Levi Eshkol Succeeds Ben-
(Direct JTA Teletype Wire to The Jewish News)
The resignation of David Ben-Gurion, "for per-
sonal reasons," as Prime Minister and Minister of
Defense, immediately elevated Levi Eshkol, Israel
Finance Minister, to the top position in Israel.
Eshkol is Ben-Gurion's choice as his successor,
and he also has for some time been the first in con-
sideration for the Premiership in the event of Ben-
Gurion's retirement. During Ben-Gurion's vacations
and absences from the country, Eshkol always was
Acting Prime Minister, and he is therefore the natural
choice for the dominant role in Israel.
At first, Ben-Gurion's resignation also included
his membership in the Knesset, Israel's Parliament.
On Tuesday, however, JTA reported from Jerusalem
that Ben-Gurion had withdrawn his resignation from
Immediately after his resignation as Prime Minister,
David Ben-Gurion is shown here conferring with Israel
President Zalman Shazar.
(Continued on Page '7)
A Weekly Review
f Jewish Events
Michigan's Only English-Jewish Newspaper—Incorporating The Detroit Jewish Chronicle
Vol. XLI I I, No. 17
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In Our Land
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Supreme Court Decision Given
Acclaim by Jewish Movements
Ruling by 8 Justices Does Not
Bar Bible Study Piesented
Objectively,' Protects Religion
WASHINGTON, (JTA)—The United States Supreme Court Monday
declared unconstitutional such religious practices in the public schools
as readings from the Bible and recitation of the "Lord's Prayer." The
Court's dicision was by a vote of 8 to 1.
The Court ruled on two appeals involving daily opening religious
exercises in Maryland and Pennsylvania public schools. Justice Clark wrote
the majority decision while Justice Stewart was the author of the dis-
The question was whether prayers and religious practices in public
schools were in violation of the Constitution's First Amendment which
forbids a government role in establishment of religion and Federal inter-
ference in individual freedom of conscience on religious issues.
Justice Clark said that required religious exercises in schools were
not "mitigated" by the fact that individual students may be excused "for
the• fact furnishes no defense to a claim of unconstitutionality under the
establishment clause." Nor is it a defense to claim that religious practices
may be "relatively minor encroachments on the First Amendment," he
Justice Clark stressed that "the breach of neutrality that is today a
trickling stream may all too soon become a raging torrent and, in the
words of Madison, 'it is proper to take alarm at the first experiment on
Justice Clark rejected an argument that when a majority which
wants school prayers is prevented such exercise of religion their rights
are infringed even in the school situation. He said it was never meant
that a majority could use the machinery of the State to practice its
beliefs. In the relationship between man and religion, the State is firmly
conunitted to a position of neutrality, he held.
While concurring in the decision that it is unconstitutional for the
State through schools to "engage in unmistakably' religious exercises,
Justices Goldberg and Harlan took a more conservative view and empha-
sized that the Court was not banning all religious aspects from public life.
Justice Goldberg stressed that "today's decision does not mean- that
all incidents" of religion in the Government are banned. He said, in a
statement endorsed by Justice Harlan, that a "delicate" determination
was needed in each case to establish religious practices are actually an
"accommodation" between Church and State and a genuine encroachment
on religious liberty. He held that the courts must distinguish "between
real threats and mere shadow."
Justice Stewart, in his dissent from the Clark decision, charged that
the court was "trampling on" religious freedom. He said "we err, if we
(Continued on Page 3)
NEW YORK, (JTA) American Jewish organizations expressed satisfac-
tion with the decision by the United States Supreme Court outlawing Bible
reading and prayers from public schools.
The Synagogue Council of America issued a statement declaring: "The
concept of the separation of church from state has not led to the separation
of Americans from God but has led to a genuine demonstration of our
people in a more lasting union of America under God. Many of our fore-
fathers fled systems of governments which prescribed for them religious
observances which were not in accord with their own religious convictions.
They came to these shores to worship their maker according to the dictates
of their conscience. History has proven the wisdom of their faith. In our
nation, religion separated from the state flourishes as nowhere else in the
The American Jewish Committee expressed the hope that the American
public as a whole will understand the basic issues involved in the decision,
which, it said, "is a reaffirmation of the historic American principle of
separation of church and state." The Committee said the decision should
encourage religious groups and individuals to intensify their spiritual and
educational activities in church, synagogue, home and religious school.
The American Jewish Congress welcomed the Court's decision "as one
that will prove of significant benefit to the cause of religion and religious
freedom in America." The Congress' statement said the Court's decision
strengthened the public school system "as the symbol of American democ-
racy" and that the majority opinion is consistent with previous rulings safe-
guarding American religious institutions from interference by the state and
state institutions from intrusions by the church.
The National Community Relations Advisory Council, the policy-
planning and coordinating agency for six major national Jewish organizations
and Jewish community councils in cities throughout the United States,
welcomed the Court's rulings as. "a victory for religion and for religious
freedom." "We believe that it will also be best for American education
and American democracy," the NCR.AC stated. "We pledge our cooperation
with all religious faiths to help broaden public understanding of the Court's
decisions and their meaning for our children, our religious inheritance and
our country's tradition of religious liberty."
The Anti-Defamation League of Bnai Brith said that the ruling of the
Supreme Court "is a strong reaffirmation of the principle of church-state
separation. It presenies public schools from involvement in religious con-
flicts and competition and adds another safeguard for freedom of religion
in the United States."
The New York Board of Rabbis concurred in the decision of the Su-
Sandi Arabia Insists It Bars Jews Who Serve in U.S.
Armed Forces; India Denies Shipping Israel Material
(Direct JTA Teletype Wire to The Jewish News)
WASHINGTON — The Saudi Arabian Embassy formally denied a United
States Defense Department statement that Jews in the American armed forces
have been allowed to enter Saudi Arabia and a Saudi spoksman said that care
will be taken to ban all Jews in the future.
R. L. Gilpatric, Deputy Defense Secretary, recently made known in a letter
made public by Rep. Emanuel Celler (D., N.Y.) that some United States units
scheduled for a training exercise in Saudi Arabia "do include personnel of
Jewish Faith." The Defense Department said that an advance party of .these
units was in Saudi Arabia, but that it could not immediately determine if any
Jews were in it.
It was indicated here by officials that the United States would not agree
to screen out Jews from the American units assigned to Saudi Arabia. This
might mean -the end of the Saudi-American defense training cooperation which
Saudi Arabia desired to strengthen itself against threats from Egypt.
The Embassy of India Tuesday denied a report published by Parade Mag-
azine that India was shipping radioactive waste materials to Egypt for possible
use in rocket warheads to contaminate Israeli soil.
Public relations attache Samish D. Kalekar of the Embassy of India denied
that such material was being shipped to Egypt from India's new reactor. He
said the purposes of India were peaceful in nuclear research and stated: "I have
been authorized by my government to state that the report is completely
false and baseless."