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October 06, 1961 - Image 32

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Text
Publication:
The Detroit Jewish News, 1961-10-06

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THE DETROIT JEWISH NEWS — Friday, October 6, 1961 -- 32

UNRWA Report Branded `Children of the Gilded Ghetto' Shows
Positive Aspirations of 3rd Generation
'Political Document'
Significant changes are taking though the children of immi- "Religious education continues to

(Continued from Page 1)
Dr. Davis made his statements
in submitting to the General
Assembly the annual report of
UNRWA's • operations for the
year ending last June 30. That
report, along with one expected
from the Palestine Conciliation
Commission, due not later than
Oct. 15, will furnish the basis
for this year's Assembly debate
on the Arab refugee problem.
Emphasizing that general
"political forces" in the Middle
East "have played a significant
role in perpetuating the prob-
lem of the Palestine refugees",
Dr. Davis stated: "In large
measure, the political attitudes
and activities in question have
simply reflected and underlined
the basic feelings of the Arab
people. For 13 years the lot
of the Palestine refugees has
been one of frustration, uncer-
tainty, disappointment and hard-
ship.
"It is hardly a matter of
surprise", he 'continued, "if the
refugees show embitterment and
resentment over the loss of
their homes and homeland, if
they constantly clamor to re-
turn to them or if these atti-
tudes are reflected in political
circles."
In reporting about UNRWA's
relationships with the "host
governments", Dr. Davis said
those relationships "have been
good" in the last year. "In
general", he declared, "the host
countries and their governments
show deep understanding of the
refugees and sympathy for their
needs."
He reported, however, that
UNRWA's relief rolls "contain
inaccuracies", but f ailed to
point out how the "host govern-
ments" have helped wipe out
those "inaccuracies." In the
statistical tables which were
part of the report, Dr. Davis
showed that since July 1950 the
agency itself has detected at
least 52,418 ."false registrations
and duplications" in its relief
rolls. He reported that Jordan,
where it has'been charged many
thousands of dead refugees are
still listed on the relief rolls,
has now begun to work with
UNRWA on a "pilot,
for "rectification" of he relief
rolls.
According to the report, there
are 1,151,024 persons on the
UNRWA registration of refu-
gees "entitled" to relief of one
type or another, with 1,039,996
of the total receiving food
rations. However, in a footnote
to this statistical table, Dr.
Davis noted that the figures
"do not necessarily reflect the
actual refugee population owing
to factors such as the high rate
of unreported deaths and un-
detected false registration."
Dr. Davis asked the Assembly
to approve a budget for 1962
operations of UNRWA, calling
for a total of $39,204,000. Be-
tween January 1950 and June
of this y e a r, he reported,
UNRWA has received contribu-
tions totaling- $356,624,334 from
governments' and other funds
from UN specialiZed agencies
or "sundry donors" bringing
its aggregate contributions to
last June 30 to $368,776,096.
Of the governmental contribu-
tions, the United States has
contributed to date a total of
$250,579,393, while Britain was
next with a total of $66,224,004.
Neither the Soviet Union nor
any of the Communist satellites
has ever contributed anything
to UNRWA.
Israel Wednesday consid-
ered the Arab refugee report
filed with the general assem-
bly a political document far
overstepping the jurisdiction
of the agency.
In careful diplomatic lan-
guage that avoided criticizing
Dr. Davis. directly, the spokes-

man for the Israeli. delegation
here, in reply to questions, vir-
tually demolished the main con-
tentions in the Davis report.
Recalling that the report
showed virtually no genuine
progress on the Arab refugee
issue, the spokesman said: "It
is unfortunate that, owing to
the political attitude of the
Arab governments towards the
refugee problem, there has not
been significant progress toward
self-support and reintegration.
If the Arab governments had
supported resettlement pro-
grams, the bulk of the problem
might no longer exist."
Dr. Davis, in his report, men-
tioned nothing whatever about
the possibilities of absorption
of the Arab refugees in Arab
lands. The ISraeli spokesman
said: "As to the possibilities of
the economic absorption of the
refugees in the Arab countries,
it should be pointed out that
the development of the land,
water and capital resources
would provide ample opportu-
nities."
The spokesman recalled the
1959 report made by the late
Secretary, General Dag Ham-
marskjold, which stressed the
prospect "of final absorption of
the refugees through economic
growth in the region." It was
pointed out forcefully that Dr.
Davis mentioned not a word of
reference to the 1959 Hammar-
skjold report which offered a
comprehensive plan for the eco-
nomic integration of the entire
Middle East as a program that
could have solved the refugee
problem as well as the general
underdeveloped state of the
Middle East's economy.
In regard to the number of,
refugees on the UNRWA relief
rolls—which Dr. Davis admitted
include unreported deaths and
false registrations—the Israeli
spokesman hit at Dr. Davis him-
self by saying: "It is not to be
regretted that the - director has
still not been enabled to estab-
lish reliable figures for the
number of persons actually eli-
gible for assistance."
The heaviest attack against
Dr. Davis came from the Israeli
spokesman in regard to the
UNRWA chief's insistence that
non-implementation of a 1948
resolution adopted by the Gen-
eral Assembly "is an obstacle
to the solution of . the refugee
problem."
In his report, Dr. Davis
stressed heavily the Arab disil-
lusionment with the failure to
implement the "right" of re-
patriation and compensation of
the Arab refugees allegedly con-
tained in that 1948 resolution.
The Israeli spokesman said:
"This view ignores the fact that
the terms of that resolution did
not accord the refugees any
`right' of repatriation. The reso-
lutions in fact called for a
negotiated settlement of all
questions outstanding between
the Arab states and Israel and
this applies also to the refugee
problem. The refusal of the
Arab governments to comply
with the resolution by negotiat-
ing with Israel has been the
main obstacle to agreement on
the solution of the refugee
problem as well. It should be
noted that the United Nations
resolutions on the Arab refu-
gees speak of resettlement and
rehabilitation as well as re-
patriation and compensation."
The Israeli spokesman then
reiterated his government's fre-
quently expressed hope of direct
negotiations between the Ara b
states and Israel on all out-
standing problems —. and that
UNRWA will find it possible
to direct its major activities in
future years to programs of
self-support works and reinte-
gration."

place in American Jewry, and
vast differences are in evidence
among third generation American
Jews as contrasted with the atti-
tudes and positions of their
grandparents and parents.
The first generation of Ameri-
can Jews came from European
ghettos of squalor. The second
generation, still in separated
areas, lived in "gilded ghettos,"
resulting from their economic
successes. The third generation is
in sort of revolt—unconcerned
with money-making, which was
so necessary to earlier genera-
tions that were searching for se-
curity, but determined to create
a place for themselves among
non-Jews, yet without sacrificing
their Jewishness.
The contrasting attitudes are
described •in a very important
book, "Children of the Gilded
Ghetto," by Judith R. Kramer
and Seymour Leventman, pub-
lished by Yale University Press.
This "candid close-up of three
generations of American Jews"
is based on a study made in
Minneapolis, although the city
referred to in the book is called
North City.
There is a natural tracing in
the study of the beginnings of
large scale Jewish immigration
to this country, when two mil-
lion Jews settled here from 1881
to 1914, "seeking relief from
poverty and persecution," and
"only a way to stay alive."
In their evaluation of the posi-
tion of the first generation, and
of the effects their experiences
had on their children, the study
states:
"Isolation from social con-
tact with non-Jews encouraged
the second generation to seek
its status audience among Jews.
Deprived of social recognition
in the wider society, members
of this generation legitimized
the status they achieved within
the bounds of the minority
community. Like others who
have gained economic, but not
social, status, they responded
by emulating the style of life
of non-Jewish society, develop-
ing a complex system of paral-
lel institutions within the sep
arate but equal ethnic commu•
nity. Although they adopted
the symbols of middle - class
life, their social isolation en-
couraged an appreciation of the
rewards of in-group sociabil-
ity."
Thus, the second generation
responded to the world it knew,
"the world of its fathers." Al-

grants fled from the ghettos,
"they lived as marginal men in
their own middle-class communi-
ties." But their children "are no
longer caught between two mutu-
ally exclusive worlds. The life
chances available to the third
generation demand neither total
rejection nor total acceptance."
It is pointed out that "the more
successful of the economic reso-
lutions of the second generation
are readily accepted by the
third." The latter's "choice of
occupation is neither a result of
economic necessity nor an escape
from a despised way of life."
College graduates choose careers
in the same fields that attract
non-Jews, some enter profitable
family businesses or find employ-
ment in occupations "outside the
limited range of alternatives
from which the second genera-
tion had to choose."
"The good life that members
of the third generation aspire
to is shapid less by income
than interests," the research
study states. "Members of the
third generation accept, or im-
prove upon, the economic posi-
tions of their fathers. They
also accept the religious insti-
tutions of their fathers, con-
tinuing, however, to modify
them in the direction of great-
er conformity with the major-
ity religion."
There are greater trends among
the third generation to acquire
a college education. The incomes
of this generation are higher. The
new youth aspire to do the things
they want rather than set out for
greater economic successes.
Some of the comments quoted
in this book on the current posi-
tion of Jews in American society
are extremely interesting. They
contain a variety of attitudes—
on anti-Semitism, on social aspi-
rations, on religious training for
their children. Some acknowledge
minority status in a non-Jewish
society. One said he was consci-
ous of being "a Jew in a gentile
society."
"The overwhelming majority
of both generations belong to a
synagogue or plan to join in the
near future," we are told. But:

be regarded as important, but a
less rigorous and traditional type
is demanded, a type that is nei-
ther time-consuming nor likely
to isolate Jewish children from
the non-Jews."
Even more interesting, how-
ever, is the following observation:
"Only a few argue that
awareness of Jewish identity
is not necessary. They feel that
children shouldn't be made
self-conscious about being Jew-
ish. After all, they're no dif-
ferent from anyone else. 'Be-
ing Jewish is not something
one must always be conscious
of—I wasn't.' By and large,
however, Jewish identity is not
regarded as a burden, or even
as a determinant of life
chances; thus there is little
need to shed it."
The third generation disap-
proves of intermarriage. It has
strong Jewish affiliations, some
in lodges (Bnai Brith, Zionist,
fraternal), the wealthier in coun-
try clubs. All are deeply inter-
ested in Israel's success. There is
less concern over the dangers of
anti-Semitism. There is consider-
able name-changing, and on this
score "Children of the Gilded
Ghetto" contains some interest-
ing facts and observations.
"The ideology of the third gen-
eration is religiously rather than
socially defined. The intellectual
avant-garde of this most non-
Jewish of all generations reintro-
duces theology into what has be-
come a comfortable social habit.
But the yearning for an identity
that does not identify invidiously
remains unfulfilled, awaiting fru-
ition in the generations to come.
The claim to a dream is an Amer-
ican birthright, and the transla-
tion of dream into reality the
drama of the chan gi ng genera-
tions."
They also point out: "As Juda-
ism takes its place among the
other major American denomina-
tions, it becomes as acceptable
as it is available to the younger
generation. And it once more be-
comes a source of roots, this time
for a new kind of nomadism, a
new type of wandering Jew."

r111; r71.74 ri'nnv
nptr; nisruip,
no srprrzn monryir nr,r7
O
.Ntit
-rprprpri nS7tri 17t'
Hebrew Corner
n
n
n'
trilg
Hebrew in Camp 7'7i-n if intr.; s -on= - t'17 1'4;P
tj'14Pn r1 1
Outside Israel
n't?i7P
ri7p ltPtin 177ntrt?
1');
From the early morning hours,
, Ttri
there was excitement in the camp.
rvrinn
mrinn
rzin
All waited for the hour of general
'assemblage, when all the members
?1l7
ninivi
of the camp would • gather on _ the
large plot of land to see the hoisting
of the flag of Israel and hear the
n:1?
'174 rin
leader of the camp declare, "Hebrew
r1.4Y
.-
Language Day."
Every year in the summer months,
11i17t4
nit,L7171?
rOtOkt
',on! ns7s rlax,
Jewish youth from different cities of
Italy, gather to spend together the
wrph7r4
,trn;wi
nnx
Nr))s,
ni'pnL:2
summer vacation. The camp is in the
rtivl
high Italian mountains, outstanding
for their beautiful view and fresh air.
nixr?p
,t?
..d'''pi ,nteprl 1- ('-rro)
For every day in the camp a special
subject is set, that the youth direc-
tors teach.
7 174?
:174 11"),7
rl!i?517? ri 3 1
For a whole day, that is devoted
only to the Hebrew language, the
Italiah language disappears, and in
r)17t ' 1'1-PPP Nr ,-urtgri rro n'Tu47P7
its place comes the Hebrew language.
The directors fix the Hebrew names
r riutg72p
m
of the pupils that will be attached
to them while they are in the camp,
and possibly for all their life . . .
n -rn inizi ;177p
rprp;
Donato is turned into Dan. Anna is
called - Hanna, and Rosanna in her
Hebrew name — Shoshana.
11 W1`.1 , r17'.?,r! 71t??
•r 7 '?"1 1.7n cl'1. 7P'27?
Many Hebrew songs are heard in
the camp, the joy is great when a
few of the pupils try to translate into
ni' tvnn
irri;17
171 telj77.zri
Hebrew, Italian songs. The transla-
tion is not so successful, but the
experiment in itself brings jollity. In
n:'. 11P7P
111`'V
P7 '?1.7 4
the afternoon hours, th e r e are
Hebrew lessons. Slogans in Hebrew
•;77
. 7= 11"); 7;')
ri 7Y)T7741 117. L7t014.Z;;1.
like: "Please do not make noise,"
"No talking - during the meal," deco-
rate the walls of the dining room.

Vpr)
.rro-pwr
In the evening there is a social
gathering and a small performance in
rn,nn — -rr.'?Vrr
Hebrew.
t .rryintr nz3
With the singing of the "Hatikva"
ends the "Hebrew Language Day" in
qtr n"1=1W'1.
•Ifq.174;1.
the camp. "To be a free nation in
nxt . 1Vzi
our country — the Land of Zion and
Jerusalem" — this time they sang
nrr
Itg7.4.1
it with more feeling and belief.

.nt,e1p4 npz ,rr?

717,4;

L

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-

Translation of Hebrew column
Published by Brith Ivrith Olamith,
Jerusalem.

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