14—Friday, January 13, 1967
Bulgarian Jews Publish
Yearbook With Calendar
• THE DETROIT JEWISH HEWS
Kibbutz 'Manager's Manager' Explores New.Lo ok of Society
Back home, the U. of M. visit-
ing . scholar heads the training
center for executives of 225
kibbutzim, a co-operative effort
with the blessing -and assistance
of the Israel Ministry of Agri-
culture's extension service. .
He added: "Now we send our
experts to Yugoslavia to teach
them how to increase their yield
But Nir David's fastest-growing
"crop" is its industry. As the farm-
Golomb was explicit in his rea- ing becomes increasingly mechan-
sons for wanting to study at the
Michigan university: research in
the field of management being
done at the institute will be of
assistance for a book he plans to
write on kibbutz management.
The university's interest in Go-
lomb, is not surprising; the unique
problems of the kibbutz — both
economic and social — make it a
natural for academic study.
And so Golomb, his wife Cila
and youngest daughter — he has
three children . --- -find themselves
in the midst of a cold Michigan
-winter and a warm university 're-
In almost - the same breath,
Golomb longed out loud for the
hot, dry climate of his home kib-"
butz, Nir David, and enthused
over the kindness shown to him
by his Ann Arbor hosts, who have
accorded him "all the -courtesies
of a visiting professor."
ized—"We use computers to make
our long-range planning" — more
and more kibbutz members must
find other work to do.
Unlike the United States, which
faced the crisis of overproduction
ago, Israel's kibbutzim are
not chasing farm refugees to the
cities. Instead, they create indus-
tries for the express purpose of
Nir David now has two success-
ful plants, one the largest lawn
mower factory in Israel and the
other a tube plastics plant.
"Actually, the economic crisis
has affected us very little," Golomb
said. "Our structure is built-in."
Indeed, there are reports out
of Israel that the kibbutzim are
purchasing old, established pri-
vate enterprises which are suc-
cumbing to the crisis.
Today, Nir David is 60 per cent
agriculture and 40 per cent in-
dustry. Golomb said that "in 10
,years, the kibbutz will be industry-
farm, not farm-industry." .
The problems it has created are
numerous. One of them is the old-
guard pioneers, who are fighting
what they consider to be a prosti-
tution of the original ideals of
Golomb, 52,- a second-genera-
tion Israeli with the rugged
features of a man born to the
outdoors, admits he is far from
in educational back-
ground. "I'm, how you call it, a
His was the kibbutz education— kibbutz life.
The "modification of values"
with a few extras. Barely out of
high school, he and a hardy group does not trouble the young ones,
from Hashomer Hatzair founded however. In their own "community
Nir David in the Beisan Valley,
near the River Jordan. It was the
epoch of "Migdal v'Homa"—Tower
and Wail—when a settlement had
to be built in one • day, or not at
of children," patterned after the
kibbutz, 250 youngsters find little
time to be in trouble, he said.
Besides schoolwork, they have
social and cultural activity and
BY HENRY LEONARD
SCOTL A N YA R D
SOFIA (JTA) — The Cultural
and Educational Association of
directors of the Regional Center
Jews in Bulgaria has -published a
of Cooperative Factories in
yearbook,. a Large volume contain-
ing considerable material on Bul-
He- has taken many courses in
scouting; those of age work for
BY CHARLOTTE HYAMS
three hours on the farm. They
"Back to- the soil!" they pledged fall to attack.
They called it Nir (Furrow) have their own committees to
50 years ago. And back to the soil
they went, these young idealists David for David Wolfssohn, the make their own decisions.
Pointing out that jails and
from Eastern Europe, who founded Zionist leader.
police are unheard-of on the kib-
in Palestine a way of life — the
Nir David not only survived, it
butz, Golomb said, "We have no
prospered. Thirty years later, the
If the social ideals are still 330-member settlement boasts cash delinquency problems. Every
child has an opportunity, and
basic to the kib-
crops like cotton, sugar beets and
none is isolated. If he has dif-
potatoes ("That's my son's spe-
ficulties with school work, he
cialty"); plantation crops: olive
gets special help. His higher edu-
trees, table grapes, dates and
hurting. And it
grapefruit; cereals, including cation is free. Most important
is the education of values."
will suffer still
wheat, barley and forage; cattle,
Golomb sees no difficulty in
more in the
turkeys (500 tons yearly) and
separation of children and
parents. "In modern societies
The kibbutz is
(Golomb laughs now about
throughout the world, children
the near '- international incident
and parents are rarely together."
To study just
that arose with the "planting"
That the kibbutz society of chil-
how . big it is,
of Israel's first fish farm in Is- -
dren has its effect is proved - when
the University of
rael during World War IL Plans
Michigan's Institute. for Social Re- for the Nir David farm were they reach the age of 18 and can
search has invited Naphtali Gol- coming from a iarosperaus carp elect to become members. "We
omb,. director of the Kibbutz Man- fishery in Nazi-held Yugoslavia. have the highest rate of children
agers Seminar in Israel, to tell "It took monthS to convince the who remain," he said. On the
them about it for the next 12 troops guarding our borders that average, 70 per cent of second-
generation Israelis voluntarily elect
the plans were not for a secret
all, for the Arabs waited till night-
management and taught ari equal
number, some of them through the
faculty of agriculture of the He-
brew University. His articles in
the field are numerous.
'Under Golomb's directorship,
the kibbutz management center
was founded foil'. years ago in the
Rupin Institute of Agriculture. Its
students, top executives and super-
visors of kibbutzim throughout the
all shades of
political hue, from Mapam (Nir
David's orientation) to religious.
There is little room for politics,
however, in getting in the crops;
nor is there any patience for the
intolerant. Denying that the kib-
butz has become a "closed society,"
Golomb said that there is too
much work to be done to turn
away those who desire to settle.
to stay; the percentage at Nir
David is 86 per cent.
When the peculiar problem of
"intermarriage" arises, the ques-
tion is worked out amicably. Inter-
marriage,' it must be explained,
means the union between children
of kibbutz and city, or two differ-
The custom for the latter case
is a six-month trial period on each
kibbutz before the couple decides
where to spend the rest of their
The lure of industrialized cities
that drew America's -youngsters
from the farm has little effect on
the kibbutz. In fact, "The aged
people, the one-time pioneers, pre-
fer to work in the plants; our
young people—the second genera-
tion—prefer to work on the farm!"
What if the young adult shows
the aptitude and desire for
higher education? "In the past,
we weren't so tolerant of such
young people. Now we are start-
ing to send them to the univer-
sity." For the first time, five
kibbutz boys are being trained,
with communal funds, at medical
school, he said, adding "Nov we
can afford it."
A far cry from the old days, a
modern kibbutz is able to send
its members on vacation. Nir David
owns shares in a residential hotel
near Natanya, on the -:Mediter-
But should a member decide to
"stay home" for his vacation, he
has a library, theater and stage
groups, art classes to entertain
him. Many merely seek out the
diversion of a different job. _
Golomb suspects that on his sab-
batical, he will take off from the
lecture platform and go to work
farming cereal grains. "That's my
specialty," he said. His wife, a
teacher of humanities, may pos-
sibly take a jab in the kitchen.
"It's a splendid opportunity to
Golomb is not above pitching in
to harvest a crop, even if he does
have a long list of executive cred-
its, both on and off his kibbutz.
After spending a year or-
ganizing the "illegal" immigra-
East countries in 1943-44, he
East countries in 1943-44, he
served in management capaci-
ties at Nir David, as adviser to
kibbutz settlements on economic
and management problems and
as a member of the board of
"They need only prove them-
selves by their devotion to work."
(Golomb will address a meet-
ing of American for Progressive
Israel—Hashomer Hatzair 8:30
p.m. Saturday at the Labor
Zionist Institute. His topic will
be "The Kibbutz: Untraditional
Approach to Modern society.)
garian Jewry, in addition to the
usual calendar material.
Entitled "Godishnik," the year-
book carries an introduction writ-
ten by Dr. Yossef Ostrukov, the as-
sociation chairman. The preface
was prepared by Prof. Jacques Na-
than, a Jewish member of the Bul-
garian Academy of Sciences.
Essays in the yearbook deal -
with the history of Bulgarian
Jews, Jewish economics in the
Balkans in the 16th and 17th
Centuries, the fate of Bulgarian.
Jews during World War II, and
statements about Jews by Bul-
Summaries in English, French
and Spanish are included with - an
_ that Bulgarian is not
outside of Bul-
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213 Brazilian Jews Settle
in Israel in '66; Most Stay
"And today we are trying to solve the greatest
baffler of all time: 'The Case of the
RIO DE JANERIO (JTA) —A
total of 213 Brazilian Jews settled
in Israel during- 1966, according to
figures issued here by the im-
migration office of the Zionist Or-
ganization of Brazil. The number
of Brazilian Jews who returned to
this country during the year after
settling in Israel was less than 10
per cent of the immigration total.
A group of 31 Brazilian Jews
along with 70 Jews from Argentina
and Uruguay left to settle in Israel
last week abord the Israeli liner
Theodor Herz'. — --
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