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August 12, 1966 - Image 2

Resource type:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1966-08-12

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Purely Commentary

By Philip Jewish Journalists
Slomovitz Meet In Brussels

Polish Milienium Anniversary
Points to Historic Conflict

Polish History and the Jewish Tragedy

Artistic Calendars for 5727

On the occasion of the observance of the 1000th anniversary of the
establishment of the Church in Poland, the U. S. Post Office Depart-
ment is issuing a special stamp. Poland's Communist regime has
threatened to reject mail bearing the
commemorative stamp about the Christian
millenium in their country. There are to
be 15,000,000 such stamps in production
and the U. S. Post Office has refused to
change the design after the Communist
protest that the portrayed eagle is pre-
World War instead of the post-war Corn-
munist emblem. U. S. Ambassador to Po-
land John A. Gronouski has stated that the,,
reported protests are "still in the rumor
stage." Nevertheless, the issue has been
. It serves to call attention to the Polish
millenium anniversary which has in it-
self created conflicts between the Cath-
olic and the Communist elements. It also
is an occasion to evaluate the Jewish posi-
tion in Poland..
Jews have lived in Poland for more than
the 1,000 years of the current millenial
celebration. During the period of so-called
paganism, before the Christian era in
Poland, Jews settled there in large num-
bers. Under Christian rule the persecu-
tions were periodic and the anti-Semitic
occurrences were so numerous that the
Polish chronicles are filled with stories ...
of atrocities.
Under. Nazism there were so many instances of collaboration by
Poles in cruelties imposed on Jews- that the Polish record is a bad one.
Reference is made to the Polish anti-Semitic trends in "A History
of Modern Poland—From the Foundations of the State in World War
I to the Present day" by Hans Roos, in a translation by J. R. Foster,
published by Knopf. Describing post-World War I conditions, Roos
points out "The . Jewish community had a relatively well-developed
system of religious and cultural self-government, but in the whole of
western and central Poland it was subjected to an economic boycott
by the Endecja." •
The author could have gone into greater detail in describing the
wave of pogroms, in Kielce and other Polish communities. That
record is one of the most damaging to Poland's attitude toward Jews.
There are details, however, about the Hitler era in Poland. Dealing
with the "Incorporater Eastern Regions" during the initial Nazi efforts
of Germanizing all of Poland, Roos states:
"According to Polish calculations, the population of the west
Polish region (including Danzig, Lodz, Poznan) as a whole consisted
of 9,221,000 Polish-speaking persons, 622,000 who spoke German,
582,000 who spoke Hebrew or Yiddish and 71,000 who spoke Czech; the
figures arrived at by the Germans were '7,864,000 Poles, 559,000 Jews
and 161,000 other non-Germans."
Then, with reference to "Incorporated Eastern Territories," Roos
points out: "The Government General, which according to Polish
sources contained in autumn 1939 about 9,863,000 Poles, 61,000 Ger-
mans, 1,225,000 Jews and 357,000 Ukrainians and - Ruthenian, was
given a colonial-type government under Governor-General Hans Frank,
in accordance with the basic decree of Oct. 26, 1939,. and divided into
the four 'districts' of Warsaw, Cracow, Radom and Lublin . .".'
It is On the question of resistance to Nazism that Roos has his
most interesting reference to Polish Jewry. He states:
"Probably the strongest impulse to resist was provoked by
the physical destruction of Polish Jews; this began in the middle
of the • Polish Republic, who from 1939 onwards had been shut up
together in numerous ghettos—the biggest were in Warsaw, Lodz,
Cracow, Lublin, Czestochowa, Kielce, Lwow and Vilna—and com-
pelled, to work for the Germans in inhuman conditions, were able
to offer little resistance when they were shipped off to be exter-
minated at Auschwitz, Treblinka or Belzec. It was only when the
transportation to the death camps became a mass affair, when the
daily quota for deportation from the Warsaw ghetto rose in
October 1942 to about 10,000, that a specifically Jewish fighting
organization came into being. The Polish resistance movement
helped it by providing weapons and by carrying out diversiary
activities. After some 3130,000 of the 360,000 inhabitants of the
Warsaw ghetto had been murdered at Treblinka the Jewish combat
groups staged a desperate uprising between April 9 and May 16,
1943, against the German police troops and those in the service
of the Germans. From the start it was doomed to failure. Similar,
smaller revolts in Bialystok and Vilna in September 1943 also
failed. The losses suffered during the war by the Jews of Poland,
who numbered about 3,500,000 in August 1939, were reckoned by
Jewish authorities at between 2,350,000 and 3,000,000 persons,
and there can be no doubt that the figure was at least 2,500,000.
This policy of mass extermination made a deep impression on the
Polish inhabitants of the Republic, Although anti-Semitism, wide-
spread before the war, had by no means completely disappeared,
the methods of the SS were universally regarded as abominable.
Moreover, certain utterances of the Governor-General and of senior
SS officers led the Poles to fear that after the Jews had been 'ex-
terminated they themselves might suffer partial liquidation and
would in any case certainly be deported in large numbers."
It is regrettable that a history otherwise so well compiled should
have only a partial story about the Jews in Poland. The facts are that
there was very little assistance to the Jews who resisted: that Poles
resorted to blackmail in turning over Jews to Nazis; that there was
hindrance. The fact is that anti-Semitism did not decline and that even
now, with less than 25,000 Jews left in Poland out of a total pre-war
population of—as indicated by Roos—of 3,500,000—there are expres-
sions of hatred. And the complete lack of data in the book about the
outrageous wave of progroms that took place in Polish cities certainly
does not make it a complete history. This is regrettable about a book
so well written, about an otherwise evidently earnest effort to compile
historic facts.

Rosh Hashana again will bring an avalanche of calendars. There
will be the routine publications issued by national organizations and
commercial products. The most impressive to be attained usually come
from Israel. The Jewish National Fund annually issues an impressive
brochure with the year's dates, Bible readings and basic Jewish facts.
As in the past years, one of the most artistic calendars is the one
available from the National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods. Choos-
ing Morton Garchik as the artist, Art Calendar 5727 contains a series of
his woodcuts. They form a unique collection of genuine art works and
they enhance the calendar. The drawing "From Hasidic Tales" is
especially impressive. "Motel-Springtime" and- "The Young Scholar"
are delightful and imaginative. The women in Reform congregations
who acquire this calendar will find great satisfaction in its illustrations.
The 5727 calendar has additional features. It contains excerpts
from the religious service "Here I Am, Hineini," and appended are
the text of Psalm 15 and excerpts from Psalm 19. Thus in appearance
and content the new NFTS calendar is a most welcome addition to
the New Year calendars.

2 — Friday, August 12, 1966

BRUSSELS, (JTA)—An inter-
national conference of Jewish
journalists took place here par-
allel with the World Jewish Con-
gress assembly which is being
held here. The position of the
Jewish press in various coun-
tries was discussed by the parti-

Attending the conference- were
journalists from eight countries,
including the United States, Eng-
land, West Germany and Israel.
The opening address was deliv-
ered by Philip Slomovitz, editor
and publisher of The Detroit
Jewish News, who was a delegate
to the WJC assembly. Slomovitz
is also a vice-president of the
Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

Jewish Parliament in Action in Brussels

deportation to the death camps, the world is possible. Those_ of
• Continued from Page 1 •
some painful problems affecting was an indication of a determina- us who were at the plenary in
Israel-Diaspora relations—didn't tion to remember. But when repar- Stockholm seven years ago missed
that, too, reflect a tragic lack ations payments were spoken of the presence of a delegation from
of knowledge about basic Jewish as an act of German kindness, Poland. We differed with them
a sense of hurt was injected. Were then, and we surely would have
needs both in Israel and outside
we paid off with reparations, or argued with them over Jewish pol-
World Jewish Congress sessions, were they repayment for burglar- icies now, but it would have been
who were well to have another Iron Curtain
like those in Stockholm seven ies from the millions
country represented at a gather-
years ago, like sessions of Jew- exterminated?
There has been "dialogue," there ing of what has become "the Jew-
ish movements on a smaller scale
elSewhere, always end, as they is and there will be "dialogues," ish Parliament."
Dr. Goldmann and other spokes-
should, in expressions of mutual but they must not be at the ex-
accord. But there still is a groping pense of the innermost Jewish feel- men emphasized that Jews now
in the dark. Conferences always ings. Whatever we do, our dignity live in an area of freedom. There
was reaffirmation of the need
end with decisions to convene must be maintained.
* * *
still to be on guard against
other conferences. Resolutions are
meaty and serious, commissions
Why ten days of talks, talks, emerging hatreds, but that anti-
are set up to "study" problems, talks? Perhaps the Congress can Semitism was no longer a major
to allocate funds for research, to and should be cut to half. But subject for discussion. Yet, on Fri-
seek new roads to trek towards en- there are so many communities day morning, delegates arriving
lightenment. Can these objectives to be heard from, so many people for the sessions were confronted,
of eminence to be listened to! on one of the pillars at the en-
be accomplished? -
at the sessions that just con- trance to Congress hall, by a scrib-
One must not leave such im-
delegates were in an area bled message that was illustrated
portant sessions in despair. The
with a swastika and read: "Free
speeches—so many of them so where it rains 285 out of the 365
Europe of the Jewish people." On
useless!—had to be uttered. Dele- days in the year. Rain is called
the steps of the Palais des Congress
gations had to be heard from. the national dish here. Often the was another swastika with a slo-
This Congress was so significant
gan "Kill the Jews."
in the sense of its global repre- an avenue of escape from rain—
There are delegates here who

fears regarding anti-Sem-
so many notables in Jewish life
from all areas of Jewish activity, There were, however, many decla- itic demonstrations in their coun-
Canadian, for instance,
from so many diverse factions, rations by men whose appearance tries. A
as Dr. Gerstenmaier did
that it was, truly,
address earlier dur-
liament. But until such time as
each community is able to awaken courageous statement from the ing the German-Jewish
its own constituents to action lead- delegate from India, who told of that only delinquents are respon-
sible for vandalism. Nevertheless,
ing to solutions in each individual the devotion of his fellow Jews
many recent occasions, leading
sphere, there may not be solution
in Quebec found it
on the international scale. The
necessary to repudiate anti-Semi-
world scene will be as strong as now look forward to a return to
the separate communities. On the the ancient Land of Israel. The tism and correspondents to
world front, in matters involving
writer to the Montreal Star on July
Soviet-Jewish and German-Jewish
25, that "many symbols of Nazism
relations, the World Jewish Con- they were couched in terms to
appear on bikes, cars, etc." So—
gress retains the strongest hold conform with the policies of their
the anti-Semitic menace still exists
on Jewish life. Dr. Nahum Gold-
and will demand attention from
mann, who has a dominant hold nevertheless were indications that
on world Jewish affairs, has firm a greater unity of the Jewries of responsible Jewish bodies.

■ ■
ideas about the Russian attitude.

He pooh-poohs the claim of exter-
nal anti-Semitism in Russia. He
Boris Smolar's
seems to be influenced by a view
that better relations are possible in
the near future. His view is being
adhered to. It sounds like a logical
approach, in spite of some of the
protests that not nearly enough
has been done and said to con-
(Copyright, 1966, JTA, Inc.)
demn the alleged anti-Jewish Rus-
sian policies.
THE HOME FRONT: A new political entity with anti-Semitic
There is a difference of opinion overtones is now emerging on the American scene . . It is the
on the German question. Once Patriotic Party, founded last month at a two-day organizational con-
again, Dr. Goldmann is the vic- ference in Kansas City, Mo.' . . . The national chairman of the new
tor in the matter involving his party is Robert B. DePugh, a drug manufacturer from Norbone,
proposed "dialogue." It is diffi- . . . About 400 delegates from conservative elements in 47 states are
cult, nigh impossible, to refuse to said to have attended the Kansas City convention . . . Mr. DePugh
confer with the Germans. Dr. urged them to return home and enlist the 27,000,000 Americans who
Goldmann is right: we have been voted for Goldwater in the cause of organizing the party . . . The
doing it for 14 years (since the immediate objective of the new party is to run candidates for Con-
commencement of reparations). gress and state offices by 1968 . . In the meantime, members of
But: did that call for a demonstra- the Patriotic Party are urged to work within the Democratic and
tion for him and for Dr. Eugen Republican parties this year, without disclosing their identity .
Gerstenmaier, the president of the So far, the new organization is being financed by the 'Minutemen
German Federal Republic, after organization and has been described by Mr. DeUugh as an extension
the latter's speech, in the wake of of the Minutemen, having a political and militant underground arm
the review of the horrors that
. . Meanwhile two-thirds of the almost 400 delegates who attended
were perpetrated by the Germans? the Kansas City gathering joined the Patriotic Party on the spot and
Dr. Goldmann, like his critics, paid the $5.00 annual dues . . The delegates represented 30 ultra-
added emphasis to the solemn dec- conservative organizations, some of them anti-Semitic ... A featured
larations that we can never forget, speaker was Kenneth Goff of Denver, one-time disciple of Gerald L.
never forgive! He even went so K. Smith and a veteran anti-Semite who organized and now leads the
far as to emphasize, in proof of militant Soldiers of the Cross . . . Some speakers suggested that the
his no-forgetting-no-forgiving posi- new party call itself the Christian Patriotic Party • . . State chairmen
tion, that the memorial gathering were elected for 43 states and regional conventions are planned for
on Sunday morning at the Malines, this month . . . They will be held in New York, Birmingham, Des
where 25,000 Belgian Jews were Moines, Dallas, Phoenix and Portland . . The temporary national
THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS brought together by the Nazis for headquarters of the new party is in Independence ) Mo.





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