Noted Scholars Support Protests Against USSR Bias
NEW YORK (JTA)—Four American Jewish intel-
lectuals joined in rejecting the criticism by two leading
Soviet Jewish scientists against the June 3 Madison Square
Garden rally on beh.-Soviet Jewry.
The four were 'Ilibirelist Saul Bellow, Richard Hof-
stadter, professor of American history at Columbia Uni-
versity, Dr. Eugene Rabinowitch, editor of the Bulletin
of Atomic Scientists, and Meyer Schapiro, professor of
art history at Columbia University.
Guidance as a
,3LUME XLVII —NO. 18
in the United States.
The four intellectuals said that the rally had been
held because "discrimination against Jews has not dis-
appeared" and because "Soviet. authorities are pursuing a
policy aimed at the forcible assimilation of Soviet Jewry.
This policy is carried out by the deprivation of cultural
and religious rights which all other similar groups enjoy
and without which the survival of the Jewish community-''
in Russia "is impossible."
HE JEWISH NE S
They declared, in a letter to the New York Times
Monday, that they had been "saddened" that such dis-
tinguished men as Profs. Lev Landau and Yevsei Liber-
man "found it necessary to put their names to a letter
about the situation of Soviet Jewry" which was printed
in the Times on June 2. That letter called the Madison
Square Garden rally "provocative" and filled with "all
kinds of fabrications" about the problem an d urged
Americans to focus instead "on racism and anti-Semitism"
C::) I '7"
A Weekly Review
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New House Text Waters Down
Congress Resolution on USSR
1944 Blunders: FDR,
and State Dept. Joined
BY MILTON FRIEDMAN
(Copyright, 1965, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Inc.)
WASHINGTON — Efforts of the United States
Congress to help Jewish refugees from Nazi murder
in 1944 to find a refuge in Palestine were blocked
by the U.S. State Department, according to the De-
partment's own confidential documents.
These documents, just made public, reveal the
vigorous maneuvering by the State Department
against a proposed Congressional resolution that
would have called on America to take measures to
7 help Jewish refugees find haven in Palestine. The
Department felt that American-Arab relations out-
weighed the fate of the Jews. Despite knowledge
of Nazi mass murder of Jews, one influential State
Department official went so far as to describe mili-
tant Palestine Jews as "completely unscrupulous."
The War Department collaborated with the State
Department against Congressional efforts to help
Jews find a refuge in Palestine. The role of Secre-
tary of War Henry L. Stimson and John J. McCloy,
Assistant Secretary of War, are exposed. McCloy
later became High Commissioner for Germany.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, according to
the most generous interpretation of the documents,
took a publicly pro-Jewish position but privately en-
dorsed State Department maneuvers.
In January 1944, the Nazi death camps were
functioning with cruel efficiency. The State Depart-
ment had extensive intelligence data on the extent
of mass murders. Yet efforts of American Jews and
sympathetic members of Congress were opposed in
the most implacable and determined manner by the
A case in point is a proposed House resolution,
introduced jointly by a Democrat and a •Republican,
and approved by the majority and minority leaders.
Moved by the plight of homeless and harassed
Jews, Congress was prepared to vote in January
1044 for a resolution to give heart to the oppressed.
It "resolved, that the United States shall use its
1 good offices and take appropriate measures to the
--id that the doors of Palestine shall be opened for
-____ee entry of Jews into that country, and that there
shall be full opportunity for colonization so that the
Jewish people may ultimately reconstitute Palestine
as a free and democratic Jewish commonwealth."
American diplomats in Arab nations were out-
raged and openly denounced "Zionist pressures."
The State Department convinced itself that such a
resolution would alienate the Arabs — even though
the Arabs had done more for the Axis than the
Allied cause. One State Department conjecture was
that the resolution would furnish fuel for Nazi
Sharing State Department views, War Secretary
Stimson informed Congressional leaders that the
pro-Jewish resolutions would "provoke dangerous
repercussions." He said "our war effort would be
seriously prejudiced by such action."
Secretary of State Cordell Hull commented:
"In view of the military considerations advanced in
this regard by the Secretary of War, it is believed
that, without reference to its merits, no further
• action on this resolution would be advisable at this
(Continued on Page 3)
WASHINGTON (JTA)—The House Foreign Affairs Committee reported out a watered-down ver-
sion of a Senate concurrent resolution, eliminating from the enacting clause the specific reference to
Jews as victims of Soviet anti-religious and anti-cultural discrimination. Introductory clauses were sub-
stantially the same as contained in the Senate measure adopted May 14.
The Senate resolution declared "that it is the sense of the Congress that persecution of any
persons because of their religion by the Soviet Union be condemned, and that the Soviet Union in the
name of decency and humanity be urged to cease executing persons for alleged economic offenses, and
to permit fully the free exercise of religion and the pursuit of culture by Jews and all others within its
The House committee's version, as submitted to the House, altered theSenate measure to read
"It is the sense of the Congress that the persecution of any persons because of their religion by the
government of the Soviet Union and the governments of other Eastern European countries be condemned,
and that such governments be urged to cease such persecution and to permit full and free exercise of
religion and related cultural pursuits by all persons within their countries. It is further the sense of the
Congress that the attention of the United Nations should be drawn to this resolution and that the United
Nations should continue in its efforts on behalf of freedom of religion."
However, in the preface to the resolution, the
House committee's version adds references absent from
the Senate measure. The committee cites the United
Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights and
Articles No. 124 and 125 of the Soviet Constitution
pertaining to religious freedom. The House preface is
strengthened by addition of a "whereas" clause absent
in the Senate version, pertaining to general anti-
religious policies in Communist nations.
Rights of Minorities
to F oreign Assocuition
Conceded by Russians
Direct JTA Teletype Wire to The Jewish News
BELGRADE — Soviet delegates to a two-week
seminar on multinational societies reversed them-
selves Tuesday and acknowledged that minorities
have rights of association within and beyond national
The stand at the United Nations-sponsored semi-
nar was believed to be the first time that Soviet
representatives have taken this position. The Soviet
Union has a large number of minority groups, in-
cluding 3,000,000 Jews. The Soviets have been
criticized severely for denying such association rights
to the Jews of their country.
Daniel P. Moynihan, the United States represen-
tative, argued last week that minorities deserved
the right of contact across borders with people with
whom they shared religious, ethnic, linguistic or
other ties. At that time, the Soviet representatives
strongly opposed that position. The seminar was
attended by unofficial representatives of 19 coun-
U.S. Embassy Backs Expelled Jewish Student
Direct JTA Teletvoe Wire to The Jewish News
MOSCOW—A Jewish student from Baltimore, ex-
pelled by the Soviet Union for activities "hostile to
the Soviet state," was defended Tuesday by the United
States Embassy here. An embassy spokesman said that
Jack Weiner had not, to the embassy's knowledge,
"behaved in any way incompatible with his status as
an exchange student. "
The 29-year-old student, who had been doing grad-
uate work on Russian literature in Leningrad, left for
Helsinski five days ago after his expulsion. He en-
rolled at the University of Helsinski.
The spokesman said that Weiner's expulsion fol-
lowed shortly after the Soviet students were asked to
leave the United States "for violating State Department
travel regulations."' He suggested that Weiner's expul-
sion was in retaliation.
(Related Stories, Page 5)
Vatican - Denies It Aimed to D rop Declaration on Jews
ROME (JTA)—Reports that the Ecumenical Council draft of Catholic-Jewish relations has been dropped or at
least severely weakened were categorically denied by Vatican sources.
One of these sources was reported to be Archbishop Pericle Fellini, the Council's secretary-general. Bishop
Frances Reh, an American prelate serving in Rome, was quoted as saying that nothing more than minor changes
would be made in the declaration, which specifically 'exonerates the Jewish people, past and present, from the charge of
decide on the crucifixion of Jesus. In that form, the draft declaration received overwhelming provisional approval
last November at the third Ecumenical Council session.
A press report said that Pope Paul VI had ordered removal of the draft, as well as a related one on religious
freedom, from the agenda of the fourth session of the . Ecumenical Council, scheduled to open here in September.
According to that report, the declaration on Jews was "under study," indicating that doctrinal conservatives in the Church
and anti-Israel pressures from the Arab states had successfully combined to block consideration of the declaration.
The report was said here to have been possibly based on a misinterpretation of the fact that the Council's coor-
dination commission had not as yet discussed the two drafts. According to Council procedures, it was pointed out, it is
not necessary for the coordination commission to do so. If that commission does take up the drafts, it will be limited
to an evaluation of the adequacy of the handling of the scores of amendments proposed in the November 196'4 vote.
The only specified authority for consideration of the amendments, according to Council procedures, is the Secre-
tariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity, headed by Augusin Cardinal Bea, it was pointed out. The secretarat formu-
lated the original strong wording of both drafts and performed the function of incorporating proposed amendments at a
Secretariat meeting last month. "The removal of the declaration" from the agenda of the coordination commission "is
completely different from removal from the Council's agenda," the Vatican sources said - Monday.
(Support from American Catholic sources for the denial that the draft declaration on Jews had been dropped
came from New York and Philadelphia. In New York, a Catholic prelate closely acquainted with the work of the
Ecumenical Council said he was certain that the declaration would be adopted at the next Council session as it is written.
In Philadelphia, a spokesman for Archbishop John Kroll said the prelate had received a copy of the fourth session agenda
and that the declaration was included in it.)