Manasseh Ben Israel He Opened the Gates Tel Aviv Hit by Transit Strike;
1,500 Workers Protest Firing
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This cartoon is reproduced from "A Picture Parade of Jewish History" by Morris Epstein,
published by Shengold Publishers, New York by special arrangement with the authors and publishers.
Dr. Epstein's accompanying ex-
planatory essay on Menasseh Ben
Jewish settlement in England
began in the 11th Century, when
William the Conqueror crossed
from France to establish Norman
rule over Great Britain. Jews paid
heavy taxes to the royal treasury
and were protected by the king
when it was in his interest to do
so. By the end of the 13th Cen-
tury, impoverished and persecuted,
they were -no longer useful to
the throne and, on Nov. 30, 1290,
the entire community of 16,000
souls was forced to take the lonely
road of exile.
For the next 350 years there
was no Jewish community in Eng-
land. There were some Portuguese
Marranos, but they did not live
openly as Jews. Then a combina-
tion of circumstances and t h e
mystic views of a Sephardic Jew
helped open the gates of England.
In the 16th Century, England
broke with the Catholic Church.
At the same time, in nearby Hol-
land, Jews who had escaped from
the Inquisition had enriched the
economy- of the Netherlands. In
1642 the Bible-loving Puritans re-
belled against the British throne.
These facts helped set the stage.
Now someone was needed to play
the leading role.
That someone was Manasseh
ben Israel, a Lisbon-born rabbi
who, at 18, was appointed spiritual
leader of Neveh Shalom Congre-
gation in Amsterdam. A man of
many interests, he became a
printer and published his o w n
One of his books was "The Hope
of Israel," in which he developed
the strange theory that the Ameri-
can Indians were the Ten Lost
Tribes of Israel. Learned Chris-
tians hailed Manasseh's notion.
Many believed that the Messiah
would come only after the Jews
had been widely scattered. Since
England seemed to be the only
place where there were no Jews,
Manasseh was encouraged to dis-
cuss the matter with Britain's
Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell.
Manasseh arrived in London in
1655 and presented a petition to
Cromwell, who proceeded to con-
vene a conference at Whitehall
to debate the issue. There was a
flood of talk. Lawyers said that no
new law was necessary to re-admit
Jews, but no agreement on their
return could be reached. Ashamed
and irritated, Cromwell dismissed
the Whitehall Conference. Manas-
seh lingered in London for a time,
but finally returned to Holland,
tired and disappointed. He died
shortly thereafter, in November
Though he considered himself
a failure, he had succeeded far
beyond his hopes. Since it had
been established that there was
no legal opposition, Marranos
began to live more openly and,
little by little, small groups of
Jews began to enter England. Be-
fore many years had passed, there
was a synagogue in London, and
a Jewish community in the British
Isles had been born.
(Direct JTA Teletype Wire
to The Jewish News)
TEL AVIV — Bus service was
in a state of chaos here Wednes-
day as 1,500 workers and drivers
of the Dan Bus Cooperative struck
to protest the dismissal of 400
among them in a dispute over fare
The city's transit troubles began
Monday night when the bus coop-
erative demanded a 40 per cent
increase in fares, and the transit
fare authority responded with a
tentative offer of an 8 per cent
increase. The authority scheduled
a f u r t h e r meeting Wednesday
night to consider the fare demands
as further disruptions in bus ser-
vice were threatened. Israel's
three bus companies threatened a
shutdown Thursday morning over
the fare deadlock "if the authority
gives in to government pressure"
against meeting their fare boost
Government officials in turn
began preparing emergency plans.
Emergency headquarters were set
up in the transport ministry, and
officials began making plans, their
nature undisclosed, to operate the
vehicles. It was reported that the
transport ministry was determined
not to yield to the bus companies
and that it was prepared to face
a lengthy halt in transport ser-
In Haifa, more than 500 steve-
dores Sunday ended their slow-
down action which they started
last week in a bid for 25 per cent
wage increases. Fruit-picking in
Israel's citrus orchards, which had
been suspended to avoid further
pileups of unloaded crates of fruit
at the Haifa docks, was resumed.
The stevedores returned to work
Sunday and made special efforts to
reduce a backlog of 250,000 crates
of fruit for. export. The end of the
slow-down action followed the
start of negotiations with the
United Port Services Co.
Roosevelt U. Program
II OW SERVE YOU!
Linked to Jewish College
CHICAGO (JTA)—A joint pro-
gram of study has been established
by the College of Jewish Studies
here and Roosevelt University
which will allow students of each
institution to enroll in courses at
both schools, it was announced by
Dr. Rolf A. Weill, acting president
of Roosevelt University, and Dr.
David Weinstein, president of the
College of Jewish Studies.
Under the joint program, can-
didates for a bachelors degree in
liberal arts at Roosevelt Univer-
sity will be able to major in Jew-
ish studies, while students enrolled
in the College of Jewish Studies
may qualify for the bachelor of
arts degree. Dr. Weinstein also
announced a grant of $10,000 for
the College of Jewish Studies from
the Charles Merrill Trust in New
York to be used for scholarships
WE'RE THE DODGE BOYS
THAT SAVE YOU CASH!
AUL NEWMAN S
855 Oakland, Pontiac —
Brooklyn, Woodbridge (N.J.), New
Orleans, Bridgeport (Conn.), and
Holyoke (Mass.). "No evidence has
thus far been developed to indicate
that they were conceived, planned
or perpetrated by any of the two
score or so known anti-Semitic
movements, including the Ku Klux
Klan," the report says.
51,000 Jews in Russia
Do Scientific Work,
Soviet Year Book Says
LONDON (JTA) — Jews are
ranked in third place in the totals
of scientific workers in the Soviet
Union according to data in the So-
viet Statistical Year Book for 1965
which has just been published.
The Year Book lists 612,000
Russians, 65,000 Ukrainians and
51,000 Jews among such workers.
Figures also are given for students,
placing Jews in fourth place in
numbers of such students with
82,600. Russian, Ukrainian and
White Russian students are ahead
Habonim Criticizes U.S. Policy
The Merkaz (national executive
committee) of Habonim Lazor Zion-
ist Youth issued a statement critic-
izing United States involvement in
the war in Vietnam and calling for
intensified efforts to find an im-
mediate negotiated settlement in-
volving all parties in the conflict.
THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS
10—Friday, January 28, 1966
LI 9 6161
'Synagogue Vandalism No Organized
Plot but Work of Hostile Individuals'
NEW YORK (JTA)—The recent
nationwide upsurge of incidents of
vandalism against synagogues and
other Jewish institutions is not
part of any centrally directed
campaign or the works of any of
the known organized anti-Semitic
movements, according to a detail-
ed report issued by the American
The report, made public by Dr.
John Slawson, executive vice pre-
sident of the AJCommittee, warns
that these outbreaks are expres-
sive of "a lingering violent anti-
Semitism" and hence more dis-
quieting than if they were part of
an organized plot.
It points out that the 14 anti-
Semitic incidents in the United
States in the five-month period
ending Dec. 31, 1965, are the
most reported in any compar-
able period since the epidemic
following the 1959 Christmas Eve
Cologne synagogue desecrations.
The report stresses that the
most serious of these incidents
were "cases of wanton destruction
most likely perpetrated by adults"
rather than daubings or smearings
done by juveniles or teen-agers.
It adds that even where teen-agers
were the culprits, the acts could
not be classified as "mischievous
behavior" but "vindictive vandal-
ism and deliberate expressions of
hostility toward Jews."
During the five-month period,
incidents were reported in San
Francisco, Chicago, Albany, Hill-
side (Ni.), New York, Mt. Leba-
non (Pa.), Trumbull (Conn.),
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