'Poet of Ghetto'
THE JEWISH NE
Vol. XL, No. 21
c) I -r
A Weekly Review
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Constantine Jewry Diminishing,
ORT School Closed, as Algerian
Riots Increase Mounting Tolls
Direct JTA Teletype Wires to The Jewish News
ALGIERS, (JTA) — Seven Jews were killed and two seriously wounded dur-
ing the last three days in clashes in a number of Algerian cities between terror-
ists of the underground Moslem FLN and the secret organization of Europeans;
as the unrelenting struggle of foes and supporters of Algerian independence
mounted in fury.
At Oran further incidents occurred in the Jewish quarter, as European
adherents of the OAS, the French anti-independence underground, and the FLN,
Moslem group fighting for independence, continued clashing for the third succes-
sive day. Fighting between the two groups took place in the streets of the Jew-
ish section of the city, which is in the heart of Oran. However, no Jewish cas-
ualties were reported in this latest round of fighting.
Tension among Algerian Jews continued to mount, especially in Constantine
where terrorism was unchecked. Many Jews have left Constantine and others are
preparing to abandon homes and shops to save their lives. In all of the small
towns around Constantine, Jews were reported to be fleeing daily.
In Constantine, only 7,000 Jews are left of a community which numbered
18,000. The Talmud Torah school in Constantine which had about 900 pupils and
was the most important in Algeria, now has 300. The ORT school was forced to
suspend because only 14 students were left. All of the small towns around Con-
stantine were reported facing the same problems, with no rabbi, shohet or mohel
French officials sent troop reinforcements to Algiers, Oran and Bone to in-
crease street patrols. Plans also were under consideration to cordon off areas
where intercommunal tensions are most acute.
V El3R0M11 20,1962
v 411110 1
SI Q IVD
NATIONAL JEWISH MUSIC
Sponsored by the
NATIONAL JEWISH WEVARE
Annual Music Festival:
of this four-color poster throughout the country heralds
the 18th annual observance of Jewish Music Festival to
be marked under the auspices of the Jewish Music
Council of the National Jewish Welfare Board from Jan.
20 to Feb. 20. The Festival theme is "The Life and Work
of Isadore Freed—A Jewish Composer by Choice."
The OAS, the secret army organization of the French underground opposing
independence for Algeria, considers every Jew leaving for France or planning
to do so as a "deserter" and subject to the death penalty, -it was made clear
here Tuesday in posters distributed by the OAS.
The posters announced boldly that a Jew, M. Chekroun, had been executed
by the OAS for "desertion."
M. Chekroun, a jeweler, was dragged out of his home late one night two
weeks ago by two men who said they represented • the OAS. He has not been
seen since. Tuesday, OAS posted the following "notice to the population:"
"In spite of the order for general mobilization, M. Chekroun, a jeweler in
Maison Carree, tried to leave Algerian territory to settle in metropolitan France.
Arrested by the police of the secret army during the morning of Dec. 30, 1961,
Chekroun was immediately taken before the military tribunal of the OAS. Con-
demned to death for desertion, Chekroun was executed at 11 a.m."
(An urgent appeal was made to the Algerian population by French authorities
to "say no to murders and terrorism," hinting that new emergency measures will
be taken if the present wave of terrorism continues. It has been hinted that the
measures that might be taken by the government "would limit the exercise of
your civil liberties and disrupt your private life.")
irreverant, Sick Humo•... Anything for a Laugh'
Gags Condemned by A1D1L's Civil Rights Chairman
NEW YORK, (JTA)—A "distressing"
number of comedians are now combin-
ing offensive stereotypes of minority
groups with "sick" humor in their
routines to project "a morbid, out-
rageous and damaging picture of whole
groups of Americans," Jacob Grumet,
associate chairman of the civil rights
committee of the Anti-Defamation
League of Bnai Brith, declared.
The tendency to combine stereotyped
with sick humor is a new one, Grumet
said. "Without going into the psychology
of the sick comedian, the idea seems to
be that anything goes for a laugh, up
to and including jokes that suggest
indecent or groteSque conduct on the
part of clergymen."
Grumet spoke at the opening session
of the 49th annual meeting of the
National Commission of the Anti-Defa-
mation League at the Savoy Hilton
Hotel. The meeting concluded on Sun-
day, when Ambassador Adlai E. Steven-
son was presented the League's annual
America's Democratic Legacy Award.
"In night clubs from Las Vegas to
New York, in -major television shows,
and on records, this disturbing pattern
is being repeated, doing its harm to
the delicate fabric of inter-group under-
standing in the United States," Grumet
said. "Recently, in one short span of
time, more than 35,000,000 persons
heard comedians on three television
shows denigrating the rabbinate.
"Two generations ago, when offensive
jokes about minority groups were far
more current, at least the clergy was
considered sacrosanct and not made the
butt of cruel humor in the mass media
of the day," Grumet said. He noted that
many comedians who "combine gross,
unfair stereotypes with sick humor, are
often themselves members of minority
groups. Somehow, they think this fact
gives them special license to ridicule—
in the most vicious ways possible—
their own faith or religious institutions:"
Grumet reminded his audience that
the League was founded 49 years ago
expressly to combat harmful, distorted
characterizations of Jews on the stage
and in the press. "In the 1940s to
1950s there was much sensitivity on
the subject," he said. "One of the
lessons of Hitlerism and World War II
was that there was nothing funny about
jokes that stimulated prejudice against
minority groups. Most comedians learned
that the anti-Jewish or anti-Catholic or
anti-Negro joke simply had no place
in big time entertainment world.
"But now sick humor — iconoclastic,
irreverent and sometimes plain patho-
logical — is being used on the mass
media to bring back all the old canards
and cruelties," Grumet added. He
made clear that neither he nor the
League opposed dialect or other types
of humor that treated minority groups
in a sensitive or understanding fashion
and did not cater to prejudice.
"Except for this new tendency, I
believe that circumstances have changed
for the better," he said. "There is now
less inclination on the part of the
American public to accept the stereo-
type. What may have offended only the
Negroes years ago now offends millions
of others. What would offend Jews
would now offend millions of Christians.
"But we have not yet reached the
point where we can look back on the
old stereotypes as dead history. We
may some . day be able to listen to the
Pat and Mike jokes, the Izzy and Moe
fables, the Sambone-Rastus routine and
view them merely as characters from
a certain era that have no relationship
with the present but that in their way
were part of the mores and customs
and humor of their time. Perhaps the
improvement of taste on the part of the
worldwide audiences will automatically
drain out the vulgarity and leave
instead only the truth and vitality of
old-time patterns . 'of humor.
"The current tendency on the part
of a distressing number of the most
successful of today's comics is to reach
backward. They are bringing vulgarity
up to date by combining stereotypes
with sick humor to project the morbid,
outrageous and damaging picture of
whole groups of Americans."
revealed in ADL survey
of swastika smearings
Supplementary ADL Commission
Story on Page 5