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May 07, 1982 - Image 17

Resource type:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1982-05-07

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WSU History of Shaarey Zedek

(Continued from Page 16)
Shaarey Zedek play a role in
the cast of characters in this
volume. With Rabbi Irwin
Groner are recorded the
services of Rabbi A.M. Her-
shman, Rabbi Morris Adler,
Rabbi Judah L. Levin,
Rabbi A.M. Ashinsky and
the several who served as
associate rabbis.
Then there were the edu-
cational directors, and the
leaders in the various auxil-
iary synagogue organiza-
tions, especially the sister-
hood, whose presidents are
fully accounted for.
Of course, there were
e Hazzanim, and the
adorial art was the re-
spected in musical
-achievements always
encouraged by - the
Shaarey Zedek member-
ship included and continues
to take pride in educators,
public officials in city, state
and nation, Zionists in high
ranks, philanthrOpists who
continue leadership in na-
tional movements.
Because many of them
held high positions and

were magnetic forces in De-
troit Jewry, the names of
the presidents of Shaarey
Zedek belong in a review of
the synagogue's history on
its 120th anniversary. Here
is the total list:
Hiram Kraushaar, Har-
ris Solomon, Morris Men-
delsohn,- Reuben Mendel-
sohn, Aaron Simon, Louis
Blumberg, Alexander Tan-
nenholz, Manuel Herzberg,
Samuel N. Ginsberg,
William Saulson, David W.
Simons, Joseph Wetsman,
Louis Granet, Harry B.
Keidan, Maruice H. Zac-
kheim, Abraham Srere,
Robert Marwil, A. Louis
Gordon, Isaac Zhetzer, Mor-
ris H. Blumberg, Harry Co-
hen, Harry B. Shulman,
Charles Rubiner, Leonard
Sidlow, Hyman Safran,
Louis Berry, Abraham
Sato/sky, David M. Miro,
Samuel C. Kovan, Samuel
Krohn, Max Lichter, Robert
A. Steinberg, Harold Berry,
William M. Davidson,
Leonard E. Baron and the
current president Harvey L.
Every item in this his-

tory is an encouragement
to further study and re-
search, and every indi-
dent is matched by
noteworthy experiences.

With plans already in the
offing, also with the
encouragement of the
Wayne State University
Press, for the writing and
publishing of a history of
Detroit Jewry, this volume
should serve as another
encouragement in that di-
rection. In the history of
Temple Beth El, whence
Shaarey Zedek emerged in
the early membership's re-
jection of Reform tenden-
cies, written some four de-
cades ago by the late Irving
Katz, are the beginnings for
such a total history of De-
troit Jewry. The pioneering
efforts of Irving Katz are
recognized in the Temple
story, in the documenta-
tions possessed by Temple
Beth El, in the sources
which also contributed, as
Irving Katz legacies, to teh
Shaarey Zedek story. The
WSU Press volume thus
serves as an enrichment -in
these tasks.

Computers Stretch Israel's Water


lingering shadows of a late
Friday afternoon fall over
Kibutz Saad, a communal
farm in Israel's arid south.

The Saad settlers are ob-
servant Jews who do not
work on the Sabbath — and
this includes turning on and
off the water taps irrigating
acres of carrots, sugar beets
and other top-value crops.
The kibutzniks will go to
synagogue and pray and the
crops will be looked after
automatically by a highly-
sophisticated computer.
The electronically-
controlled sprinklers and
drip lines will continue to
deliver the precise amount
of water, sometimes mixed
with liquid fertilizers, at the
precise time needed, but not
before special sensors in the
field have gathered infor-
mation about wind direc-
tion and ground moisture.
Kibutz Saad's com-
puterized irrigation sys-
tem is an example of Is-
rael's continual search
for ways to wring the
maximum from the pre-
cious water supply in a
country currently using
95-100 percent of all
available water. And
while kibutz and other
farm settlements are sav-
ing between 10 percent
and 40 percent in water,
agricultural production
is benefitting too: farm
produce is the number
two export item for Is-
rael, after diamonds.
Irrigation technology is
the backbone of Israel's -ag-
ricultural success story. The
latest development is the
use of a master computer for
several kibutzim, pro-
grammed to optimize water
use on an hourly, daily,
monthly and even yearly
basis (in accordance with
the strict allocations of the

limited water supply).
An integral part of the
overall computer operation
is Israeli-developed drip ir-
rigation, fast appearing as
the farmer's best friend in
all parts of the globe.
Drip irrigation was origi-
nally developed in Israel in
the 1960s to confine water
application to individual
plant roots, the area where
itis needed most. By the end
of that decade, it was appar-
ent that the system had
revolutionized the growing
of grapes, bananas, cotton
and certain vegetables. To-
mato yields in settlements
like Kibutz Saad im-
mediately increased four-
fold with the drip system in
comparison with produce
watered by conventional
sprinkler systems.
Not only were losses
due to evaporation or
wind dramatically re-
duced, but plant leaves,
untouched by water,
were more resistant to
disease, and saline water
could be used for irriga-
The principle of the drip-
per is simple. Polyethylene
pipes are placed on the
grOund surface next to the
crop. The farmer inserts a
dripper for each plant into
the tubing and water is re-
leased regularly in droplets.
One of the biggest prob-
lems with drip systems is
clogging. Drippers must be
protected by fine filters at
the head of the supply lines
and special filters have been
developed to suit different
types of source water.
The more futuristic as-
pects of drip irrigation in-
clude "fertigation," inject-
ing liquid fertilizers into the
source water during irriga-
tion. This achieves better
growth and savings of up to
30 percent on fertilizers.
Computers controlling
drip irrigation and dis-

tribution of fertilizers are
currently being man-
ufactured in Israel. The
system for small farms
costs approximately
$2,500 and manufactur-
ers say that this invest-
ment is returned in one to
two seasons. A similar,
cheaper system, which
operates somewhat like a
pocket calculator, is also
available for private gar-
dens and is giving Is-
raelis green thumbs they
never had before.

But the farmer is the
biggest beneficiary of Is-
rael's high technology irri-
gation techniques. He can
sleep peacefully at night
knowing that the computer
is on guard, even calling
him from his bed in the
event, let's say, of a burst
line; by the time the farmer
puts his slippers on, how-
ever, the damaged line will
have been shut down and
another opened.
Scientists in Israel con-
tinue to study ways in
which computers can be
used to sense out as yet-
unknown factors in farm-
ing. They also want to know
how they can further
simplify procedures for
farmers lacking technologi-
cal backgrounds.
Simultaneously, drip ir-
rigation researchers are
looking into the feasibility
of using very thin
polyethylene pipes which
can be thrown away after
each season, a system which
has important implications
for large-scale field-raw
crops such as cotton and
With the problem of
shrinking water supplies
constantly looming over
every aspect of its daily life,
Israel has no choice but to
keep looking for better and
better means of exploiting
this vital resource.


Friday, May 1, 1982 11



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