Sufferance Is the -Badge
t='„ By DR. BLANCHE KATZ EN
Life' by Goldner
`Road to Berlin'
Other European countries
The 18th century of human-
went even further: they insisted ity and enlightenment did the
"Still have I borne it with a upon specifically Jewish char-
"My Road to - Berlin," pub-
Dr. Sanford Goldner, in a 150
patient shrug. for sufferance acteristics in apparel to make tormented Jew some justice by
lished by Doubleday, is the
is the badge of all our tribe." Jews conspicuously r e co g-
sign of the badge but also re- American Jewish Life," pub- autobiography of Berlin's Mayor
—Shakespeare: "Merchant: nizable. Not only did Jews wear
Willy Brandt. The published
lieving them from • other lished by Jewish Information
beards (a copper beard kopek humiliating differentiation. Men Service, 4278 Beverly Blvd., Los story is an account as .told to
sweat of anguish.
issued in Russia in the early like Alexander von Humboldt Angeles 4, warns against "the Leo Lania.
It is the story of Brandt's
"On and after Dec. 1. 1939, 17th Century to Jews who paid (1769-1859) bravely fought for luxury of simple optimism about
all Jews and Jewesses living in for the privilege of retaining Jewish rights, fully realizing the future of anti-Semitism." escape from Germany, his un-
derground activities against
I the territory of the Government their beards, is a valuable his the historical mission of the He declares:
Nazism, his services with the
General and who are ten years tonic document) as required by chosen people. In a famous let-
Norwegian army in the war for
of age or more must wear on the ritual law; they also wore ter, Humboldt states: "I cannot
freedom a n d
z the right sleeve of their clothes, ' the older form of the "Jewish approve any law against the
overcoats or mantles, a white ' Hat" ("pileus cornutus, the Jews but the one contain- to anti-Semitism as a solution h i s eventual
armlet not less than four inches horned hat"). This was a conical ing these four words, 'SAME to their problems. Behind the return to his
in width, bearing as a distinc- low hat without a brim or a RIGHTS, SAME DUTIES'." He American ha t e groups, the homeland and
crack-pots, the silver-black-and- his election to
tive sign the star of David. Jews very narrow brim only.
also said: "It is a very dan- brown shirts, were the money
or Jewesses must provide them-
Soon the infamous badge gerous presumption of frail
selves with such armlet with spread all over Europe. But it humanity to deem itself clever and prestige of individuals mayoralty.
g the described distinctive sign. never became quite popular in enough to explain the ancient linked with the highest Amer-
infractions . . . will be punished Spain and, consequently, was laws of God. The history of the ican financial circles. The tem- wrote the
porary abatement of their eco- story as told
q by imprisonment."
I s oon abolished. Thanks to the preceding dark ages teaches us nomic problem does not mean
to him by
This law is issued Nov. 13,1p olitical situation in this coun- best what errors such inter-
that they will be any the less Brandt, w a s
1939, in Nazi Germany, legal- t ry, the Jews were powerful pretation encourages . . ."
determined in the face of a h i s e 1 f an
izing the yellow badge of e nough to resort to strong eco-
All over Europe a shore cen- challenge to their position."
escapee from Nazism. He was
infamy in the same state where nomic pressure: they simply tury of respite followed; yet,
The security to be attained one of Germany's leading jour-
it had officially been abolished started a mass emigration to beneath the thin veneer the
will have to be won, Dr. Gold- nalists and was condemned to
in 1812. The story of a badge I Moorish lands, taking all their hideous serpent of anti-Semi-
ner writes, "by the adding of death by the Nazis. He escaped
of discrimination, fastened upon considerable wealth along.
tism was always rampant—only our measure of strength to the to France and then made his
a minority group in general and
In France and Germany, such biding its time. Germany and strength of all minority groups way to the United States. He
the Jews in particular, traces pressure was of no avail. In Austria, boasting of Teutonic whose fate we share."
is the author of a number of
back to the first century.
vain, the Jew appealed to the supremacy over all other races,
Analyzing the status of the books, several of theM exposing
The famous Roman author Pope and sent their representa- always found their Jews wel- American Jewish community, Nazism.
Tertullian wrote: "If the Tiber tives to him to plead for the come scapegoats for the mis- Dr. Goldner poses many perti-
Brandt begins his story with
rose to the walls of the city, removal of the badge. The Pope fortunes that wars or pestilence nent questions regarding reli-
if the inundation of the Nile remained unmoved. Yet, strange brought them. Although even gious revivals and nationalist an account of the welcome
failed to give the fields enough to state, the badge, born in Bismarck had once stated that philosophies. He offers defini- given him upon his arrival in
water, if the heavens did not Rome, can be traced in Italy Germany's Jews were the "drop tions of the Jewish people, em- New York, for his visit here
send rain, if an earthquake only for a short time during of champagne" which the Ger- phasizing its peoplehood "with last year, by Jews and Chris-
tians, who acclaimed his oppo-
occurred, if famine threatened, the 15th century.
man nation needed, and al- a common history."
sition to Nazism. He proceeds
if pestilence raged, the cry re-
In Germany and Austria, as
He holds to the view that
sounded 'Throw the Christians well as in Bohemia, the badge of Austria-Hungary highly Yiddish still is "a continuing to tell of the struggle that went
on in Germany when Hitler
to the lions'!"
is not found prior to the 15th favored the Jews in every re- force of a worldwide character." rose to power, his activities in
But while theirs was only a century since in all these coun- spect, there was a borhing Jew-
Problems of intermarriage,
short martyrdom in those dark tries Jews were compelled to ish question and a minority language, culture and other is- the Social Democratic party'
days, a martyrdom out of which wear the "horned hat" accord- problem long before Adolph sues are discussed in relation which had been declared "il-
legal" by Hitler, and the first
later developed a most power ing to the old Jewish tradition. Schickelgruber was born at to the totality of the issues in- reports of anti-Jewish persecu-
ful religious group, other minor- So, instead of a badge, the wear- Braunau.
volved in American Jewry's tions.
ities have been suffering as ing of the "horned hat" was ob-
The end of the First World future.
"In the socialist movement,"
scapegoats up to the present ligatory. When a Gentile woman War, which brought the col-
The synagogue's place is seen Brandt states, "we identified
was convicted of sexual rela- lapse of Germany and the ruth- as "a solid one." The author anti-Semitism—the . socialism of
These, briefly summarized, tions with a Jew, she was pub- less cutting to pieces of Austria, advocates following a pattern
are the basic reasons for the licly pilloried and had to wear spelling inflation, poverty and of "progressive historic values the idiot, as Bebel called it—
Jewish tragedy, started five the "Jewish hat" while stand- want for millions of people, of the Jewish people as synibols with the detested Nazism. It
thousand years ago, and con- ing for hours at the pillory of meant a cruel revival of Jew- Which inspire us in facing our would have never occurred to
us to make a distinction be-
tinued unabated up to this day. shame. And the Jew sentenced baiting and the rebirth of the problems."
tween the few Jewish com-
In 634, a law was issued— to death wore his "horned hat" yellow badge together with the
rades and those of another
not specifically directed against on his last journey.
appearance of the crooked Canadian Naval Hero
the Jews—a law that had the
In the 14th century the city cross. The badge was invisible
He and his friends "regard-
most ominous consequences for of Augsburg compelled all her for a long period; but it existed; Was Knighted in 1777
ed the persecution of the
all Jews. For in that year, a Je ws to wear a yellow wheel in for there was a definite
A clipping from an old news- Jews not only as reprehen-
date to be forever remembered ad dition to their horned hat. numerus clausus in German
paper tells us that: "Undoubt-
by Jews, the Mohammedan Fe rdinand I of Austria, on Aug. and Austrian universities and edly the greatest Jewish naval sible and detestable but also
Calif Omar entertained the 1, 1551, issued a decree in colleges. There were the "Aryan personage of the 18th century as anti-Christian." He makes
the point that there were
disastrous idea of separating Vi enna requiring all Jews to paragraphs" excluding Jews
was Captain Sir Alexander Germans — and Nazis. He
religious believers from non- we ar the wheel on their Bar- from many Government posi-
Schomberg (1720-1804), whose places emphasis on the need
believers by ordering all non- m ents. This yellow wheel was tions and clubs. From 1920 to portrait by Hogarth was ac-
to eradicate anti-Semitism.
Mohammedans to wear different 2 cm thick and 8 cm in dia- 1939, the badge was invisible; quired last summer by the Na-
Brandt, in his recollections
headgear and girdles and a me ter. Caught without such but the "yellow spot" was there tional Maritime Museum, Green-
of activities in Norway, re-
patch on the shoulder—Jews a dis criminatory badge, the Jew till the laws of 1939 and 1941 wich.
pudiates the charge made at
yellow, Christians a blue, Magi re ceived drastic punishment; he squeezed the numerus clausus
HiS father, Meyer L oe w
a black one.
wa s stripped of his garments, down to a numerus nullus and Schomberg, was physician at one time by Trygve Lie, then
Again it was the Mohamme- h u m ilia t e d, beaten, and if officially resuscitated the wear- Bevis Marks and was the pro- Foreign Minister of the , Nor-
wegian government in London,
dans who, in Sicily, early in the ca fight a second time, driven ing of the yellow badge.
genitor of a remarkable mili- later _ UN Secretary General,
course of the 9th Century, made pe nniless out of Austria, to-
Marvin Lowenthal, in his tary and naval dynasty which that he was too "pro-German."
the Jews wear a badge, this ge ther with his family.
highly interesting book, "The included four admirals and
In his account, Brandt makes
time a white one with the image
In 1760, Empress Maria Jews of Germany," states: three generals. Sir Alexander
of a monkey, and the Christians Theresa changed the yellow "When the ledgers of a people commanded the Diana at the re- mention of the efforts of the
one with a pig. The same wheel to yellow cuffs "to pre- show red, the outlook for capture of Louisburg, Nova courageous young Swedish Jew,
Raoul Wallenberg, to rescue
symbols were affixed to the vent sinful intercourse of young minority peoples is black."
Scotia, from the French in 1758 Jews perscuted by the Nazis.
houses of Christians and Jews, Jews with loose women."
His return to Germany, his
November 1918: Armistice during the Seven Years' War,
respectively. Here for the first
Only the 17th century Day—Treaty of Versailles—a and was knighted in 1777."
of German citizen-
time the ominous technique of brought to the Jews a kindlier
ship and his election as Mayor
increasing the power and su- treatment. In Austria it was sham peace. At this time "The
of Berlin are part of the -inter-
premacy of one's own group by Joseph II (1780-1790), that great Jews were a little nation, but number of decrees followed the esting story of the anti-Nazi
fastening a badge of differentia- and enlightened son of bigoted they had been caught up in first law. The most important leader. In the course of his
tion on others, was successfully Maria Theresa who, on the the maelstrom . . . Ugly hatreds was issued on September 1, 1941 narrative, he outlines his credo,
were loosed, the most bestial (Reichs Law Gazette of Dec.
memorable day of May 18, 1781,
declares that military action is
The Church made the idea wrote a letter to Count Heinrich passion s, and there were 5, 1941) ordering all Jews over not the answer to the tense
her own. In 1204, Pope Innocent Bluemegen outlining the edict pogroms, executions, wholesale six years of age to wear the problems now existing in Eu-
deportations, the like of which badge of shame. The form of
III (1196-1216) suggested a dis- of tolerance with its famous
had not been known in the the badge prescribed in Ger- rope, speaks up for the demo-
tinguishing mark between Jews article 6:
tearful history of the Jews. many was the six-pointed star cratic ideas and pays tribute
and Saracens, and 11 years
Moreover, all those humiliat- Whole communities were loaded of David in black on yellow to the examples set by Scandi-
later, that same Pope branded ing and spiritually oppressive
into sealed box cars to be sent cloth with it's superinscription navian countries in advancing
the Jews with a badge of infamy coercive laws which impose on
to forgotten destinations and "Jew," or "J." 1939-1945: Came democratic principles.
that was to be worn by them. the Jews differences of clothes
usually only half were released bloody World War II, the
On Nov. 11, 1215, the Fourth or costume or particular ex- by death.
slaughter of six million Jews,
Lateran Council, consisting of ternal signs, are to be done
When it is rational to say, "I
412 bishops, 800 abbots, many away with." (Pribram: "A flow of human sweat, the the ultimate defeat of the bar-
bars; and with it the infamous know not my father or my
sweat of anguish.
priors, and numerous repre- "Urkunden and Akten zur
Thou stumblest over heaps of badge of discrimination disap- mother, let my children be
sentatives of pr elates and Goschichte der Juden in Wein,"
peared. The desperate war of aliens to me, that no prayer of
goods and chattels—
.clergymen, convened in Rome I, p. 441 Vienna, 1918). In vain
survival had ended and the mine may touch them," then it
in the Church of St. Giovanni Pope Pius VII hastened to They're just whole lives of
state of Israel was established will be rational for the Jew to
men, whole lives of men,
in Laterano. Pope Innocent III Vienna in person in 1782 to
presided over this memorable obtain the annulment of the Like broken potsherds, past all making the prophetic words of say, "I will seek to know no
Theodor Herzl come true that difference between me and the
assembly, which issued many edict and the revocation of
"the stain of our shame will be- Gentile; I will not cherish the
canons, among them the fateful the restrictions imposed on the
come the sheen of our glory" prophetic consciousness of our
in the wreckage .. ."
canon 68, which decreed: "Jews clergy.
—(Bialik, "The City of (in an article in "Die Welt" nationality — let the Hebrew
and Saracens of both sexes in
Slowly the yellow badge dis-
published on June 3, 1897). cease to be, and let all his
every Christian province and appears; in France in 1789, after
Fifty years later, Chaim Weiz- m cm or i a l s be antiquarian
at all times shall be marked the Revolution. A few years
Only 16 years later, in No-
off in the eyes of the public later it was officially abolished vember, 1939, the badge of in- in a n n exclaimed jubilantly: trifles, dead as the wall-paint-
from other people through the in Italy. Prussia follows unwill- famy was reintroduced offi- "God has always chosen small ings of a conjectured race."—
countries through which to con-
character of their dress."
ingly and hesitatingly in 1812. cially by German authorities. A vey His messag.-! to humanity." George Eliot, in "Daniel De-•
(Standard Feature Syndicate)