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July 01, 1983 - Image 14

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1983-07-01

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

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THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS

14 Friday, July 1, 1983

CAJE Will Meet in August

NEW YORK — The
eighth annual Conference
on Alternatives in Jewish
Education will be held at
Trinity University in San

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The CAJE Conference
will include the Israel
Pavilion, a series of
problem-solving clinics,
forums and round table dis-
cussions, in-depth modules,
lehrhausen and Limud
Torah sessions, Jewish
Teacher Center and Com-
puter Information Center.
The new Israel Pavilion, a
joint, venture between
CAJE and the World Zionist
Organization, will include
displays, multi-media pre-
sentaton, lectures, films,
debates and up-to-date edu-
cational resources currently
available on Israel.

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Volume Describes Role of Soviet Partisans

By ALLEN A. WARSEN
On July 3, 1941, "Stalin
spoke to the Russian people
over the radio; in a lengthy
address he emphasized that
the Soviet Union was fight-
ing for its existence. To halt
the enemy, no loss of life or
human suffering was to be
considered too great; guer-
rilla warfare, the most po-
tent expression of a people's
resistance to an invader was
to be organized.
"In areas occupied by the
enemy, guerrilla units,
mounted and on foot, must
be formed, diversionist
groups must be organized to
combat enemy troops, to
foment guerrilla warfare
everywhere."
The above quotation is
from "The Nazi War
Against Soviet Partisans,
1941-1944," authored by
Matthew Cooper and pub-
lished by Stein and Day.
The formation of a par-
tisan movement
encountered great diffi-
culties.- Chief among
them were the swift Ger-
man advances and the
antagonistic attitude of
the people towards
Communism and the
Soviet regime.
In addition, the partisan
units that had been formed
suffered from shortages of
food, lack of equipment,

/

poor organization, in-
adequate coordination and
communication with the
Russian general staff.
As a result of the food
shortages, "The guerrillas
had to raid villages to feed
themselves." In retaliation,
the villagers often betrayed
the partisans. This hap-
pened mostly in the Uk-
raine, Belorussia and
Crimea. In the last region,
the Tartars eagerly assisted
the Germans and welcomed
them as friends.
However, the attitude of
the people of the Moscow
region was most sympathe-
tic and friendly toward their
government and the war ef-
fort. Many joined the guer-
rillas and fought bravely for
their fatherland. Char-
acteristic is this story: "One,
an 18-year-old girl named
Zoya Kosmodemyonskaya,
was captured, tortured and
hanged by the Germans.
For her undoubted bravery,
she received the title of
`Hero of the Soviet Union,'
the highest award . . . be-
came a national heroine and
symbol of resistance for mil-,
lions of Russians."
Significant is the parti-
san pledge. It reads in
part:
"I, a citizen of the
Soviet Union, a true son
of the heroic Russian
people, swear that I will
not lay down my
weapons until the Fascist
serpent in our land has
been destroyed.
"I commit myself without
reservation to carry out the
orders of my commanders
and superiors, and to ob-
serve the strictest military
discipline. I swear to work a
terrible, merciless and un-
relenting revenge upon the
enemy for the burning of
our cities and villages, for
the murder of our children
and for the torture and at-
rocities committed against
our people.
"Blood for blood! Death
for Death!"

Incredibly, the German
"Ubermenschen," who
were greeted by the Uk-
rainians and Belorus-
sians as heroes and
liberators, instead of re-
ciprocating with kind-
ness and understanding
and taking advantage of
the warm feelings, con-
sidered these people as
"Untermenschen" and
treated them with
ruthlessness. Especially
brutal were Erich Koch,
reich commissar of the
Ukraine, and Wilhelm
Kube, general commissar
for Belorussia. Their dis-
like for the Slays was
matched -by the harsh-

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Luftwaffe had been consid-
erably weekened and in-
capable of counter-
attacking the partisans' air
attacks.
No wonder, the partisans'
effective attacks in the air
and on the ground alarmed
the Fuhrer, who issued this
directive:
"In recent months ban-
ditry in the East has as-
sumed intolerable propor-
tions and threatens to be-
come a serious danger to
supplies for the front and to
the economic exploitation of
the country.
"By the beginning of
winter these gangs must
be substantially extermi-
nated, so that order may
be restored behind the
Eastern front and severe
disadvantages to our
winter operations
avoided ... There must
be no German in this area
threatened by bandits
who is not engaged,
actively or passively, in
the fight against them."
"The author's concluding
remarks read:
"Success in the elimina-
tion of the partisan menace
was, however, to elude the
Germans; indeed, by their
measures, they actually
ensured the continuance
and development of the very
movement that they were
trying to destroy .. .
"Its very existence proved
the futility of German occu-
pation policy which squan-
dered the valuable potential
that lay in the East."
"The Nazi War Against
Soviet Partisans, 1941-
1944" is fully annotated,
contains a comprehensive
bibliography, numerous
appendices, and includes
impressive photographs
flawlessly reproduced.
The volume is a valuable
addition to the history of
World War II.
The author, Matthew
Cooper, also wrote "The
German Army, 1933-1945."

Haifa U. Research Team
Finds Ancient Roman Ship

HAIFA — Researchers were held together by
from the University of Hai- large mortices and te-
fa's Center for Maritime nons. Then, a series of
Studies have uncovered the thick ribs were placed
remains of a Roman com- close together and held to
mercial ship that they be- the inside of the hull with
lieve may have sunk some- nails. The lower portion
time during the First Cen- of the exterior of the hull
was sheathed with lead to
tury BCE.
The ship was discovered prevent destruction by
last spring off the harbor at woodborers.
It is Dr. Raban's belief
Caesarea during the
seventh -season of ar- that the best parallels in
cheological digs at the his- construction technique may
be found in other wrecks of
toric city. ,
the First Century BCE that
Although the cargo ap-
pears to have been removed have been discovered off the
around the time that the southern coast of France.
ship sank, a portion of one The Caesarea hull is the
side of the hull has sur- first well-preserved ancient
vived. The construction of hull to be found in Israel.
the ship, according to Dr.
Avner Raban, who heads
the Caesarea Ancient Har-
HAIFA — Henry Taub,
bor Excavation Project
(CAHEP), is similar to that founder of Automatic Data
of other early Greek and Processing Company
(ADP), has been awarded an
Roman ships.
According to Dr. Ra- honorary doctorate of sci-
ban, it is probably that ence and technology from
the hull was built first, the Technion-Israel In-
from stout planks that stitue of Technology.

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ness of their measures.
As a consequence of their
cruelties, many individuals
joined the partisan move-
ment and helped destroy the
enemy.
Even Joseph Goebbels,
reichminister of prop-
aganda and public
enlightenment, wrote that
the National Socialists be-
lieved that the Russians
were not a people but a con-
glomeration of animals. He
realized the seriousness of
the situation, as evidenced
by his March 1942 note in
his diary: "An SD report in-
formed me about the situa-
tion in Occupied Russia. It
is, after all, more unstable
than was generally as-
sumed. The partisan danger
is increasing week by
week."
During the year 1942, the
author notes, the partisan
attacks increased three-
fold. By December that
year, 130,000 guerrillas op-
erated in the forests and
swamps of European Rus-
sia.
Similarly, in 1943 the
partisans intensified
their attacks on the Ger-
man lines of communica-
tion. Sabotage attempts
on railways rose im-
mensely. "The ranks of
the movement swelled .. .
In Belorussia alone more
than 96,000 men and
women were recruited
. . . This was partly due to
Soviet material supre-
macy, both in the air and
on the ground, which had
become a feature of the
war."
Furthermore, the guerril-
las were equipped with the
most modern rifles,
machine guns and all kinds
of explosives. Also, the use
of radio strengthened the
partisans' "efficiency and
morale." In addition, air
power played a major part
in the guerrilla war against
the Germans in the years
1942-1944. By then the

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