings about work
der the restrictions imps
classification. Marvin Holt
of WRL's Infrared and
senses laboratory, said so
strictions, such as ther

se at- tive," Evaldson said. "The De-
(not fense Department has been such
e the a strong leader."
Proper Defense research is "in the
rtoper mainstream of historical science,"
lition Holter said. "Archimedes invent-
know ed Greek fire and Leonardo Da
abor- Vinci designed tanks."
"The trend is toward much
less classified work," said Hans-
ion ford W. Ferris, chairman of the
electrical engineering department.
"Of course, that's not to say we
don't . want classified work; in
evelop- many cases, you get much further
cal for- along with classified work.
s of in- "Basic .ideas are. not classified,"
easured he continued. "When you get into
ssifica- development, lead time is the
only thing you have against a
s noth. potential enemy.
h to do "In a technical field," Ferris
mtth- added, "you can cut off your life
security blood and be two years behind
of the without classified work. Some of
re than our literary college colleagues
ars (of aren't able to understand this
ive the distinction. We feel a technical
ble re- man has the freedom to choose
nt re- what he does or does not do."
"When people say 'don't do
classified research,' " said Groves,
Kpressed"they are talking about something
sing un- that will be a long time in com-
)sed by ing. Military research gives these
er, head guys (scientists and engineers) a
r i chance to move and cash in."

one more thing
not to
worry about
Neat discreet bags
for pad disposal
come FREE in each
pretty new box of
Scott Confidets,

me re-
need to

Tomorrow: A Closer Look
at Willow Run Labs

-Daily-Thomas R. Copi
A UNIFORMED GUARD watches the lobby of the director's office
at Willow Run Laboratories. All visitors to the lab must stop here,
sign in and be issued badges. The poster on the wall reads:
"Securty, Too, Depends on Teamwork."

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