Ancient Synagogues - in Eretz Israel 48-Friday, Cktfjber 8' 1971
By MOSHE 'RON
- Jewis h .News Special
- Israel 'Correspondent
TEL AVIV,---When ancient . Jew
synagogues are found in arch -
eological excavations, we receive
lively greetings from large 'Jewish
Settlements in Eretz Israel from
2,000 years ago:. --
This year, remnants of a mag-
nificenfisynagogue' were found in
the hills of Hebron, dating back
1;700 yeais. The area of their dis-
covery is called ."Ilurvat Sussia"
in a center where large Jewish
settlements were situated 3,000
years ago. ..__
Israeli archeologists . found
remnants of a majestic stone build-
ing, with marble pillars and. a
mosaic floor. This building, also
•contained,. ram's horns, a menora
and several-, Jewish symbols. .He-
bre*. writing can=-clearly be seen,
such 'as' "Shalom to Israel," and
the names of the Contributor's to
the building of the synagogue, as
well as the date when .the building
was started. It is the _ Brit time
a date has been discovered, in-
dicating when an. ancient syna-
gogue first began to..be built:
Now _the remnants of the an-
cient synagogue of Hurva Simla
have been carefully Collected and
examined and afterwards the
building will be reconstructed
and opened to visitors and tour-.
Forty years ago, in the .same
vicinity, in - the Arab village . of
Samoa, remnants of another- an-
cient synagogue were found. In
the Bible, this place is called Ash-
tanwa, . which was a town of the
Two professors at the Hebrew
UniVersity found the Samoa Syna
gogue by chance. The *remnants
-were among a. big -block 'of build-
ings around the Moslem mosque.
For 20 years Jews were not -al-
lowed to visit this place. It was
'by. Jordanian forces in
- Only after the Six-Day War
did Jewish archeologists and his-
torians visit the place, starting to
search for old - Jewish settlements.
They found remnants of the syna- 2:00 years, hal been `.found in
• gogue which was called -Carmel" Meron. near Sated, near the graves
in the- Bible. King David married of Rabbi _Shimon Bar Yohai and
Abigail the Carmelite there. Lat.; his son, Eliezer. Here tens of
ter • -a Byzantine church was built thousands of Jews assemble every
in this place. 1,400 years ago. At year, from all over .the country,
a distance of five. kilometers,from on Lag b'Omer. Also at Gush
here another ancient JeWish set- Halav, in Upper Galilee, a syna-
tlement was situated, called gogue was found from the period
"Maon" in the Bible.
of the Second Temple. Another
•The ancient synagogues are
spread all over the country. One
of them was found in Kibutz
Belt Alfa, in Emek Jezreet, in
1927, when a' water pipe was
laid in the Mutt.: The mosaics
of- the magnificent ancient syna- .
gogue. show .the ';symbols • of the
12 months of the year,- It 'was
reconstructed;`- and hundreds of
thousands of - tourists have al-
ready visited the .place.
Remnants of two other ancient
synagogues were found--the vic-
inity of Hamat Tiberias. They have
beautiful colored.• mosaics and He-
brew writing. In , one - of- the .sym-
bols of the •12 months _there is a
synagogue was reconstructed at .
Orf the eastern shore of Lake
Kinneret, remnants- of some an-
cient synagogues were detected,
at El Hama (formerly Ramat
Gader), which is situated near
the Yarmuk River. Others are' in
THE DETROIT JR,R3/1 NEWS
- By_DR: STEPHEN- S. WISE
Becausi I am a Jew, R was Abraham, shatterer of idols:1 - -
Because I am a Jew, I was Moses, Challenger of justice, pursuing Icings.
Because I am a Jew, .I was. Elijah, destroyer of the Bag
Because I am a Jew, I was Isaiah, drenmer of . a ,tvarless _world;
Because I am a Jew, I was Amos, etuwter_ of- justice front nun to man.
Because I am a Jew, I was Ezra, bringer backiront_ exile of -God's people.
Because I am a Jew, I was the Maccabean warrior for Israel's,tinfettered
Because I am a Jew, 1 was Bar Kochba; terrible;- thougli vain awakener
of my people.
Because I am a Jew, throtegh medieval centuries of darkness I held aloft •
the torch of light and= reason, passing' through she flaming terror
of the Inquisition without fear.-
Because I am a Jew, I was Spinoza, tratkrevealeraf the modern world.
Because I am a Jew, I was Mendelssohn, conciliator:between:the -Ghetto..
and the world without:
Because I am a "Jew, I was Theodor Hers!, insistent upon the Jew's
right and duty of self-deterininattom
Because L am a Jew, 'I must stiffer wrong withoutAoratli; I must do -
justice. and be more than a mange forbalronce to
of man in greatness of ail before God and man.
Hirbat Banif and Hirbat Diba,
places which were in Syrian hands
until the 1967 war.
Synagogues dating back 1,000
or 1,700 years are being excavated
in the Golan Heights. There are
Hebrew writings on atones which
prove that they derive from the
ancient synagogue of Rabbi Elie-
zer Hakapor in the 6th Century.
mistake in the -Hebreiv writing, - Other synagoguei were found
which shows that thesartisans who in the Judean Desert and in Jeri-
made the mosaic were. - not -Jews cho, and even on
but Greeks: The synagogue was the last remnants of Jewish fight-
ers resisted the Boman Legions
built 1,400:years :ago.
An ancient Synagogue was about 2,000 years ago.
By S. J. GOLDSMITH
imdertailiig:. of - research land
found by - accident a year ago in
Another ancient synagogue
, pubileation.-.Tkere will hi
(COpyright 7.971, .ITA. Sue.)
was discovered at Ein Gedi dear
Belt She'an. When :a fatality of
LONDON—The future Volunies tat ORS *Mien in•-Eaglish-ind
the Dead Sea. In Qunitan, where
new immigrants- wished to plant
of the letters and papers Of Chaim- as- many
• a garden- around its. house, it
the sect of Jewish hermits were Weizmann will .13e printed in
.- . . .1Weentenaty
of Weiz - •
living, remnants of their vil- reel, Meyer WeLsgal, cliairinan:Of
found remnants of a mosaic
-19'.14-5.- (He :leas •
lage, a ritual bath _add 'bidden Tad Chaim Weizniann, general :born r: in" :-November
floor. it contained Hebrew
megilot, a synagogue and other editor of the Weizmann: letteri Audi erideiniiii_telaVe
.names of the contributors to the
Jewish remnants" were found.- be and papers and chancellor of ; the in English. and.,
building of the :synagogue. The
22 in Hetirew- for
house was - tore' down
the . Jericho, famous" from - biblical Weizmann Institute, stated here. the centenary." Weisgal said.
times for its conquest by Joshua
authorities, and-, the family • was
While visiting this countrycWeis-
transferred to another building.; and where Itahav, the prostitute gal said in an interview with the
Now excavations. . are taking . lived, a mosaic flail. ..was -found
place . to . find the whole syna- ._with' Hebrew writing "Peace to
imin;:autotilOgraPhy- -which „
"As you know, the first two, is."nost Teady;;-:It-:bears - the title
gogue. In Belt She'an, - a litemae.
letters: IdeyerWelsgal:': ;
amphitheater - with 5,000 -seats • .
In 1965, the Egyptians found the volumes of the
papers were printed in:-this "ivill:eppear in- Ilebriw and English,
also • was found.• The synagogue : ruins ofa building, near the sea
in -both-eases published-bp Weiden-. -
bad been built in. the 5th or
shore in. Gaza, with •many mosaic
.floors. The first thought these print the red'. of the 'Mantes:fin feld and-Eleolsozz.: • . •
7Israel, -where-the standard of print,
Remnants of many ancient skita-, were the remnants of an ancient ing and book production can Mitch
- date :of the Re- =
gogues 'were found - in-.. Galilee.. church. But a. professor at the He-
brewnersioiallitritel is the end ,
They prove that Jewish commu- brew University in Jerusalem, Mi- anything 'the West can - offer - 1441as of 13t4Obery of‘thelliiglish ver- -
nities- have lived 'here for 'hundreds "chael Abi-Jona, identified them
sise,,ie.,-Landow;,140v. - 15. Ran-
from photos published in an arch- 'the future volumes will also lip-,
of years after the destruction
, iffiaii -101111irrthE :out a!‘
eological journal, as Parts of an pear - under the imprimatur of the Ameeimii:.: Widen 411 ,• February
the Second Temple.
rsity Pima.. All these
Another 'synagogue, dating -back ancient synagogue. There were Changes
names in Hebrew writing of the
contributors to the mosaic works, tions ind're-casting of:plats. This_
TIM Sintalitnitrigitwill - be Serial-
is what brought me here..."
like David, etc.
Weisgar said the'- printing of - the
After the Six-Day War, Jewish
compelled to serve in -alChristian
• Joseph II's main' aim was to found remnants of a synagogue inconsiderable econonlic, gain
,writer land journalist, .executive :
Israel.: "It is estimated that be- vice chairman of Yid-Chaim Weis-
turn the- Jews
I : "useful .eiti- - dating back to 430-440 BCE..
These ancient- synagogues prove tween now and the end the mann. and men -
zens." - His refOrm was criticized
lent editor' of the -
by Catholics, but also by_ ortho- the historic contacts and links project, the outlay will be In r:the Weizinititit.lettercited Me-114 also
dox rabbis who. feared that - mill.; between the Jewish people and neighborhood- of 10,000,000 lain-
mie,inisit;--told., the ..ITA . that
tary• services and the•attendance- their old-new homeland of Eretz eli pounds, and it will ..ptebabli he luid•eonie toLjailit: Weisgal and - `
of Jews. at public . 'schools and - Israel. They prove the historical turn out to be more, to judge
teParticipate -jethe'various Rego-
liatigies; that 4re: being. -conducted .1
Universities would increase as - claim of the. People of Israel to the previous experience," he said.
in- connection-:With.,the project. •
similation and irreligioumiess.
The publicationOf Hugo Golds.
Weisgai told the JTA
Two New Books on Austria.
By JOSEPH. FRAENKEL
"The Revolutionary Empelor: Joseph li
or Austria: by Saul K. Pa ddddd -(Eyre
& Spottlswoode, London).
.Gesehlehte der Judea In Oesterreleh.”
by Hugo Gold (Moments, Tel Aviv)
Former Detroiter Saul K. Pad-
over left Europe in 1920, at age 15.
In America, he became professor
of political science and, lecturer at
various universities. As an histor-
z, ian, he has published about 15
books and one of the- first, in 1934,
was "Revolutionary Emperor: Jo-
seph II of Austria" which, revised, book coincides with
the _celebration .Five
has how been published in London. of his 75th birthdayas.
The mother of Joseph H, Em- 50 Yeats of activity • as editor' and
'-press -Maria Theresa (1740-1780), publisher in Bruenn, Prague `'and
hated the Protestants and detested Tel Aviv..His books deal"with' the
the Jews, thus winning the appro- history' of Jewish communities in
bation of both Catholics and anti- Moravia, Bratislava and Czecho-
Semites.. Her son revolted against slovakia and . are today most use-
the system of her government_ be- ful reference ..works..
.z . ..
coming the "Revolutionary Em-
"Geschichte der Judenin 0 e - ster,
peror" (1780.1790): As . crown reich,". illustrated, 7. consists of ar-
prince, he toured the Empire, later tides •bY various writers on Vienna
introducing reforms- to better con- and other towns in Austria,'
ditions for his people, in particular names of scholars, journalists . and
the sad life of the peasants. - "doctorS" as well as of Jews-from
In the biography of Joseph II, Austria- now living- in. and- outside
Padover also mentions Emperor of -Austria. - It is difficult :to -under=
Joseph's policy toward the Jews. stand why some are mentioned and
He abolished the Jew-badge and others not.-It looks as though some
repealed the .!`body-tax Which Jews people..have exaggeratedjheir own
had to pay for existing." -
"i m portance:"; One: who •. published
In his "Toleration. Patent for a - letter - to.. the editor describes
'Jews" (Jan. 2, 1782) Jews in Lower Himself as a "contributor" to var,
Austria were allowed to send their i ous papets, or because he. Wei - a
children to public schools and to member of •a•society, claims to. he
attend higher schools to practice the "founder."
arts and crafts, to dress "like
Hugo Gold is still: busy as editor
• gentlemen" and even to carry of, the Zeitschriff der Gesehichte
swords. Similar _patents were is- der Juden, and it is'. hoped that
sued for Jews in Bohemia, Mora- his publishing, -house - "Olamenu",
via and Galicia.
will continue to produce 'books
Preschool-age children are shown 'learning
Jews were liable for military about the 'Jews - and. Jewish_oam- elementary- Hebw
re it , one of the kindergartens
service. "For the -first time in his- munities''
the .. former Auso-
supported -by the :Joint Dbstributiop Committee in
tory," writes-Padover, "Jews were Hungarian empire.
Casablanca, Morocco, with United Jewish Appeal
funds. Gioia to.2,40,74104iiii - frozia 41/2- to Ryears
of , age -.hinre :gained. sometkeawledge of Hebrew
*Flog - the- le Pius that 'the program hai been