Trial of 22 Nazis to Resume Monday
(Continued from Page 1)
younger element, backed by
the government, maintains
that "a law abiding nation can-
not afford to let matters rest
until offenders are pun-
At the initial session, three of
the defendants were called on
to • give details about their per-
sonal lives before and during
their Nazi service. They were
Robert Mulke, 68, adjutant to
the first Auschwitz comman-
dant, Rudolf Hoess, who was
hanged by the Poles; Karl
Hoecker, 52, adjutant to Rich-
ard Baer, the last Auschwitz
commandant, who died in a
Frankfurt jail last June await-
ing trial; and Wilhelm Boger,
57, an SS lieutenant in Ausch-
witz accused of personally mur-
dering more than 100 inmates.
Mulke was on the verge of
tears as he told his life story
and his voice cracked with
emotion several times but it
was not for the millions of in-
nocent lives sacrificed at
Auschwitz. His eyes began to
water when he related that,
after leaving Auschwitz and
returning to Hamburg, the big
seaport was raided by British
bombers. - He described the
devastated city as lying "in
rubble and ashes; 70,000
women and children were
killed." In a tremulous voice,
he added that he "did my best
to help in the salvage work."
However, whenever judge Hof-
meyer asked him about his
act ivit ies in Auschwitz, the
defendant was impassive.
The 22 defendants were seen
as a strange lot, pleasant-look-
ing men who represent a
prosperous cross-section of West
German citizenry. All are doting
family men, presumably good
and kindly fathers who have de-
voted their lives to earning a
living and bettering the lot of
their children. But in each man's
background there is a Dr. Jekyl
and Mr. Hyde existence—the I
time when they worked on the
arrival ramp at Birkenau, or
dropped Zyklon-B poison gas
into the Auschwitz gas cham-
bers, or mercilessly shot in-
mates in front of the black wall
between cellblocks 10 and 11,
from 1941 to 1945.
Only one of the defendants
—Wilhelm Boger—seemed un-
moved and still fanatically
loyal to the inhuman system
he served for 16 years. Cocky
and self-assured, he answered
with a proud "yes" when
Judge Hofmeyer asked him
whether it was true he had
joined the Nazi youth move-
ment in 1922. He boasted that,
in 1929, he became a mem-
ber of the SS, the Hitler Elite
Guard of sadists and murder- nearly 300 counts of murder.
58, all were charged with similar involves suspects from all parts
ers. One year later, he said
Klaus Dyluski, a member of a crimes.
of West Germany began then
in a ringing voice, "I became guard company, Peri Broad, 52,
Pure coincidence was cred- and there.
a member of the SS. My serial and Johann Schobert, 41, all are ited with starting the Ausch- Ex-Nazi Officer Jailed
number is one of the lowest charged with countless murders. witz investigation in Decem- for False Statement on
—2779. I was an oldtimer."
Schobert was charged with send- ber 1958. Shortly before then, Deportation of Jews
Boger, who is on trial for ing hundreds of inmates to the Emil Vulkan, a former Ausch-
some of the most serious charges camp ovens and with shooting witz inmate, visited Thomas Plunck, 54, Hamburg, a former
in the case, told how he escaped
Knielka, a reporter of the SS major, was sentenced to two
from the transport of Nazi war 60, took part in the executions. Frankfurter Rundschau, to months in jail with probation
criminals en route to trial in Frank Holman, 57, a former SS complain about anti-Semitic for making false statements in
Poland. "God and luck were on captain, was charged with kill- incidents in the Restitution court that the SS unit for which
my side," he said. Afterward, he ing hundreds of inmates.
and Compensation Office for he worked in Hungary in 1954
returned to a little village near
Oswald Kaduk was charged Hesse in Wiesbaden. Vulkan had not participated in the war-
Stuttgart where his family lived. with gassing and shooting more also wanted public notice to time deportation of Jews.
There he managed to go unde- that 1,000 inmates. Stefan Baret- speed up his own restitution
Although he was not under
tected by not applying for the ski, 44, was accused of killing case.
oath when he made the state-
identity card which all German dozens of inmates. Heinrich
During the conversation, the ment to an investigating magis-
citizens must have. "I did not Bischoff, 59, was implicated in former inmate told the reporter trate, he was still liable under
need a card," he testified. "Ev- numerous executions, Arthur about some documents he had West German law. He made the
erybody knew me and anyway Breitweiser, 53, was accused of found on the street in front - of false statement during a pre-
knew what I had done in the being an accessory in many of the SS headquarters in Breslau trial investigation of charges
war. The police knew who I the killings. Dr. Frank Lucas, on May 8, 1945, after the build- against former SS Lt. Col. Her-
was, the Mayor knew. I didn't 52, was charged was being an ing had been set afire by Allied mann Krumey, aide to Adolf
need an identity card. Nobody accessory as a camp doctor.
bombardment. The documents Eichmann. Krumey is scheduled
Dentist Willi Frank, 56, and apparently had been blown out to be tried here next year.
would have thought of turning
me over to the Poles or the oc- Dentist Willi Schatz, 58, were of the building by the bombing.
Plunck had been told that he
both charged as accessories to Vulkan had saved them in a did not have to give self-incrim-
Eleven of the defendants are murder. Dr. Viktor Capesius, 56, neat bundle for 15 years.
inating evidence and therefore
charged with multiple murders, a pharmacist, was charged with
Knielke took the documents -did not need to give false testi-
and 11 with numerous counts of participation in murders, Josef to Fritz Bauer, Hesse Chief mony for his own, protection,
aiding and abetting murders. Klehr, 59, was accused of mul- Prosecutor, who discdvered that the judge ruled in imposing sen-
They will be tried in a hastily tiple murders. Herbert Scherpe, they were lists of which Ausch- tence. His unit was implicated
built court in the City Council 56, Hans Nierzwicki, 58, Amiel witz guards had supervised in the deportations during the
Hantel, 61 and Gerhard Neubert, which executions. The case that trial of Eichmann in Jerusalem.
chamber of Frankfurt.
All of the defendants were
members of the infamous SS
staffs on liquidation camps dur- `The First of the First' — Sir Moses Montefiore's
ing the wart but since then most
of them have regained positions 1839 Holy Land Village — Early Christian Zionists
as respected and prosperous
By IZHAK ZIV-AV
poverty-stricken brothers who
residents of the cities in which
ture only ten years after the
they live. They include several
Upon the official proclamation did not cultivate any land but
establishment of the State of
unskilled laborers, farmers, of the beginning of First Settlers found a livelihood by gleaning
Israel, close to her '75th anni-
white collar workers, prosper- Year in Israel, it is fitting to re- together with the Arabs in the
ous businessmen, a pharmacist, call the men and the settlements fields of the neighbouring fel-
The day after the purchase of
an agronomist, a gynecologist, who are not mentioned in the lahin, according to the custom the lands of Ja uni in Safad, a
two dentists, a civil engineer, a official histories. Petah Tikva, of the country. Sometimes the group of Russian Jews registered
butcher and a heating engineer. for instance, was not the first fellahin gave them something the purchase of lands of Ein
Evidence against them has Jewish village, but only the first of the blessing of their gran- Kara in the registry books of
been collected in 88 thick vol- of those that have remained in aries, out of pity."
Jaffa. They first hoped to acquire
The two brothers were the sur- land in the neighbourhood of
umes of documents assembled existence. Rosh Pina was found-
by a prosecution team headed ed on the site of an earlier set- vivors of 17 families from Salad Gaza, but were frightened by
who "sold their shirts from their distances in the roadless coun-
by Dr. Hans Grossman, district tlement.
attorney. In the five years of - No one in our generation can backs" to buy the lands of Ja'uni. try. They gave their village the
pre-trial investigation, Frank- conceive of the country without With them came 150 people from symbolic name of Rishon Le-Zion
f u r t prosecutors questioned a road, without a wheeled ve- Mount Canaan. Unlike printer (the first of Zion) to attest to its
1,300 witnesses from around the hicle, without ports. "Desola- Israel Back, they gave their vil- firstness after Petah Tikva had
world. More than 200 of them tion" is the limit of our vocabu- lage a name, changing the Arabic been deserted.
The year 1882 also saw the
are expected to be called during lary. If there was desolation in Ja'uni to the poetic Gai-Oni (the
the six to eight months the trial 1882, what was the nature of the Valley of My Strength). They arrival of the group of immi-
country that greeted Sir Moses apparently held out four years grants from Galatz in Romania •
is expected to last.
and were finally defeated by who were to establish the village
Two New York ers are Montefiore when he arrived here drought,
hunger and reptiles.
of Zamarin, later Zichron Ya'-
among the witnesses who will
of 1882, 20-year- acov. They must be recognized
give evidence. They are Hil-
lel Weltman of Brooklyn and Europe to the Holy Land in 1839? old Yehuda Raab returned to de- as the first organized illegal im-
But 43 years before the estab- serted Petah Tikva. "I went along migrants in the history of the
Norbert Wollheim of Fresh
of Rosh Pina, Monte- the mournful paths slowly," he modern renaissance. Arriving
Meadows. Weltman was one of
in his old age, "in after the Turkish government
those contacted by the prose- fiore found a Jewish village on remembered
Mount Jermak. The details in the distances stretching from the had forbidden the entrance of
lowland of Lod to the Yarkon
their Austrian Lloyd ship
Wilhelm Boger is charged Lady Judith Montefiore's diary River there were only scattered Jews,
carried them back and forth be-
with having selected inmates for had a name. The Safad printer, trees, between kilometres of sand tween Beirut, Haifa and Jaffa.
shipment to the gas chambers Israel Back, had received the hills or swamps with here and Finally, on some slip of land
and execution and participation land from the Arabs in return for there a miserable Arab tent, a protected by a Christian gover-
in shootings at the block wall his help in influencing the Egyp- den of boars and a poisonous nor, some of them were smug-
between cellblocks 10 and 11, as tian governor to send a troop of nest of malaria."
gled ashore one night on a raft.
well as with having personally soldiers to defend them against
History sometimes combines After a third trip to Jaffa, they
murdered more than 100 in- the people of Peki'in.
events and, without the knowl- were carried to Port Said where
mates, many of whose names are
"I made gardens, sowed the edge of the heroes, turns their some Jewish intermediary who
known. Stark is charged with fields and in the first year al- deeds into symbols. On that same was at once ritual slaughterer,
ready ate in plenty from the day that Yehuda Raab returned hotel-keeper and ship's agent,
fruit of , the soil," Israel Back to deserted Petah Tikva, the man scattered them among 400 pil-
Nazi on Trial for Murders
told Sir Moses.
who was destined to renew Jew- grims on a Russian boat, and in
Montefiore was so strongly im- ish settlement in the Galilee that way they finally arrived.
pressed that he decided to go to rode into Jerusalem. A little
In Haifa they bought some
the governor in Alexandria and while before he had come on old ploughs from the German
request permission to set up 100 mule-back to Salad from Beirut, farmers, found a decrepit wag-
or 200 Jewish villages in Pales- as the representative of some on, bought two oxen and went
tine. When he reached Alexan- Romanian Jews, in order to look through the pathless fields to
dria, the Sardinian ambassador for land for a settlement in the Mount Samaria. At dark, after
gave him his carriage and he "Land of the Fathers." From a whole day's travelling, they
went to the Egyptian governor Safad, David Shub continued on reached the foot of the moun-
and presented him with a ring he mule-back to Tiberias, Jenin and tain and could not find even
had received from Queen Vic- Shechem, on the four-day trip to a path leading to the top. Two
toria. In return he received the Jerusalem.
men went ahead of the rest
desired permission. Unfortunate-
The soil of the lowland did
and cut down the bushes. The
ly, a year later the Turks recon- not appeal to Shub. He return-
others took the wagon apart
quered the country. Freed of ed to Galilee. "Everywhere I and carried it on their shoul-
their fear of the Egyptians, the found one fault, because of
ders. The oxen were sent on
men of Peki'in attacked Israel which it would be impossible
ahead and the women with the
Back's village and he and his to establish a Jewish settle-
children in their arms followed
family fled to Jerusalem. Many ment; there were no springs
behind. When they reached the
years after, the Arabs would and it would therefore be nec-
top after hours of climbing,
still point to the ruined houses essary to dig wells. I therefore
they lit a bonfire.
on the ridge of the Jermak, to decided to return to Galilee
Zamarin, the first village of
"Hirbat it Yahud."
and to begin negotiations for illegal immigrants in the history
A similar story is told in
the lands of Kfar Hittin, Ja'uni of Zionism, was noted for its
Wilhelm Boger, 57, listens grimly beside a guard in Frankfurt,
Rosh Pina. "On this land,"
or Abu-Shosha, where there stubbornness. Its people coined
Germany, as his trial on charges of complicity in Auschwitz
wrote the founder of Rosh
were springs of cold water." the motto of Israeli pioneering:
concentration camp deaths began last Tuesday. The former
Pina, David Shub, "I found
David Shub finally acquired "Even if we have to chew the
Gestapo staff sergeant is accused specifically of drowning a
three houses like the homes of
the lands of Ja'uni. There were rocks, we won't budge." That's
priest, stomping a Polish general to death and shooting 100
Arab fellahin. Two were oc-
springs, but Rosh Pina obtain. what Malka Aaronsohn vowed,
Red Army officers.
cupied by the families of two
ed its first water for agricul- and her comrades agreed.