THE UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN DAILY
U , 2j.L 2 blew sky, two Russians, perfected
asapparatus for securing greatly in
ci eased pressure. Dewar succeeded
Published Daily (Sundays excepted) during the in liquefying hydrogen and in produc-
College year, at isg oxygen and other gases on a larger
T HE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. scale. Dewar's predecessors used the
Or BcE: The Inland Press, Henning Block. cascade system. Linde and the later
Both Phones,147. I experimentors used the intensive
method. In this the gas is put under
MANAGING EDITOR. j
F. ENGlELHIARD,'o L. rgreat pressure, two hundred or three
tundred atmospheres and then sud-
USaNESS lOANAGEB. Idenly allowed to go through a series
O. I StANS. . o; tubes where the pressure is greatly
ATHLETICS, . . . G.D. HUDNUTT,'01E reduced. All gases expanding cool.
r. R. WOODROW,'00 L. A. H, MCDoUGALL,'01 E in the Linde machine which is used at
A. G. BROWNE '02. E. J. B. WOOD, '00, the University the pressure is first
L.J.MONTGOMERY,'O, W.5). ICEY, '00M, reduced from over two hundred at-
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In charge of today's issue,
A. H. McDOUG ALL.
Greeted Prof. Freer-Mang Interest-
The Unitarian church was packed
to the doors last night to hear Prof.
P. C. Freer's long expected, much
talked of lecture on liquid air. The,
audience came early and was thor-
ottghly interested and expectant. It
was an unusual gathering in many
respects. Some seemed drawn by
mere curiosity, but most oftthose pres-
ent were animated by a desire to more
thoroughly understand this subject on
vshich they were largely in the dark.
Many a comment and question could
be heard as they thronged showing
the speculation as to nature of the
lecture. The most of them did no'
ksnow just what turn the lecture would
take and this whetted their interest to
a teen edge. Something startling was
generally expected to happen but few
if any could tell just exactly what it
was. 'Many things did happen-some
unexpected-but opinion seemed di-
vided as to their startling nature.
The speaker prefaced his experi-
ments with a brief statement of the
various stages in the experimenta-
tion for the liquefaction tef gases.
The ancients had no conception of
gases as such. They knew only the
air, and the few other gases they
came in contact with they considered
impurities in the air. They thought
water came from air by condensation
ace air from water by evaporization.
This impression prevailed for many
centuries. Later on gases as they are
now known were divided into gases
and vapors. Vapors were those which
could be liquified by pressure. Those
which were elastic and could not be
liquified by pressure were gases.
Faraday was the first to liquify some
or those so called gases. By means of a
device in which he could scieret
low temperature under presssure be
succeeded in liquifying all but six of
the constant gases; these six were
hydrogen, nitrogan oxygen, carbonic
oxide, netric oxide, marsh gas. Cail
letet was able to liquify oxygen by
means of a device in which the oxygen
passed successively through three
tubes brought to a low temperature
by surrounding them with evap-
orating ethylene under a high
pressure. Olszenski and Wro-
tmospheres pressure to sixteen and
then to one atmospere. This sudden
expansion in passing through a series
of tubes over which too excaping air
flows reduced the temperature of the
Liquid air is liquefied in the same
manner as the other gases but was
not successfully done until very re-
After this discussion of the meth-
ods of liquefaction which was illus-
trated by drawings thrown on the
screen the lecturer performed a num-
ler of experiments. He first poured
some liquid air in a Dewar beaker and
inserted into it a test tube contain-
tng mercury. The mercury quickly
frozc. This and several similar ex-
periments showed that the tempera-
tire of liquid air could not be taken
with any ordinary tnermometer. So
electricity was resorted to. Two piec-
es of different metals are soldered to-
gether. When there are connected in
serics with a galvanometer their cur-
rent is registered. These put in
any liquid produce a definite current
for that temperature. This current is
measured by the movement on a
screen of a bright spot caused by the
refection of a round light, placed be-
tPeen the-screen and the galvanome-
ter, reflected from the galvanometer.
(Contined on page 3)
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SATURDAY, JANUARY 20.
Sol Smith Russel's Great Play
0 *00KRLAT5 0 5ION
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